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1.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(8):24-26, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067738

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the potential use of ivermectin with standard therapy among mild to moderate covid-19 illness. Methods: This is a single-centered, prospective observational, randomized, parallel group (1:1 ratio), standard versus controlled ivermectin study recruited 210 confirmed COVID-19 positive patients who were admitted in COVID treatment center of Dr Ruth Kum Pafu Civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan from 1st November 2020 to 30th May 2021. Data were analyzed using SPSS version Results: Total of 210 patients were enrolled in the study and aged matched patients were divided in two groups 105 patients received ivermectin 6 mg twice a day for five days along with standard therapy while remaining 105 patients received standard therapy as per local and international guidelines. Male were 140(66.7%) and female 70(33.3%);age ranges between 26 to 77 years and majority 140( 66.7%) were more than 50 years of age. Fever, dry cough and dyspnea were the major symptoms seen;112(53.3%) patients had DM as a comorbid illness . Total of 21(20%) of 105 patients of ivermectin group had negative PCR for COVID 19 on day seven while the other group had positive covid test in all of 105 patients . On day 10 total of 49 more patients from ivermectin group found COVID negative along with 21 previously negative had second PCR was found negative in this way total of 70( 66.7%) of ivermectin group had negative PCR for COVID 19 while 21(20%) patients from non ivermectin got negative PCR for COVID 19 on day 10 . Conclusion: Use of ivermectin with standard therapy clear the virus earlier than standard therapy in mild to moderate COVID-19 infected patients admitted in COVID treatment center of Dr Ruth Kum Pafu Civil Hospital Karachi.

2.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 16(3):1622-1627, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067515

ABSTRACT

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a primary health concern. They are commonly differentiated as hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) and community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections, based on their epidemiology, susceptibility findings, and molecular typing patterns. Therefore, appropriate contact precautions and isolation measures should be implemented. CA-MRSA mostly causes skin and soft-tissue infections, but the probability and incidence of it causing sepsis and invasive infections have increased dramatically in recent years. In this study, we report a case of CA-MRSA pneumonia with pan-pneumonic effusion in a 59-year-old male diabetic patient with preexisting comorbidities such as diabetic ketoacidosis and non-ST elevated myocardial infarction. The early reporting of the organism's identity and its antimicrobial susceptibility, as well as timely initiation of antibiotic therapy, aided in the successful management and cure of the patient.

3.
Chest ; 162(4):A2494, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060954

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Dyspne Mysteries SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: Anti-synthetase (AS) syndrome is characterized by interstitial lung disease (ILD), arthritis, myositis, fever, or Raynaud's phenomenon in the presence of an AS autoantibody (1). At least 70% of patients with AS syndrome develop ILD (2), and it represents the major cause of mortality in these patients with a 10 year survival rate of 73%. In a small cohort study, the anti-PL-12 antibody subtype was found to be strongly associated with ILD (3). CASE PRESENTATION: A 35 year old female with a history of tobacco use disorder presented to the hospital with three months of recurrent subjective fevers, non-productive cough, and dyspnea on exertion. She denied arthralgias, muscle weakness and hemoptysis. She initially presented to her primary care physician with these symptoms and was prescribed amoxicillin for streptococcal pharyngitis. The patient continued to be symptomatic and was treated empirically for COVID-19 pneumonia twice despite two negative COVID-19 tests and without any significant clinical improvement in her respiratory status. On admission, she was febrile, tachycardic, and had a new oxygen requirement with bilateral coarse breath sounds on exam. She had no leukocytosis and her COVID-19 test was negative. CT angiography of the chest showed extensive mixed reticular and airspace opacities with peribronchial predilection and peripheral sparing (figure 1). A bronchial alveolar lavage was notable only for neutrophilia (19%) and eosinophilia (4%). Rheumatological workup revealed elevated rheumatoid factor, positive antinuclear antibody (1:40), weakly positive anti–Sjögren's-syndrome-related antigen A antibody (50 AU/ml), undetectable anti-Jo-1 antibody and positive anti-PL-12 antibody. Pulmonary function testing revealed a TLC of 40% and DLCO of 28%, consistent with a restrictive pattern. Considering the patient's organizing pneumonia, positive antibodies, and findings of "mechanic's hands,” the patient was diagnosed with anti-synthetase syndrome with ILD. She was started on oral prednisone and mycophenolate mofetil. On follow-up, she was noted to have symptomatic improvement and stable hypoxia without clinical signs of disease progression. DISCUSSION: During the coronavirus pandemic, the resemblance of COVID-19 pneumonia to other diseases, in the absence of conscious suspicion for other etiologies, can lead to anchoring and availability bias thereby delaying diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Additionally, anti-synthetase syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ILD even in the absence of arthritis and myositis, as respiratory symptoms are often the first presenting signs. CONCLUSIONS: Increased responsibility is required of diagnosticians to exercise due diligence and active recognition of COVID availability and anchor bias to avoid missing crucial diagnoses. Reference #1: Cojocaru, Manole, Inimioara Mihaela Cojocaru, and Bogdan Chicos. "New insights into antisynthetase syndrome.” Maedica 11.2 (2016): 130. Reference #2: Marco, Joanna L., and Bridget F. Collins. "Clinical manifestations and treatment of antisynthetase syndrome.” Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology 34.4 (2020): 101503. Reference #3: Kalluri, Meena, et al. "Clinical profile of anti-PL-12 autoantibody: cohort study and review of the literature.” Chest 135.6 (2009): 1550-1556. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Mario Flores No relevant relationships by David Jackson No relevant relationships by Lisa Saa No relevant relationships by Abu Baker Sheikh

4.
Chest ; 162(4):A2203, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060911

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pulmonary Manifestations of Systemic Disease Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Granulomatous polyangiitis (GPA), previously known as Wegener's granulomatosis, is a rare syndrome characterized by inflammation of small and medium sized vessels. The clinical presentation can be very heterogenous and differentiation from an infectious disease can be challenging initially. Here, we present a case of a young male presenting with respiratory symptoms during the pandemic, presumed to have coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) though after extensive workup was later diagnosed with GPA. CASE PRESENTATION: A 19-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED) with complaints of low-grade fever and dry cough for one week. He reported having abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite and polyarthralgia. An outpatient upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed gastritis and duodenitis. In the ED, his vitals included a temperature of 101.8°F, blood pressure of 115/65mmHg, heart rate of 99/min, respiratory rate of 18/minute and oxygen saturation of 99% on room air. COVID-19 testing was negative. A computerized tomography of the chest revealed extensive ground glass opacities. He was presumptively diagnosed with COVID-19 and started on dexamethasone therapy along with azithromycin for atypical pneumonia. However multiple tests for SARS-CoV-2 were negative. Another consideration was COVID-19 induced multisystem inflammatory syndrome given the patients young age. Infectious workup included negative testing for human immunodeficiency virus, Legionella, tick borne diseases and mycoplasma. As febrile episodes continued, he developed microcytic anemia, microscopic hematuria, and petechial rash on his ankles. Antinuclear antigen screen was negative, but C-antineutrophil cytoplasmic and anti-proteinase-3 antibodies were positive. Renal biopsy revealed GPA. He was prescribed pulse dose steroids and transitioned to immunotherapy. DISCUSSION: GPA is a challenging diagnosis given multiple system involvement, though early identification and initiation of treatment are important to prevent long term sequalae. In our case, acute onset febrile illness and pulmonary ground glass opacities led to repeated COVID-19 testing potentially delaying the diagnosis. Ultimately, the correct diagnosis was made and confirmed on renal biopsy. We believe our case highlight the importance of keeping a broad differential and considering vasculitis in these situations for prompt diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: GPA can often mimic respiratory infectious processes, a high index of suspicion is necessary for timely diagnosis. Reference #1: Selvaraj V, Moustafa A, Dapaah-Afriyie K, et alCOVID-19-induced granulomatosis with polyangiitis. BMJ Case Reports CP 2021;14:e242142 Reference #2: Qurratulain, Q., Ahmed, A., & Jones, Q. (2021). Lesson of the month: Severe granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA): a diagnostic challenge during the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical Medicine, 21(1), 79. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Aamna Khan No relevant relationships by Usama Sadiq No relevant relationships by Rehan Saeed

5.
Chest ; 162(4):A2190, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060909

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Issues After COVID-19 Vaccination Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Eosinophilia is the most commonly reported adverse event following administration of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, accounting for 237 of 372 events (63.7%). Eosinophilic pneumonia has been described noted in 3 of all reported cases. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 73 year-old male presented to his PCP with a 3 week history of nonproductive cough and wheezing. He completed a 2-shot series of BNT162b2 mRNA (Pfizer/BioNTech) COVID vaccine 1 week prior to symptom onset. He had no history of respiratory symptoms, smoking, sick contacts, recent travel, chemical or biological exposures. On presentation, he was afebrile, tachycardic and required 3LPM supplemental oxygen to maintain peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) above 94%. Laboratory findings noted leukocytosis (13,200/mL) and eosinophilia at 5% (Absolute Eosinophil Count (AEC): 580 cells/L). Respiratory viral panel, procalcitonin, ESR and D-dimer were negative. Chest CT scan was unremarkable. He was treated with azithromycin, prednisone and inhaled bronchodilators with improvement in hypoxia. 2 weeks later, he reported intermittent dyspnea during a pulmonary clinic visit. Pulmonary function testing was normal (FEV1/FVC: 76%;FVC: 3.67L (90% predicted);FEV1: 2.80L (88% predicted). IgE level was normal and eosinophilia had resolved. 6 months after initial symptom onset, the patient received his third BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine dose. 2 weeks after vaccination, he presented to the ED with severe dyspnea, wheezing and cough with yellow sputum. He also noted a new itchy, erythematous bilateral forearm rash and painless oral ulcers. On exam, he was afebrile, tachypneic with SpO2 of 93% on 4LPM supplemental oxygen and audibly wheezing with a prolonged expiratory phase. Laboratory studies noted elevated creatinine and leukocytosis (23,100/mL) with marked eosinophilia (29.5 %, AEC: 6814 cells/L). Chest CT scan revealed a 2 cm rounded ground-glass opacity in the right upper lobe. (Figure 1.) Further workup revealed a weakly positive antihistone antibody (1:4 titer). IgE, ANA, ANCA, SS-A/B, anti-CCP, and complement levels were normal. Intravenous methylprednisolone treatment was initiated with rapid improvement in dyspnea, eosinophilia and renal function. A transbronchial biopsy (Figure 2.) of the RUL lung lesion revealed organizing pneumonia with mixed inflammatory infiltrate. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis revealed elevated WBC (432 cells/L) with neutrophilic predominance (85%). Patient was discharged home on a prednisone taper with resolution of symptoms. DISCUSSION: Subsequent allergy work up did not indicate any apparent etiology of hypereosinophilia. Testing for strongyloides, coccidiosis and aspergillosis were also negative. A final diagnosis of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine related pulmonary eosinophilia was made. CONCLUSIONS: Additional study is warranted into eosinophilic disease associated with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Reference #1: 1. United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Public Health Service (PHS), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) / Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) 1990 - 03/11/2022, CDC WONDER On-line Database. Accessed at http://wonder.cdc.gov/vaers.html on Mar 11, 2022 1:18:37 PM DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Matthew Haltom No relevant relationships by Nikky Keer No relevant relationships by Thekrayat Khader No relevant relationships by Muthiah Muthiah

6.
Chest ; 162(4):A2002, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060885

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP) one of the most common interstitial lung diseases (ILD) and is caused by an allergic reaction to an inciting agent in the airway of a susceptible individual1. The diagnosis is challenging as many of the classic symptoms, dyspnea and fatigue, are nonspecific. An accurate diagnosis involves careful history taking, physical exam, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), chest computed tomography (CT) imaging, and lung biopsy. CASE PRESENTATION: Patient is a 51 year old female with no PMH presents to clinic with worsening dyspnea and nonproductive cough. Symptoms began 6 months ago. She could not identify any triggers and was prescribed steroids and antibiotics with minimal relief. The patient has never smoked, denies drug use but had two pigeons. During the COVID pandemic she admitted to staying indoors more often and was not nearly as active outdoors as before. She denied fevers, chills, night sweats and weight loss. CXR showed no focal infiltrates, sharp costophrenic angels with no evidence of acute pathology. PFT's showed FVC pre 1.78, FVE1 pre 1.35, FVE1 % predicted pre 48%, FEV1/FVC pre 76%, TLC pre 3.23, VC pre 2.06 and a DLCO pre 10.98 with her LLN of 16.59. FVC post 1.91, FEV1 post 1.57, FVE1 % predicted post 58%, FEV1/FVC post 82% (Fig 1). She had positive pigeon serum antibodies. CT chest showed faint diffuse ground glass opacities bilaterally with mild mosaic attenuation reflecting HP (Figs 2, 3). The patient was diagnosed with HP, started on steroids and surrendered her pigeons with resolution of her symptoms. DISCUSSION: Diagnosis of HP is challenging as the classic symptoms of dyspnea and fatigue can be nonspecific. Physicians should be aware about increasing exposures to home antigens during the COVID pandemic in patients who have been indoors for prolonged periods of time. PFTs show a restrictive pattern and DLCO impairment. CT show the presence of centrilobular nodules, ground-glass opacities, mosaic attenuation/perfusion and air trapping and in longstanding disease there can be honeycombing and traction bronchiectasis2. Mainstay treatment is antigen avoidance and corticosteroids. Identification and complete avoidance of the antigen is the mainstay of treatment. Antigen avoidance is critically stressed as repeated exposures can result in HP progression and avoidance of the antigen is associated with improved lung function1. Corticosteroid initiation in progressive patients resulted in a reversal with an improvement of lung function3. Corticosteroids are often used in non-fibrotic HP however its efficacy remains unclear as long term prognosis has never been studied1. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians should recognize that prolonged time indoors, that have been exacerbated during the COVID19 pandemic, can increase the time patients are exposed to home antigens thus a prompt diagnosis and strict avoidance of the antigen is required to prevent irreversible damage. Reference #1: Maria Laura Alberti, "Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges". Frontiers in Medicine, Front. Med., 23 September 2021 ;https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.718299 Reference #2: Zompatori M, Calabrò E, Chetta A, Chiari G, Marangio E, Olivieri D. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis? Diagnostic role of high resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT). Radiol Med. 2003 Sep;106(3):135-46. English, Italian. PMID: 14612834 Reference #3: De Sadeleer LJ, Hermans F, De Dycker E, Yserbyt J, Verschakelen JA, Verbeken EK, Verleden GM, Wuyts WA. Effects of Corticosteroid Treatment and Antigen Avoidance in a Large Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Cohort: A Single-Centre Cohort Study. J Clin Med. 2018 Dec 21;8(1):14. doi: 10.3390/jcm8010014. PMID: 30577667;PMCID: PMC6352061. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Aryeh Bernstein No relevant relationships by Thai Donenfeld No relevant relationships by Lourdes Marie F aminiano

7.
Chest ; 162(4):A1846-A1847, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060872

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Systemic Disease Case Report Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis(GPA) is an autoimmune small vessel vasculitis that is included in the group of anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody(ANCA)- associated small vessel vasculitides (AAVs). GPA is a systemic disease, however acronym ELK is used to describe the most common involvement of Ear, nose, throat, Lungs, and Kidneys. We report a case of GPA, highlighting its presentation. CASE PRESENTATION: 59-year old female presented with vaginal bleeding, malaise, blurry vision, non productive cough and shortness of breath few days after receiving COVID-19 vaccine. Physical exam was remarkable for bilateral conjunctival injection with right sided ptosis and inguinal lymphadenopathy. Laboratory findings were significant for acute kidney injury and anemia. Computed tomography (CT) of chest revealed bilateral bronchovascular nodules and masses with interlobular septal thickening and enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Fine needle aspiration of left inguinal lymph node was negative for malignancy. Bronchoscopy with bronchial brush revealed alveolar hemorrhage with capillaritis;bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL) showed hemosiderin laden macrophages. Tissue biopsy was negative for malignancy. Testing for pulmonary renal syndrome was positive for C-ANCA and proteinase-3 (PR-3) antibodies. Anti-GBM antibody and anti-MPO antibody was negative. Plasmapheresis (PLEX) and pulse dose steroids were initiated however the patient was unable to tolerate the treatment. Her clinical condition continued to decline requiring multiple pressors, broad spectrum antibiotics and continuous renal replacement therapy. She was transitioned to comfort care per family's wishes and passed away. DISCUSSION: GPA is a rare necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of small to medium sized vessels that can affect any organ but mainly involves the upper and lower respiratory tract. Necrotizing glomerulonephritis is common. Pulmonary involvement can include consolidation, tracheal or subglottic stenosis, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, pleural effusion and interstitial lung disease. Lymphadenopathy, as seen in our patient is a rare presentation. Tissue biopsy is crucial for the diagnosis. Association with PR-3 ANCA is seen in more than 80% of GPA patients. Cases of AAVs after administration of COVID vaccine have been reported in the literature, although it is difficult to demonstrate causal relationship. Treatment of GPA with immunosuppression, usually corticosteroids, rituximab or cyclophosphamide, is recommended. The role of PLEX continues to evolve with emerging data, but use of this therapy is reasonable for patients with severe kidney injury and DAH secondary to active vasculitis refractory to immunosuppressive therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Early diagnosis of GPA is challenging as it can mimic metastatic lung malignancy. It should be considered in a broad range of differentials when evaluating patients presenting with pulmonary nodules. Reference #1: Greco A, Marinelli C, Fusconi M, Macri GF, Gallo A, De Virgilio A, Zambetti G, de Vincentiis M. Clinic manifestations in granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2016 Jun;29(2):151-9. doi: 10.1177/0394632015617063. Epub 2015 Dec 18. PMID: 26684637;PMCID: PMC5806708. Reference #2: Kitching, A. R., Anders, H. J., Basu, N., Brouwer, E., Gordon, J., Jayne, D. R., Kullman, J., Lyons, P. A., Merkel, P. A., Savage, C., Specks, U., & Kain, R. (2020). ANCA-associated vasculitis. Nature reviews. Disease primers, 6(1), 71. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41572-020-0204-y Reference #3: Szymanowska-Narloch, A., Gawryluk, D., Błasińska-Przerwa, K., & Siemińska, A. (2019). Atypical manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis: the diagnostic challenge for pulmonologists. Advances in respiratory medicine, 87(6), 244–253. https://doi.org/10.5603/ARM.2019.0062 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Sean Davidson No relevant relationships by Eric Flenaugh No relevant relationships by Marilyn Foreman No relevant relationships by KOMAL KAUR No relevant relationships by Gabriela Oprea-Ilies

8.
Chest ; 162(4):A1806-A1807, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060867

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Diffuse Lung Disease Cases 1 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 12:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Acute exacerbations (AE) of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are well recognized in the progression of this uniformly fatal disease. Here we describe a case of AE of undiagnosed IPF after ankle surgery. Our aim is to discuss the role of non-pulmonary surgery as a precipitating factor and its outcome. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient is a 61-year-old male with a medical history of chronic smoking, recent open reduction internal fixation of left ankle 5 days before the presentation, comes to the emergency room with acute onset, gradually worsening shortness of breath along with non-productive cough and pleuritic chest pain. He denied any sick contacts, COVID exposure, travel history, inhalation of toxic fumes, or any chemical/pets/bird exposure. He was saturating around 85% on room air, was switched to a nasal cannula with improvement in saturation. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed no evidence of pulmonary embolism but diffuse ground-glass opacities (GGO) were noted bilaterally with no effusion or emphysematous changes, which were new compared to CT chest 10 days prior (that is 5 days before ankle surgery) which showed only mild reticular opacity along anterior convexity of the lungs bilaterally. He was started on intravenous steroids with gradual improvement in clinical status. Bronchoscopy biopsies revealed no malignant cells, bronchoalveolar lavage with no infections, and a negative serum autoimmune panel. He was discharged with outpatient follow-up for a repeat CT chest 6 weeks later which showed improvement in GGO (not back to baseline) and he was still requiring oxygen support. DISCUSSION: The most common triggers for IPF are smoking, environmental toxins, viral (COVID infection) or bacterial infections, medications like antidepressants, beta-blockers, NSAIDs. There is increasing evidence that surgery can cause acute respiratory worsening in IPF, presumably through increased mechanical stress to the lungs. Prolonged mechanical ventilation, high tidal volume, and high concentration of supplemental oxygen during surgery have been proposed as potential causes(1). As per the results from the retrospective study, the incidence of postoperative AE of IPF in patients undergoing non-pulmonary surgery is slightly lower than in patients undergoing pulmonary surgery (2,3). As in our case, non-pulmonary surgery procedures can pose risk for IPF exacerbation, but at this time we have limited research evidence to conclude if this exacerbation can alter the course of the disease. Some studies showed preoperative elevated C-reactive protein as a possible risk factor for AE of IPF after a non-pulmonary surgery but a multicenter study is needed to clarify the preoperative risk factors for AE of IPF after non-pulmonary surgery. CONCLUSIONS: We need further studies to check risk factors and disease course alteration, to have better guidance to classify preoperative risk in our IPF patients. Reference #1: Acute Exacerbation of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Proposal, PMID: 2441663 Reference #2: Exacerbations in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis triggered by pulmonary and non-pulmonary surgery: a case series and comprehensive review of the literature, PMID: 22543997 Reference #3: Postoperative acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia in pulmonary and non-pulmonary surgery: a retrospective study DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Arundhati Chandini Arjun No relevant relationships by Harshil Fichadiya no disclosure submitted for Boning Li;No relevant relationships by Gaurav Mohan No relevant relationships by Rana Prathap Padappayil No relevant relationships by Raghu Tiperneni

9.
Chest ; 162(4):A1804, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060865

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Lung Cancer Imaging Case Report Posters 1 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a lung condition that is caused by a build-up of proteins, fats, and other substances (collectively called surfactants) in the alveoli of the lungs. Here we describe a case of a 47-year-old female diagnosed with PAP, with radiologic features conflicting with Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pneumonia. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient is a 47-year-old female with no significant medical history who presents to the outpatient pulmonology clinic for shortness of breath evaluation. She reported that for the past 3-4 months she has been having progressively worsening shortness of breath (SOB) associated with dry cough, and nasal congestion. She reports no recent illness, no history of COVID or COVID exposure, no second-hand smoke exposure, no toxin/chemical exposure, no pets/birds at home. Her SOB has been impacting her lifestyle. Pulmonary function tests showed no obstruction, moderate restriction, mildly decreased diffusion capacity. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed multiple ground-glass opacities with septal wall thickening (appears crazy paving pattern) - suggestive of infection or inflammatory process. Infectious/inflammatory work up with HIV, COVID-19, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) panel, autoimmune panel, immunoglobulins, QuantiFERON gold, IgM mycoplasma antibodies was negative. Repeat CT chest in 6 weeks as per patient request, was unchanged from prior. A bronchoscopy was done, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) negative for infection - fungal, acid-fast bacilli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis;GMS (Grocott's methenamine silver) stain negative for fungus;negative PCP (Pneumocystis pneumonia);left upper lobe and left lung biopsy showed lung parenchyma with scant amorphous eosinophilic material in alveolar sacs, Periodic Acid-Schiff stain (PAS) stain was positive confirming PAP diagnosis. DISCUSSION: PAP is a rare disease, affecting about 1 person in 100,000 people worldwide, with fewer than 10,000 of them in the United States. The "crazy paving pattern" is characteristic of PAP but recently it has appeared in the list of radiologic findings for COVID 19 pneumonia1,2,3. In these COVID times, these kinds of interactions might make the decision tougher, often leading to misdiagnosis. The decision of diagnosis/treatment should be based on symptoms and their duration, medical history, previous tests, response to treatment. Given our patient never had a COVID infection in the past or current infection, CT chest was typical for PAP with a crazy-paving pattern, no significant subjective/radiological improvement lead us to the diagnosis of PAP with eventual work up with bronchoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: A high index of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis of such rare diseases as PAP, which can be misdiagnosed as COVID-19 pneumonia, given radiological similarities. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve morbidity and mortality of PAP. Reference #1: PAP with COVID-19 Radiology - Differential Diagnosis Discussion, PMID: 33646114 Reference #2: Proteinaceous Lung With COVID-19: The Mimicker, PMID: 34703683 Reference #3: COVID-19 pneumonia: the great radiological mimicker - https://insightsimaging.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s13244-020-00933-z DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Ahmad Al-Alwan No relevant relationships by Arundhati Chandini Arjun No relevant relationships by Farhan Khalid no disclosure submitted for Boning Li;No relevant relationships by Rana Prathap Padappayil No relevant relationships by Raghu Tiperneni

10.
Chest ; 162(4):A1612, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060849

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Unusual Cancer Cases SESSION TYPE: Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 09:15 am - 10:15 am INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous lesions may present as a clue to an internal malignancy and provide an easily accessible site for tissue confirmation. We present a case of an eyelid metastatic lesion presenting as an initial sign of primary pulmonary malignancy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old woman with past medical history of SARS-COVID-2 pneumonia six months ago and reformed smoker (26 pack year) who quit 27 years ago, presented to the primary care physician's office with a chief complaint of a small right upper eyelid margin (base of eyelashes) lesion (Figure 1A), and ongoing nonproductive cough and fatigue since diagnosis of SARS-COVID-2 pneumonia. The eyelid lesion appeared two weeks prior and had quickly grown in size. The lesion was associated with mild itching, but without any associated pain, discharge, or bleeding. She also complained of left elbow and foot pain but denied fever, chills, rigors, hemoptysis, pleurisy, and weight loss. Physical examination was negative for lymphadenopathy. Chest x-ray revealed a hazy left upper lobe opacity. Urine antigen for blastomycoses and histoplasma were negative. Rheumatoid factor, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C reactive protein, QuantiFERON TB gold and anti-nuclear and cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies were negative. Computed tomography of chest revealed a left upper lobe 3.7 x 5.4 x 5.6 cm mass, numerous bilateral ground glass opacities, and scattered (less than 5 mm) nodules (Figure 1B). Simultaneously, the patient was evaluated by an ophthalmologist for excision of the eyelid lesion. Histopathological evaluation revealed malignancy compatible with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma (Figure 1C) DISCUSSION: While an uncommon presentation, this case highlights the importance of a through history and examination in a patient presenting with pulmonary symptoms with risk factors for a lung malignancy. While she did have imaging that demonstrated lung masses, the diagnosis of lung cancer came not from invasive sampling of these masses, but rather from excision and histopathological evaluation of an eyelid soft tissue mass. Lung cancer is prone to metastasis, however cutaneous manifestations of lung cancer are relatively rare and are more common in the advanced stages of disease, making cutaneous metastasis a poor prognostic factor. In terms of cutaneous metastases, ocular metastases are one of the rarest locations making this a unique presentation. In a patient presenting with pulmonary masses, any concurrent development of new and/or growing skin lesions should be evaluated to rule out metastasis and potentially yield diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: In patients presenting with concern for a malignant lung process, a skin exam should be completed, and suspicious skin lesions should be biopsied. Although rare, lung malignancies do metastasize to ocular cutaneous tissues and are a marker of more advanced stage of the malignancy. Reference #1: Hidaka T, Ishii Y, Kitamura S. Clinical features of skin metastasis from lung cancer. Intern Med. 1996;35:459-462. Reference #2: Marcoval J, Penin RM, Llatjos R, Martinez-Ballarin, I. Cutaneous metastasis from lung cancer: retrospective analysis of 30 patients. Australas J Dermatol. 2012;53(4):288-290. Reference #3: Abdeen Y, Amireh S, Patel A, Al-Halawani M, Shaaban H, Miller R. Cutaneous metastasis as a first presentation for lung adenocarcinoma. N Am J Med Sci. 2016;8(5): 222-225. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Gregory Griepentrog No relevant relationships by Chinmay Jani No relevant relationships by Bailey Ray No relevant relationships by Harpreet Singh No relevant relationships by Amit Taneja No relevant relationships by Kara Young

11.
Chest ; 162(4):A1308, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060802

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Issues After COVID-19 Vaccination Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Since 2020, SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread rapidly and endlessly throughout the world, being one of the worst pandemics that the world has ever seen. The BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 has an efficacy rate around 95% and ability to reduce disease severity, but also associated with numerous adverse reactions. Here we present a case of a Vaccine Induced Pneumonitis following a booster of the BNT162b2 vaccine. CASE PRESENTATION: A 72-year-old female presented to the ED with 3-day history of cough and dyspnea after receiving the booster (3rd dose) Pfizer COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. On the second day following vaccination started to develop a non-productive cough, difficulty breathing, and later in the afternoon had several episodes of nausea, vomiting, and fever. Initial presentation to hospital concerning for community acquired pneumonia, and patient was started on IV fluids and empiric antibiotics. However, after initial treatment respiratory condition worsened drastically concerning for iatrogenic pulmonary edema. Patient received diuretics but still failed to improve respiratory condition. CT chest revealed bil ground-glass opacities. Microbiologic and serologic testing negative, except for positive ANA. As the patient's condition failed to improve still on heated high flow O2, the patient underwent bronchoscopy which revealed diffuse erythematous with copious, thick, whitish mucus plugging airways. BAL cell count showed WBC 204 /cumm with lymphocytic predominance. BAL cultures were only positive for candida albicans in 1/2 pooled samples. Silver stain negative for P. jirovecii. After a negative infectious workup, the patient was started on systemic steroid therapy and her symptoms improved in two days. After five days of treatment, the patient was able to be discharged home with oxygen therapy on 1 L/min along with a steroid taper. DISCUSSION: Although there was likely a component of iatrogenic fluid overload from IV hydration, the patient's clinical condition did not improve even after vigorous diuresis. Patient does not have any significant underlying pulmonary disease, or CT/PFTs in past. Extensive infectious and autoimmune workup has been negative. Based on the GGO distribution, clinical course including symptoms after exposure to COVID-19 booster, and improvement after steroids, BAL cell count with lymphocytic predominance, we consider vaccine-induced interstitial lung disease as the most probable diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our case highlights challenges in managing patients with airspace disease in the era of COVID-19 and vaccination. We would like to share a possible case of vaccination-induced interstitial lung disease. Our conclusion was made after ruling out the most common infectious and noninfectious causes and after having a favorable response to steroids. Reference #1: Influenza vaccine-induced interstitial lung disease. Watanabe et al. European Respiratory Journal Feb 2013, 41 (2) 474-477;DOI: 10.1183/09031936.00146912 Reference #2: COVID-19 vaccine induced interstitial lung disease, Yoshifuji et al, Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy, 2021 Reference #3: COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine-induced Pneumonitis: A Case Report. Internal Medicine, Japanese Society of Internal Medicine. Matsuzaki S et al., Released October 26, 2021 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Harold Cedeno No relevant relationships by Chengtin Tseng

12.
Chest ; 162(4):A1287, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060795

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Autoimmune Diffuse Lung Disease Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is an interstitial lung disease (ILD) that can be idiopathic or associated with connective tissue disorders (CTDs). The two subtypes of NSIP are cellular interstitial pneumonitis (CIP) and fibrotic, with CIP being less common. Subtypes can be distinguished through pathology and imaging. NSIP constitutes 14-36% of cases of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. ILD-associated DM has a higher mortality, making diagnosis crucial. In specific, fibrotic NSIP has a high 10-year mortality rate, making differentiation relevant. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old female presented with fatigue and erythematous papular lesions on her face, palms, shoulder, and neck for one month. She also developed a fever and dry cough a week before. She denied recent travel or sick contacts. COVID-19 was negative. On exam, she was tachypneic and tachycardic with a maculopapular rash. A pulmonary exam revealed bilateral fine crackles. CXR showed dense left and mild right-sided patchy consolidations. Labs revealed elevated inflammatory markers (ESR-63, CRP-1.9, LDH-982). CPK was high - 517. CBC and procalcitonin were normal. CT showed extensive patchy and confluent areas of opacification of the left lower lobe, including a mass-like area measuring 3.3cm. Infectious workup was negative. Autoimmune testing ( Anti-Jo 1 Ab, ANA, etc) was negative. Bronchoscopic left lower lobe biopsy showed cellular interstitial inflammation composed of lymphocytes, plasma cells, rare eosinophils, and foci of intra-alveolar fibrinous exudates, suggestive of CIP and OP. She was treated successfully with corticosteroids and was discharged on prednisone. Repeat autoimmune antibody workup was negative. Skin biopsy showed a lichenoid lymphocytic infiltrate and necrotic keratinocytes consistent with dermatomyositis. Mycophenolate and rituximab were initiated;prednisone was tapered off. Follow-up chest CT showed cleared infiltrates with symptomatic improvement. DISCUSSION: CIP is an uncommon form of NSIP. On CT, bilateral ground-glass opacities are the most common feature. CIP is characterized histologically by interstitial thickening due to the presence of inflammatory cells and type-II pneumocyte hyperplasia with preserved lung architecture. Treatment is corticosteroids. The prognosis is excellent. ILD associated with DM is strongly associated with a positive Anti-Jo Ab, which was negative here making diagnosis challenging. She was diagnosed with dermatomyositis using histological findings from a skin biopsy. She responded to steroids at acute presentation and treatment was tailored once DM was diagnosed leading to complete recovery. CONCLUSIONS: ILD is not uncommon in CTD, however it is usually associated with a positive Anti-Jo 1 antibody. Our case is unique as the patient had negative Anti- Jo 1 Ab, however was found to have cellular NSIP with DM responding well to treatment following diagnosis. Reference #1: https://ard.bmj.com/content/63/3/297 Reference #2: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK518974/ Reference #3: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33916864/ DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Nawal Ahmed No relevant relationships by TAIKCHAN LILDAR No relevant relationships by Namratha Shripad No relevant relationships by David Wisa

13.
Chest ; 162(4):A1084, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060766

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Atypical Cases of Sepsis SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative coccobacillus that causes infections after animal bites or scratches. It typically manifests as cellulitis but severe infections are possible though rare. We present a case of an immunocompetent man with COVID-19 who developed septic shock due to P. multocida bacteremia and pneumonia with no evidence of wound infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year-old Hispanic man with a history of anxiety and HLD presented with 10 days of nausea, vomiting, chills, and nonproductive cough. He was initially afebrile, on room air but tachycardic. His physical exam was unremarkable. Labs revealed WBC 10x10*3/uL, procal 3.3 ng/mL, negative lactic acid, and positive COVID-19. CT chest showed a right upper lobe consolidation with bilateral patchy infiltrates. He was admitted for sepsis secondary to COVID and superimposed bacterial pneumonia. Ceftriaxone, azithromycin, remdesivir, and dexamethasone were started. Overnight, the patient desaturated to low 80s and required HFNC FiO2 65%. In the morning, FiO2 increased to 80%. ICU was called and upon their assessment, the patient was febrile, tachycardic, tachypneic, hypotensive, and saturating 87-88% on HFNC FiO2 70%. Labs showed WBC 3.1 with left shift, Cr 1.7 mg/dL, lactic acid 5 mmol/L, and procalcitonin >100. He was intubated given persistent hypoxia and increased work of breathing. Antibiotics were broadened to vancomycin, pip/tazo, and azithromycin. The patient acutely decompensated after intubation, requiring multiple high-dose pressor support. Prelim blood cultures grew Gram-negative bacteria so antibiotics were broadened to meropenem. TTE was negative for endocarditis. Pressors were eventually weaned and the patient was extubated. Blood cultures grew P. multocida in 4/4 bottles so meropenem was narrowed to penicillin. His family reported that he was living at a friend's house with cats around but was unaware of any bites or scratches and he had no history of splenectomy. No portal of entry was noted upon careful skin examination. The patient continued to improve clinically with procal that rapidly downtrended. He was eventually discharged home. DISCUSSION: The mortality for severe P. multocida presentations is about 25-30%. Severe cases are generally reported in elderly, immunocompromised, or young immunosuppressed patients. We report what is to our knowledge, the first case of a severe P. multocida infection in an immunocompetent middle-aged man in the background of a COVID-19 infection. It is unclear the degree of COVID contribution and if his bacteremia preceded the pneumonia. His morbidity was primarily driven by the P. multocida bacteremia and pneumonia given the localized right upper lobe consolidation, elevated procal that rapidly decreased with antibiotics, and quick improvement and extubation. CONCLUSIONS: P. multocida infection should be considered in any patient with septic shock and exposure to animals. Reference #1: Blain H, George M, Jeandel C. Exposure to domestic cats or dogs: risk factor for Pasteurella multocida pneumonia in older people? Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1998;46(10):1329-1330. Reference #2: Tseng HK, Su SC, Liu CP, Lee CM. Pasteurella multocida bacteremia due to non-bite animal exposure in cirrhotic patients: report of two cases. Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection= Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi. 2001;34(4):293-296. Reference #3: Kofteridis DP, Christofaki M, Mantadakis E, et al. Bacteremic community-acquired pneumonia due to Pasteurella multocida. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2009;13(3):e81-e83. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2008.06.023 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Joanne Lin No relevant relationships by Harjeet Singh No relevant relationships by Jose Vempilly No relevant relationships by Joshua Wilkinson

14.
Chest ; 162(4):A575, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060636

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Uncommon Presentations and Complications of Chest Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcus is a ubiquitous fungus in the environment. Infections can occur in humans when Cryptococcus is aerosolized and inhaled. Severity of clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic pulmonary colonization to disseminated life-threatening infection such as meningitis. These infections usually occur with deficiencies in T-cell-mediated immunity, including those with HIV/AIDS and immunosuppression due to transplantation. Herein we present a case of isolated pulmonary cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent host. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient is a 36-year-old never-smoker male with history of recurrent left spontaneous pneumothorax status post VATS blebectomy, negative for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and cystic fibrosis. A year later, he presented with fatigue, shortness of breath, and dry cough after a recent trip to Ohio. Viral panel including COVID-19 was negative. A chest x-ray showed a new 4 cm rounded opacity in the right middle lobe (RML). A CT scan of the chest showed 2 mass-like and nodular areas of consolidation with surrounding GGOs within the RML (Figure 1). He underwent navigational bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy (TBBx) of RML, BAL, and EBUS with transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA). Cytology was negative for malignant cells. BAL showed rare yeast. Pathology of the TBBx showed the airway wall with chronic inflammation including granulomatous inflammation, positive for yeast, most consistent with Cryptococcus with positive Grocott methenamine silver (GMS) stain (Figure 2). Culture of the TBNA grew C. neoformans var. grubii. Other cultures were negative. Serum Cryptococcal antigen was positive. HIV test was negative. He started treatment with oral fluconazole with improvement of symptoms. DISCUSSION: Clinical presentation of pulmonary cryptococcosis can include a variety of symptoms in which immune status is critical for determining the course of infection. Infection can vary from asymptomatic infection to severe pneumonia and respiratory failure, and meningitis. Similarly, imaging findings can also vary and be characterized as pulmonary nodules, consolidations, cavitary lesions, and/or a diffuse interstitial pattern. The diagnosis of Cryptococcus is made using histology, fungal cultures, serum cryptococcal antigen, and radiography in the appropriate clinical and radiological context. Treatment recommendations are determinant on immune status of the patient as well as symptoms. Asymptomatic and localized disease in immunocompetent patients can be monitored and mild/moderate disease can be treated with fluconazole. Those with severe or disseminated infection warrant induction therapy with an amphotericin B and flucytosine CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and radiological presentation of cyptococcosis varies depending on immune status. Disease can occur in both immunocompromised and competent hosts. Immune status determines disease course and treatment. Reference #1: Huffnagle GB, Traynor TR, McDonald RA, Olszewski MA, Lindell DM, Herring AC, et al. Leukocyte recruitment during pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Immunopharmacology. 2000 Jul 25;48(3):231–6. Reference #2: Kd B, Jw B, Pg P. Pulmonary cryptococcosis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med [Internet]. 2011 Dec [cited 2022 Apr 2];32(6). Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22167400/ Reference #3: Ms S, Rj G, Ra L, Pg P, Jr P, Wg P, et al. Practice guidelines for the management of cryptococcal disease. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis Off Publ Infect Dis Soc Am [Internet]. 2000 Apr [cited 2022 Apr 1];30(4). Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10770733/ DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Mina Elmiry No relevant relationships by Brenda Garcia No relevant relationships by Zein Kattih no disclosure on file for Priyanka Makkar;No relevant relationships by Jonathan Moore

15.
Chest ; 162(4):A540, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060623

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Management of COVID-19-Induced Complications SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Rib fractures are an infrequent consequence of severe cough. In some patients, undetected rib fractures can lead to life-threatening outcomes. We bring to light a case of uncontrolled cough associated with COVID-19 infection resulting in multiple rib fractures that were missed in 2 hospital visits and subsequently diagnosed when the patient presented in acute distress and at high risk of decompensation from a hemothorax and a diaphragmatic hernia that required expedited evaluation, ICU admission, and surgical intervention. CASE PRESENTATION: This is a case of a 73 years old male who presented with shortness of breath and worsening dry cough of 4 weeks duration. He was seen in the ED 3 weeks previously for severe right-sided chest pain that was evaluated by a CT chest that did not reveal any acute findings. He was discharged home on pain medications. He had a repeat admission in 2 days and was diagnosed with acute hypoxic respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 infection. CT abdomen was done for continued right upper quadrant pain which showed an upper abdominal wall hernia. He was discharged with instructions to follow up with outpatient surgery for hernia repair. In the interim, the patient continued to have excessive dry cough, progressively worsening shortness of breath, and bruising over the right abdominal wall and back. He returned to the ED where he was found to be hypoxic, and hypotensive. Imaging studies revealed a large right pleural effusion, fracture of the right sixth rib and seventh rib, and herniation of the hepatic flexure of the colon into the chest. He was subsequently admitted to the cardiothoracic ICU and underwent flexible bronchoscopy, right VATS, evacuation of hemothorax, complete decortication, and repair of diaphragmatic hernia. DISCUSSION: This case is an unusual presentation of an amalgamation of complications resulting from an unrelenting cough that prompted rapid recognition and swift action. Cough-induced complications are rare but can be life-threatening. Various imaging studies can be pursued to avoid a delay in diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent cough is a common complication of COVID-19 infection. A clinician should have a high index of suspicion for rib fractures, diaphragmatic hernia, and hemothorax in a patient with persistent or progressive symptoms. Reference #1: Camarillo-Reyes LA, Marquez-Córdova RI, Surani S, Varon J. Hemothorax induced by severe cough: An unusual presentation. SAGE Open Med Case Rep. 2019;7:2050313X19846043. Published 2019 Apr 26. doi:10.1177/2050313X19846043 Reference #2: Daccache A, Haddad J, Ghanem A, Feghali EJ, El Osta B. Cough-induced rib fracture in a smoker: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2020;14(1):147. Published 2020 Sep 5. doi:10.1186/s13256-020-02497-4 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Navya Akula No relevant relationships by Sanjana Chetana Shanmukhappa No relevant relationships by Muhammad Ahmed Malik No relevant relationships by Aqsa Malik No relevant relationships by Fahd Shaukat

16.
Chest ; 162(4):A412-A413, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060589

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Diffuse Lung Disease Cases 2 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Recurrent episodes of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) have been shown to be common in elderly patients. Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) is an interstitial lung disease that is often mistaken for pneumonia, especially in the older population. Here, we present a 100-year-old woman diagnosed with COP after multiple failed courses of antibiotics for CAP. CASE PRESENTATION: A 100-year-old female with a history of cardiomyopathy, pulmonary hypertension, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia previously on prednisone, who presented with shortness of breath and non-productive cough. CT of the chest showed dense left upper and lower lobe consolidations. She was admitted 2 months prior with similar symptoms and found to have extensive right sided consolidations with concerns of CAP. She was treated with antibiotics without resolution of her symptoms. CXR from two years prior revealed right upper and right lower lobe consolidations. This admission, she was started on antibiotics with no improvement and required supplemental oxygen. She had no leukocytosis. COVID-19 testing was negative and she was unable to produce any sputum for culture. The patient declined bronchoscopy. She was seen by speech and swallow with no concern for aspiration. Prednisone was started empirically for COP and the patient experienced rapid improvement in symptoms and oxygenation. Ultimately, she was discharged on 20 mg of prednisone daily as well as Bactrim for PCP prophylaxis. She continued a slow taper as an outpatient with overall improvement in her clinical symptoms. Serial CT scans demonstrate complete resolution of the infiltrates with no recurrence or new infiltrates. DISCUSSION: Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia is a rare interstitial lung disease known to affect bronchioles and alveoli. Its etiology is unclear and symptoms often mimic other types of infectious pneumonia leading to frequent mis-diagnosis. The average age of onset is typically 50-60. Establishing this diagnosis can be difficult due to the non-specific symptomatology of dry cough and dyspnea. Bronchoscopy with lavage and transbronchial biopsies can be performed to rule out infectious and non-infectious etiologies but is not necessary for diagnosis. The most common radiographic pattern is multifocal asymmetrical parenchymal consolidations with air bronchograms that tend to migrate and appear in different sites over time. Less common presentations include ground glass opacities, nodular densities, and progressive fibrotic patterns. Steroids with a slow taper as outpatient are mainstay of therapy and the majority of patients respond with symptom and radiographic improvement. CONCLUSIONS: While elderly patients are particularly susceptible to recurrent CAP, the diagnosis of COP should be considered part of the differential diagnosis in those with recurrent unexplained consolidations on chest radiography without an infectious etiology. Reference #1: Hedlund J, Kalin M, Ortqvist A. Recurrence of pneumonia in middle-aged and elderly adults after hospital-treated pneumonia: aetiology and predisposing conditions. Scand J Infect Dis. 1997;29(4):387-92. doi: 10.3109/00365549709011836. PMID: 9360255. Reference #2: Tiralongo F, Palermo M, Distefano G, et al. Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia: Evolution of Morphological Patterns Assessed by HRCT. Diagnostics (Basel). 2020;10(5):262. Published 2020 Apr 29. doi:10.3390/diagnostics10050262 Reference #3: Lee JW, Lee KS, Lee HY, Chung MP, Yi CA, Kim TS, Chung MJ. Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia: serial high-resolution CT findings in 22 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010 Oct;195(4):916-22. doi: 10.2214/AJR.09.3940. PMID: 20858818. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Vincent Chan No relevant relationships by Mackenzie Kramer No relevant relationships by John Madara No relevant relationships by Stephanie Tzarnas No relevant relationships by Laura Walters

17.
Chest ; 162(4):A402-A403, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060586

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Complicated Chest Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 12:25 pm - 01:25 pm INTRODUCTION: Fusarium species (FS) are large filamentous fungi widely distributed in soil and plants that are well-known to cause human infections ranging from superficial to disseminated predominantly depending on the host's immune system. Histoplasma capsulatum (HC), on the other hand, is a dimorphic fungus found in soil contaminated with bird or bat droppings, such as caves, where most infections are asymptomatic or self-limited. We present a case of an immunocompetent patient who developed long-term pulmonary sequelae after a co-infection pneumonia with FS and HC. CASE PRESENTATION: 47-year-old man, non-smoker with history of Myasthenia Gravis presents to the emergency department with worsening shortness of breath and sporadic episodes of fever over the course of 3 weeks. The patient claimed to have gone cave-exploring and worked as an air-condition technician. During the previous three years, he reports progressive dyspnea on exertion, fatigue, and a constant dry cough that required multiple hospitalizations which was treated as Myasthenic Crisis. Clinical exam was remarkable for diffuse rales on bilateral lungs with a resting hypoxia of 82-84%. Laboratories showed elevated inflammatory markers with no leukocytosis or neutropenia. Chest-x-ray revealed increased pulmonary markings and chest CT demonstrated diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities with septal thickening and innumerable millimetric pulmonary nodules of unclear distribution. Extensive infectious, immunologic, and rheumatologic workup were negative. He underwent a bronchoscopy with broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) which showed FS and HC on cytology. Therefore, intravenous liposomal Amphotericin B was given for 2 weeks followed by a long-course of oral Voriconazole resulting in marked improvement of symptoms, yet he remained with limited physical activity due to exertional hypoxia of less than 80%. Pulmonary function tests revealed mixed obstructive-restrictive disease. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this case represents a novel and rare presentation of invasive pulmonary fusariosis with superimposed histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent host. Our patient had environmental exposure for years with subsequent chronic and progressive respiratory symptoms, however, with no evidence of immunosuppression. Imaging findings were non-specific which difficulted the diagnosis. Nonetheless, the patient was given directed antifungal therapy as a result of the BAL's histopathologic findings with improvement of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the immunologic status, invasive fungal pneumonia should be considered in patients with prolonged environmental exposure and non-specific chest imaging abnormalities. Reference #1: Chae, S. Y., Park, H. M., Oh, T. H., Lee, J. E., Lee, H., Jeong, W. G., & Kim, Y.-H. (2020). Fusarium species causing invasive fungal pneumonia in an immunocompetent patient: a case report. Journal of International Medical Research. https://doi.org/10.1177/0300060520976475. Retrieved March 18, 2022. Reference #2: Kauffman, C. A. (2022). Diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary histoplasmosis. In Bogorodskaya, M. (Ed.), UpToDate. Retrieved March 18, 2022, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-pulmonary-histoplasmosis. Reference #3: Poignon, C., Blaize, M., Vezinet, C., Lampros, A., Monsel, A., & Fekkar, A. (2020). Invasive pulmonary fusariosis in an immunocompetent critically ill patient with severe COVID-19. Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 26(11), 1582–1584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.06.026. Retrieved March 18, 2022. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Juan Adams-Chahin No relevant relationships by Jorge Barletta Farias No relevant relationships by Gabriel Galindez De Jesus No relevant relationships by Camille Gonzalez Morales No relevant relationships by manuel hernandez No rele ant relationships by Enrique Leal No relevant relationships by Arelis Morales Malavé No relevant relationships by Ruth Santos Rodriguez

18.
Nephro-Urology Monthly ; 14(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2044160

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite all of the research on the risk factors for severe COVID-19, there are still many unknowns about the course of COVID-19 in various populations. Inevitable exposure of dialysis patients, one of the more vulnerable groups for infectious diseases, to COVID-19 concerns many researchers. Furthermore, studies on the mortality rate and risk factors regarding dialysis patients are somewhat inconsistent. Also, it has been suggested that factors such as ethnicity can contribute to that matter. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the mortality rate of dialysis patients who contracted COVID-19 in the Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we presented the experiences of 4 dialysis centers with a total of 309 dialysis patients (Tehran, Iran) during the COVID-19 pandemic to assess the mortality rate and associated risk factors. Results: Among 309 dialysis patients, 58 patients contracted the disease, and the total mortality rate in this study was 41%. It was observed that although the guidelines for screening patients were similar in these 4 centers, the centers with regular COVID-19 screening for staff members had much lower mortality and infection rate. The most common symptoms in patients were fever, dry cough, and chills. Furthermore, comorbidities such as diabetes can also increase the risk of mortality. Conclusions: This study, along with other studies, can be utilized in developing guidelines for dialysis centers in the COVID-19 pandemic and future pandemics.

19.
Journal of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery ; 26(3):S21-S22, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033233

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has many cutaneous manifestations. We describe a 30-year-old otherwise healthy male with a generalized purpuric exanthem. Ten days after the onset of the rash, he presented with fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, anosmia, and ageusia and was diagnosed as having COVID-19. The presence of an extensive exanthem in an otherwise healthy patient could raise suspicion for underlying COVID-19.

20.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:1071, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009077

ABSTRACT

Background: Intermittent hypoxia conditioning reduces the levels of infam-matory parameters and cytokines (C-reactive protein, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8), increases the tolerance to acute hypoxia, the functional capacity and improves parameters of respiratory and cardiovascular systems [1-4]. Objectives: To evaluate the efficiency of the interval hypoxic-hyperoxic training (Reoxy therapy) in the rehabilitation of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and post-COVID syndrome. Methods: 36 patients with OA (78% females, age of 43 to 68 years, generalized OA, OA of the knee or hip joints) where included in the randomized placebo-controlled study. Coronavirus infection COVID-19 were diagnosed from 12 to 26 weeks before the study. The main symptoms of post-COVID syndrome were dry cough, smell loss, breathlessness, weakness, fatigue, sleep disorders, cognitive symptoms, memory problems, anxiety, depression, headache, dizziness, joint and muscle pain. All patients were randomized into 3 groups. 13 study group patients received 10 Reoxy therapy procedures, 9 placebo group patients-10 placebo procedures of Reoxy therapy, 14 control group patients-only standard rehabilitation. The patients of all groups underwent 2-week standard rehabilitation program: 10 procedures of electrostatic massage for muscles and periar-ticular tissues, 10 sessions of general magnetic therapy, 10 group sessions of physical exercises with elements of breathing exercises. All patients received NSAIDs and SYSADOA at standard dosages. Intra-articular corticosteroids was not used. The study group patients were breathing hypoxic (FiO2 13-15%) and hyperoxic (FiO2 up to 40%) gas mixture through the mask in the interval mode with biofeedback using device «ReOxy» (Ai Mediq S.A., Luxembourg). 10-min hypoxic test (FiO2 12-13%) was performed before the frst and fourth procedures. The duration of 1-4 procedures was 30 min, 5-10 procedures-40 min. The placebo procedures were performed using the mask with the atmospheric air hole. Joint pain and general health on 100-mm VAS, Lequesne and WOMAC indexes, Spielberger-Khanin anxiety test, Beck depression inventory and breath-lessness on Modifed Borg scale were evaluated at baseline and at 2 weeks. Results: After 2 weeks in the study group pain on VAS decreased by 49,6% (p<0,05), Lequesne index-by 39,3% (p<0,05), WOMAC-by 1,4 times (p<0,01), anxiety level on Spielberger-Khanin test-by 40,9% (p<0,05), depression level on Beck depression inventory-by 64,1% (p<0,01), general health on VAS improved by 69,3% (p<0,01). The level of breathlessness on Modifed Borg scale in the study group initially was 2,5±0,9 score (moderate-slight breathlessness). After rehabilitation in the study group the level of breathlessness decreased to 0,3±0,4 score (extremely slight-no breathlessness). In the study group there were statistically signifcant differences from the placebo group (p<0,05) and the control group (p<0,05) in all parameters. Conclusion: 2-week complex rehabilitation program, including interval hypox-ic-hyperoxic training (Reoxy therapy), reduces pain, breathlessness, depression and anxiety, improves functional status and general health in patients with OA and post-COVID syndrome.

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