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1.
Texila International Journal of Public Health ; 9(3), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841773

ABSTRACT

Self-medication with antibiotics is a threat to global health and becoming increasingly common due to multiple factors. The aim of our study was to evaluate the attitudes, knowledge, and use of self-medication with antibiotics among outpatients of Gbagada General Hospital Gbagada - Lagos, Nigeria. The objective of this research was to access the attitudes, knowledge and use among the Patients that use Self-medication with antibiotics. The study design was a cross-sectional descriptive study. A pretest of a closed-ended questionnaire was distributed to the respondents, corrections were made, and data was collected in February 2021.402 Outpatients of the Gbagada General Hospital Gbagada city area of Lagos was recruited for the study in the aforementioned time period through multi-stage probability sampling. Thirty-three percent of respondents said antibiotics could cure all infections. Forty-eight percent of respondents said antibiotics might be effective even if they don't complete their dosage. 94.78% of our respondents have taken antibiotics, and 71.89% have self-medicated with antibiotics. Forty-eight percent of respondents said antibiotics might be effective even if they don't complete their dosage, Not completing the dosage (49.25%), Using antibiotics repeatedly (43.28%), and Self - medication (34.08%). The percentage of the respondent that have taken antibiotics once and twice between March 2020 and February 2021, which was during the COVID - 19 First and second wave in Nigeria, were (36.07%) and (25.87%) respectively. We recommend the use of media to discourage the masses from self-medication with antibiotics.

2.
Canadian Journal of Public Health ; 113(2):196-203, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841734

ABSTRACT

Objective: Although vaccines are one of the most cost-effective, low-risk healthcare approaches that save thousands of lives every year, paradoxical fear about vaccine safety is a major roadblock for achieving widespread vaccination coverage. The objective of this study is to change public perception of vaccine safety by presenting real-world incidence of adverse events following immunization (AEFIs).

3.
International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health [Electronic Resource] ; 19(7):29, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841370

ABSTRACT

The documentation of ethnopharmaceutical knowledge has always been important for the preservation of countries' cultural, social, and economic identity. The COVID-19 pandemic with the collapse of healthcare, which has left the individual health to self-care, has also forced us to look back at ethnopharmacology from a practical point of view. This is the first study in Lithuania, dedicated entirely to ethnopharmaceuticals used for skin diseases and cosmetics, and the first study to analyse ethnopharmacology as a Lithuanian phenomenon during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The main purpose of this study was to collect and evaluate ethnopharmaceutical knowledge regarding skin diseases and cosmetics in Siauliai District, Lithuania during the COVID-19 pandemic from July 2020 to October 2021. This study surveyed 50 respondents;the survey was conducted using the deep interview method. The respondents mentioned 67 species of medicinal plants from 37 different families used for skin diseases (64.18%), cosmetics (13.44%) and cosmeceuticals (22.38%). Of the 67 plant species, 43 (64%) were not included in the European Medicines Agency monographs and only 14 species (21%) of all included species were used with European Medicines Agency approved medical indications for skin diseases. In terms of public health, the safety of "self-treatment" and recovery rituals for skin diseases are no less important than ethnopharmacological knowledge and its application, this being especially relevant during the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Bulletin of the National Research Centre ; 46(47), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841085

ABSTRACT

Background: The World Health Organization declared the outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) as a global health emergency on January 30, 2020, and as a pandemic disease on March 11, 2020. This review highlights the international situation, risk factors, and related protections to be taken as prerequisite measures and probable treatment options for the COVID-19-infected population in the current scenario. Main text: The SARS-CoV-2 viruses and their variants caused mild-to-severe respiratory tract infection and used airborne pathways as a way of contagion. Human-to-human transmission led to an exponential growth in the rise in the number of cases making it a real burden to immobilize the rapid spread of the virus while asymptomatic patients created ambiguity for confirmation in the community. It was clear from the case studies of patients that most of them were asymptomatic but still vulnerable to the people around, and hence, in a flash, many countries around the globe went into a complete lockdown, influencing the economy and thrashing industrial outputs. On the other hand, numerous researches were made to counteract the spread through studies in antiviral therapy, immune-based therapy, vaccination development, and natural remedies.

5.
BMC Health Services Research ; 21(986), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1840980

ABSTRACT

Background: Sars-Cov-2 is a novel corona virus associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Remdesivir and Dexamethasone are two treatments that have shown to be effective against the Sars-Cov-2 associated disease. However, a cost-effectiveness analysis of the two treatments is still lacking.

6.
BMC Emergency Medicine ; 22(1):62, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Opioid-related overdoses cause substantial numbers of preventable deaths. Naloxone is an opioid antagonist available in take-home naloxone (THN) kits as a lifesaving measure for opioid overdose. As the emergency department (ED) is a primary point of contact for patients with high-risk opioid use, evidence-based recommendations from the Society of Hospital Pharmacists of Australia THN practice guidelines include the provision of THN, accompanied by psychosocial interventions. However, implementation of these guidelines in practice is unknown. This study investigated ED opioid-related overdose presentations, concordance of post-overdose interventions with the THN practice guidelines, and the impact, if any, of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic on case presentations. METHODS: A single-centre retrospective audit was conducted at a major tertiary hospital of patients presenting with overdoses involving opioids and non-opioids between March to August 2019 and March to August 2020. Patient presentations and interventions delivered by the paramedics, ED and upon discharge from the ED were collated from medical records and analysed using descriptive statistics, chi square and independent T-tests. RESULTS: The majority (66.2%) of patients presented to hospital with mixed drug overdoses involving opioids and non-opioids. Pharmaceutical opioids were implicated in a greater proportion (72.1%) of overdoses than illicit opioids. Fewer patients presented in March to August 2020 as compared with 2019 (26 vs. 42), and mixed drug overdoses were more frequent in 2020 than 2019 (80.8% vs. 57.1%). Referral to outpatient psychology (22.0%) and drug and alcohol services (20.3%) were amongst the most common post-discharge interventions. Naloxone was provided to 28 patients (41.2%) by the paramedics and/or ED. No patients received THN upon discharge. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights opportunities to improve ED provision of THN and other interventions post-opioid overdose. Large-scale multi-centre studies are required to ascertain the capacity of EDs to provide THN and the impact of COVID-19 on opioid overdose presentations.

7.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology ; 33(s27):102-104, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1840515

ABSTRACT

One of the most challenging and intriguing phenomena observed during the COVID-19 pandemic has been the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Patients with this condition present with some clinical features similar to those of Kawasaki disease (KD) and display signs and symptoms that are uncommon or rarely occur in this disorder, such as gastrointestinal complaints and myocarditis, often leading to myocardial failure and shock. In addition, patients' age is older than that of children with classic KD. Management is based on administering intravenous immunoglobulin, glucocorticoids, and anakinra in the most severe instances. It is still debated whether MIS-C and KD are different illnesses or represent a disease continuum.

8.
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology ; 88(4):1567-1589, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1840337

ABSTRACT

Aims: Growing evidence suggests an association between the use of sedative-hypnotic medications and risk of dementia. The aim of this study is to examine this association using a meta-analysis approach.

9.
Journal of Museum Education ; 46(4):454-466, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1839840

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global, collective, traumatic experience. Trauma-aware museum educators can play a therapeutic role in helping visitors reengage with life as the world reopens. This article explores the dynamics of what a trauma-aware approach to engaging with art may be, specifically detailing methods that can create new cognitive, emotional, and sensory experiences that contradict the experiences of trauma by replacing them with sensations rooted in agency and connection. Through their experiences working at different museums, the authors outline the main principles of trauma-aware art museum education (T-AAME) as it relates to visitors: orientation (setting a supportive tone);being with one another (regulation, attunement, and responsive pacing);choice and voice;and connection. The article also discusses museum-based art therapy as it compares to art museum education to highlight the overlaps and distinctions between the two and to show that museum experiences can be therapeutic without being therapy.

10.
Lancet Infectious Diseases ; 22(4):496-506, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1839428

ABSTRACT

Background: Bedaquiline improves outcomes of patients with rifampicin-resistant and multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis;however, emerging resistance threatens this success. We did a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis evaluating the epidemiology, genetic basis, and treatment outcomes associated with bedaquiline resistance, using data from South Africa (2015-19).

11.
Lancet Infectious Diseases ; 22(3):390-400, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1839426

ABSTRACT

Background: Use of third-generation cephalosporins, such as cefotaxime, is associated with an increased risk of selection for antimicrobial resistance, so alternative antibiotics need to be considered. The aim of the present study was to evaluate intestinal colonisation with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant pathogens following use of temocillin-an alternative antibiotic to cefotaxime that is potentially less prone to disturbing the intestinal microbiota-in empirical treatment of febrile urinary tract infection (UTI).

12.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-336229

ABSTRACT

Background: We estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) of mRNA vaccines among US Veterans during periods of Delta and Omicron variant dominance. Patients included in this study were largely 65 years or older (62,834, 55%), male (101,259, 88%), and non-Hispanic white (66,986, 58%). Methods: We used SARS-CoV-2 laboratory test results to conduct a matched test-negative case-control study to estimate VE of three and two doses of mRNA vaccines against infection (regardless of symptoms), and a matched case-control study to estimate VE against COVID-19related hospitalization and death. We estimated VE as (1- odds ratio) x 100%. Severity of disease was measured using hospital length of stay (LOS) and admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). Results: Against infection, booster doses had 7-times higher VE - 59% (95% confidence interval [CI], 57 to 61) - than 2-dose VE (7%;95% CI, 3 to 10) during the Omicron period. For the Delta period, estimated VE against infection was 90% (95% CI, 88 to 92) among boosted vaccinees, 64% higher than VE among 2-dose vaccinees [55% (95% CI, 51 to 58)]. Against hospitalization, booster dose VE was 87% (95% CI, 80 to 91) during Omicron and 95% (95% CI, 91 to 97) during Delta;the 2-dose VE was 44% (95% CI, 26 to 58) during Omicron and 75% (95% CI, 70 to 80) during Delta. Against death, estimated VE with a booster dose was 94% (95% CI, 85 to 98) during Omicron and 96% (95% CI, 88 to 99) during Delta, while the 2-dose VE was 75% (95% CI, 52 to 87) during Omicron and 93% (95% CI, 85 to 97) during Delta. During the Omicron period, average hospital LOS was 4 days shorter [3 days (95%CI, 3 to 4 days)] than during the Delta period. Conclusions: A mRNA vaccine booster is more effective against infection, hospitalization, and death than 2-dose vaccination among an older male population with comorbidities.

13.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-336150

ABSTRACT

Background: Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has been included in the national COVID-19 vaccination program in Indonesia since January 2021. The study aims to assess the impacts of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine on infection, hospitalization, and death among adult population aged ≥18 years in Bali, Indonesia. Methods: Test-negative, case control study was conducted by linking SARS-CoV-2 laboratory records, vaccination, and health administrative data for the period of January 13 to June 30, 2021. Case-subjects were defined as individuals who had a positive RT-PCR test for SARSCoV-2 during the period;they were matched with controls (tested negative) (1:1) based on age, sex, district of residence, and week of testing. We estimated the odds of vaccination in PCR confirmed, hospitalization and death due to COVID-19, accounting for the presence of comorbidities and prior infection. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated as (1-odds ratio) x 100%. Results: Total 109,050 RT-PCR test results were retrieved during the January 13 to June 30, 2021. Of these, 14,168 subjects were eligible for inclusion in the study. Total 5518 matched case-control pairs were analyzed. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory-confirmed SARSCoV-2 infection was 14.5% (95% confidence interval -11 to 34.2) at 0-13 days after the first dose;66.7% (95% CI: 58.1- 73.5) at ≥14 days after the second dose. The adjusted effectiveness against hospitalization and COVID-19-associated death was 71.1% (95% CI: 62.9-77.6) and 87.4% (95% CI: 65.1-95.4%) at ≥14 days after receiving the second dose, respectively. Conclusions: Two-dose of inactivated CoronaVac vaccine showed high effectiveness against laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and death associated with COVID-19 among adults aged ≥18 years.

14.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-336130

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 is capable of infecting unvaccinated, vaccinated and previously-infected individuals due to its ability to evade neutralization by antibodies. With three sub-lineages of Omicron emerging in the last four months, there is inadequate information on the quantitative antibody response generated upon natural infection with Omicron variant and whether these antibodies offer cross-protection against other sub-lineages of Omicron variant. We show that both binding and neutralizing antibodies wane by >50% in six months in study participants with hybrid immunity. Omicron infection in a subset of individuals led to a significant increase in binding and neutralizing antibodies to BA.1 and BA.2 sub-lineages of Omicron. The levels of neutralizing antibodies were higher against the Delta variant as compared to the Omicron sub-lineages. These data suggest that Omicron infection elicits neutralizing antibodies that can cross-react with other sub-lineages of Omicron and other variants of concern in people with hybrid immunity.

15.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-336024

ABSTRACT

Background: Continued SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19-related hospitalizations highlight the need for effective anti-viral treatments in the outpatient setting. In a descriptive interim analysis of the phase 1/2 portion of a double-blind phase 1/2/3 trial in COVID-19 outpatients conducted between June 16, 2020 and September 4, 2020, REGEN-COV® (casirivimab plus imdevimab) antibody combination reduced SARS-CoV-2 viral load versus placebo. Methods: This final phase 1/2 analysis comprises 799 outpatients, including 275 from the previous descriptive analysis (group-1) and 524 from phase 2 (group-2). Patients were randomized (1:1:1) to placebo, REGEN-COV 2400mg, or REGEN-COV 8000mg. Prespecified hierarchical analyses of virologic endpoints were performed in group-2. The proportion of patients with ≥1 COVID-19-related medically attended visit (MAV) through day 29 was assessed in group-1+2. Efficacy was assessed in patients confirmed SARS-CoV-2-positive by baseline nasopharyngeal RT-qPCR. Safety was assessed in all treated patients. Results: Data from 799 outpatients enrolled from June 16, 2020 to September 23, 2020 are reported. Time-weighted average daily reduction in viral load through day 7 was significantly greater in the REGEN-COV combined 2400mg+8000mg group versus placebo in patients with baseline viral load >107 copies/mL (prespecified primary endpoint): -0.68 log10 copies/ml (95% CI, -0.94 to -0.41;P<.0001). This reduction was - 0.73 (P<.0001) and -0.36 (P=.0003) log10 copies/mL in serum antibody-negative patients and in the overall population, respectively. REGEN-COV reduced the proportion of patients with ≥1 COVID-19-related MAV versus placebo (2.8% [12/434] REGEN-COV combined dose group versus 6.5% [15/231] placebo;P=.024;relative risk reduction [RRR]=57%);in patients with ≥1 risk factor for hospitalization, the treatment effect was more pronounced (RRR=71%). Adverse events were similar across groups. Conclusions: In COVID-19 outpatients enrolled prior to the widespread circulation of delta and omicron variants, treatment with REGEN-COV significantly reduced viral load and COVID-19-related MAVs.

16.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335889

ABSTRACT

Mass vaccination against the disease caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was a crucial step in slowing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in 2021. Even in the face of new variants, it still remains extremely important for reducing hospitalizations and COVID-19 deaths. Only limited data exists about the short- and long-term dynamics of humoral immune response. We present a longitudinal analysis of post-vaccination IgG levels in a cohort of 166 healthcare workers vaccinated with BNT162b2 with weekly follow-up until 35 days past the first dose and monthly follow-up up to 6 months post-vaccination. A subset of the patients continued with follow-up after 6 months and either received a booster dose or got infected during the Delta wave in Romania. Tests were carried out on 1697 samples using a CE-marked IgG ELISA assay developed in-house, containing S1 and N antigens of the wild type virus. Participants infected with SARS-CoV-2 before vaccination mount a quick immune response, reaching peak IgG levels two weeks after the first dose, while IgG levels of previously uninfected participants mount gradually, increasing abruptly after the second dose. Overall higher IgG levels are maintained for the previously infected group 35-70 days after vaccination. The decrease of IgG levels is gradual, with lower overall values in the infection naïve cohort even 7-8 months after vaccination, compared to the previously infected cohort. Administration of a booster dose yielded higher average IgG antibody levels than post second dose in the infection naïve group and comparable levels in the previously infected group.

17.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335813

ABSTRACT

The rapid development of vaccines to prevent infection by SARS-CoV-2 virus causing COVID-19 makes necessary to compare the capacity of the different vaccines in terms of development of a protective humoral response. Here, we have used a highly sensitive and reliable flow cytometry method to measure the titers of antibodies of the IgG1 isotype in blood of healthy volunteers after receiving one or two doses of the vaccines being administered in Spain. We took advantage of the multiplexed capacity of the method to measure simultaneously the reactivity of antibodies with the S protein of the original strain Wuhan and the variants B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.617.2 (Delta) and B.1.617.1 (Kappa). We found significant differences in the titer of anti-S antibodies produced after a first dose of the vaccines ChAdOx1 nCov-19/AstraZeneca, mRNA-1273/Moderna, BNT162b2/Pfizer-BioNTech and Ad26.COV.S/Janssen. Most important, we found a relative reduction in the reactivity of the sera with the Alpha, Delta and Kappa variants, versus the Wuhan one, after the second boosting immunization. These data allow to make a comparison of different vaccines in terms of anti-S antibody generation and cast doubts about the convenience of repeatedly immunizing with the same S protein sequence.

18.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335805

ABSTRACT

Billions of doses of COVID-19 vaccines have been administered globally, dramatically reducing SARS-CoV-2 incidence and severity in some settings. Many studies suggest vaccines provide a high degree of protection against infection and disease, but precise estimates vary and studies differ in design, outcomes measured, dosing regime, location, and circulating virus strains. Here we conduct a systematic review of COVID-19 vaccines through February 2022. We included efficacy data from Phase 3 clinical trials for 15 vaccines undergoing WHO Emergency Use Listing evaluation and real-world effectiveness for 8 vaccines with observational studies meeting inclusion criteria. Vaccine metrics collected include protection against asymptomatic infection, any infection, symptomatic COVID-19, and severe outcomes including hospitalization and death, for partial or complete vaccination, and against variants of concern Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron. We additionally review the epidemiological principles behind the design and interpretation of vaccine efficacy and effectiveness studies, including important sources of heterogeneity.

19.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335786

ABSTRACT

Background: pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) is a complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children that resembles Kawasaki syndrome and places them at high risk of cardiorespiratory instability and/or cardiac damage. This study aims to describe the clinical presentation and outcomes of patients with PIMS in Mexico City. Methods: This was an observational study of children hospitalized for PIMS based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition criteria, in a single tertiary care pediatric center in Mexico City between May 1, 2020, and September 30, 2021. Demographic characteristics, epidemiological data, medical history, laboratory tests, cardiology evaluations, treatment, and clinical outcomes were analyzed. Results: Seventy-five cases fulfilled the case definition criteria for PIMS (median age: 10.9 years, Interquartile range [IQR]: 5.6-15.6). Fifteen (20%) patients had a severe underlying disease, 48 (64%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, 33 (44%) required invasive mechanical ventilation and 39 (52%) received vasopressor support. The patients were clustered through latent class analysis based on identified symptoms: Cluster 1 had rash or gastrointestinal symptoms (n = 60) and cluster 2 were those with predominantly respiratory manifestations (n = 15). Two patients (2.7%) died, and both had severe underlying conditions. Five patients (6.7%), all from cluster 1, developed coronary aneurysms. Conclusion: There were a high proportion of patients with severe respiratory involvement and positive RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 and very few cases of coronary aneurysms in our study which suggests that a high proportion of the children had severe acute COVID-19. The clinical manifestations and outcomes are comparable to previously reported international studies.

20.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335759

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 emergency use authorizations and approvals for vaccines were achieved in record time. However, there remains a need to develop additional safe, effective, easy-to-produce, and inexpensive prevention to reduce the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection. This need is due to difficulties in vaccine manufacturing and distribution, vaccine hesitancy, and, critically, the increased prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with greater contagiousness or reduced sensitivity to immunity. Antibodies from eggs of hens (immunoglobulin Y;IgY) that were administered receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were developed as nasal drops to capture the virus on the nasal mucosa. Although initially raised against the 2019 novel coronavirus index strain (2019-nCoV), these anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgY surprisingly had indistinguishable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay binding against variants of concern that have emerged, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529). This is distinct for sera from immunized or convalescent patients. Culture neutralization titers against available Alpha, Beta, and Delta were also indistinguishable from the index SARS-CoV-2 strain. Efforts to develop these IgY for clinical use demonstrated that the intranasal anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgY preparation showed no binding (cross-reactivity) to a variety of human tissues and had an excellent safety profile in rats following 28-day intranasal delivery of the formulated IgY. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 1 study evaluating single-ascending and multiple doses of anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgY administered intranasally for 14 days in 48 healthy adults also demonstrated an excellent safety and tolerability profile, and no evidence of systemic absorption. As these antiviral IgY have broad selectivity against many variants of concern, are fast to produce, and are a low-cost product, their use as prophylaxis to reduce SARS-CoV-2 viral transmission warrants further evaluation.

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