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1.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(6):716-719, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2055480

ABSTRACT

In May 2022, a total of 66 infectious diseases were reported globally, affecting 233 countries and regions. Except for influenza, the top five infectious diseases affecting greatest number of countries and regions were COVID-19 (233), monkeypox (36), dengue fever (31), measles (24) and cholera (11). The top five infectious diseases with highest case fatality rates were Ebola virus disease (100.0%), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (34.4%), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (22.2%), Lassa fever (19.8%) and monkeypox (4.0%). The top five infectious diseases with greatest number of deaths were COVID-19, malaria, cholera, dengue fever and measles. The prevalent infectious diseases in Asia were COVID-19, dengue fever and cholera, the prevalent infectious diseases in Africa were COVID-19, Ebola virus disease, cholera, yellow fever, Lassa fever, malaria and monkeypox, the prevalent infectious diseases in America were COVID-19, dengue fever, chikungunya fever and Zika virus disease, the prevalent infectious disease in Europe were COVID-19, monkeypox and acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology.

2.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(6):720-724, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2055479

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the risk of public health emergencies, including both indigenous and imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in June 2022.

3.
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention ; 30(7 Suppl):4-114, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2044470

ABSTRACT

These proceedings contains 114 articles that discuss building toward resilient health systems as the main topic of the first ASGCR plenary. Speakers stressed the significance of collaborations, adaptation, and innovation while highlighting crucial gaps that have appeared in the face of serious threats and emergencies like COVID-19, climate change, and political shifts. In order to close the gap between research and practice in cancer prevention and control in LMICs, this workshop covered evidence-based and cutting-edge solutions. The sometimes transient nature of many programs and initiatives was discussed, along with the difficulties of sustainability in the face of conflicting priorities and dangers to reliable health systems. Nevertheless, even as it discussed past failings, the event also recognised significant gains and started a conversation about resilient building patterns. The second plenary addressed equality in international cancer research, acknowledging the inequalities in the field's translational capacity. Research in LMICs has frequently led to important advances in cancer science, such as the early Burkitt lymphoma treatment trials in Uganda and the human papillomavirus immunisation trials in Costa Rica. The LMIC groups who contributed to these triumphs have frequently not received the rewards of this progress fairly. Inequities in cancer between high-income countries (HIC) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) also lead to research that fails to take into account the entire scientific worth of studies carried out in LMICs as well as the worldwide burden of disease. Established power imbalances that are frequently related to funding sources can hinder the development of HIC's career and local knowledge. To ensure the translation of research findings, suggestions included multisectoral stakeholder engagement across entire health systems, such as finance and education, as well as proper humility and listening on the part of HIC researchers and funders. Additionally, the chance for two-way information exchange and learning, respecting local knowledge, and developing trust to ensure successful relationships were noted. In turn, successful collaborations and active community involvement were considered as the way to effectively translate and disseminate research findings.

4.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 10(4):679-688, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040523

ABSTRACT

The resurgence of the disease in humans that is very similar to smallpox called monkeypox (MPX) disease, caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV), is the dominant topic of discussion in the scientific and popular press around the world right now. This is taking place as the world celebrates the historic accomplishments made in the fight against the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic MPX is currently thought to pose a risk to the general public's health, particularly in areas with high rates of MPXV infection and close human-wild animal contact. Despite the rarity of MPX outbreaks, they are often caused by human-to-human transmission, especially in households and healthcare settings. Recent decades have seen recurrent outbreaks of the MPX after the smallpox disease was declared eliminated and the consequent cessation of smallpox vaccination programs. MPX has presently spread to several countries throughout the world and posed a global public health emergency, with nearly 45000 confirmed cases in 96 countries and locations, and 12 deaths as of August 24, 2022. Even though this viral illness is thought to be self-limiting, its consequences and feasible pandemic potential seriously jeopardize public health. The main approach to avoiding MPX is to adopt appropriate prevention and control measures, increase awareness of risk factors, and inform the public of the steps they may take to reduce viral exposure. Scientific studies are currently looking at the viability and suitability of the MPX vaccination. This article presents a general introduction to MPXV/MPX along with progress in diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, and prevention and control strategies for tackling this global health emergency.

5.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(11):1373-1378, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040499

ABSTRACT

In order to build a specific, sensitive and rapid detection method for PAstV3 detection, the PAstVB gene sequences in Genbank were used and the conserved region in ORFlb was selected to design specific primers and TaqMan probe. Clinical stool samples were collected and preliminary detected by this newly established real-time RT-PCR method after reaction systems and conditions optimization. This detection method established in this study has a good linear relationship with the standard curve, with R2 value up to 0.9971. The sensitivity is 100 times higher than conventional PCR method, The variation co-efficient of in-batch and inter-batch repeatability test is less than 2.0%, indicating good repeatability. The detection results of Clinical samples showed that the positive rate of this method is higher than conventional PCR method. The establishment of this method provides a rapid detection means for PAstV3 laboratory diagnosis and epidemiological investigation.

6.
Acta Medicinae Universitatis Scientiae et Technologiae Huazhong ; 49(6):737-740, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2040015

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical. features and treatment of ophthalmopathy secondary to EB virus(EBV) infection in children.

7.
Zoonoses ; 2(19), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025752

ABSTRACT

Since the International Health Regulations National Focal Point for the United Kingdom alerted the WHO of ten cases of acute severe hepatitis of unknown etiology in children on April 5, 2022, relevant cases have been reported worldwide. These patients had acute hepatitis (negative for hepatitis viruses A-E) and elevated aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminase (ALT) exceeding 500 U/L. Furthermore, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and/or adenovirus type F41 have been detected in some cases. This unknown hepatitis has been hypothesized to be induced by a viral reservoir of novel coronavirus superantigen, which repeatedly stimulates the intestines and leads to a multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), which causes immune abnormalities in the presence of human adenovirus. Although this hypothesis has not been confirmed by any in vivo experimental or clinical studies, it may provide ideas for possible intervention strategies.

8.
Zoonoses ; 2(20), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025751

ABSTRACT

While the COVID-19 pandemic continues, the world is on high alert regarding the second public health threat of a global monkeypox outbreak. Monkeypox, a relative of smallpox, is a zoonotic disease that was initially restricted to Africa. However, a novel outbreak has occurred in Europe, a non-endemic region, starting in May 2022. In the face of this unprecedented event, people should be aware of several crucial facts regarding monkeypox to support global public health prevention and control of the outbreak, including pathogenetic epidemiological and diagnostic aspects. As the cases outside Africa rapidly increase, including in a large proportion of men who have sex with men, thinking about the potential effects on global public health, as well as the shifting epidemiological trends of monkeypox and the insights from this novel outbreak, will be crucial.

9.
Chinese Journal of Zoonoses ; 38(7):577-581, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2024428

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to develop a rapid diagnostic method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid based on recombinase polymerase amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick (RPA-LFD), to provide technical support for the prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 epidemics in basic hospitals and remote areas. According to the conserved nucleotide sequence of the N gene of SARS-CoV-2, the best recombinase polymerase amplification primers and lateral flow strip probes were designed, analyzed and screened in bioinformatics software. The reaction conditions for recombinase polymerase amplification were optimized, and the sensitivity and specificity of the established method were examined. The RPA-LFD assay for detecting SARS-CoV-2 performed best at 37 degrees C at 15 min. The lowest quantity of SARS-CoV-2 detected in a reaction was 100 fg. No cross-reaction with influenza virus, para-influenza virus, rhinovirus and adenovirus in the RPA-LFD assay was found. Thus, an easily performed, rapid diagnostic method for detecting SARS-CoV-2 with high sensitivity and specificity was established. In conclusion, our preliminary rapid diagnostic method for detecting SARS-CoV-2 with good sensitivity and specificity through RPA-LFD is worthy of further clinical application.

10.
Weekly Epidemiological Record ; 96(44):540-548, 2021.
Article in English, French | GIM | ID: covidwho-2012096

ABSTRACT

This report, which updates previous reports, presents estimates of global, regional, and national vaccination coverage and trends as of 2020. It describes the changes in vaccination coverage and the numbers of unvaccinated and undervaccinated children as measured by receipt of the first and third doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP)in 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic began, compared with 2019. Global coverage estimates with the third dose of DTP (DTP3) and a polio vaccine (Pol3) fell from 86% in 2019 to 83% in 2020. Similarly, MCV1 coverage fell from 86% in 2019 to 84% in 2020. The last year the coverage estimates were at 2020 levels was 2009 for DTP3 and 2014 for both MCV1 and the third dose of Pol (Pol3). Worldwide, 22.7 million children(17% of the target population) did not receive DTP in 2020, compared with 19.0 million (14%) in 2019. Children who did not receive the first DTP dose (DTP1) by age 12 months (zero-dose children) accounted for 95%of the increased number. Among those who did not receive DTP3 in 2020, approximately 17.1 million (75%)were zero-dose children. Global coverage decreased in 2020 compared with 2019 estimates for the completion of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV),and rubella-containing vaccine (RCV). To reach full coverage with all recommended vaccines, tailored strategies will be needed, especially to reach communities with a lot of children who haven't had any or enough vaccines.

11.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 95(9):554-559, 2020.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011448

ABSTRACT

Throughout the course of civilization, epidemics and pandemics have ravaged humanity, destroyed animal breeding and horticulture, and has also changed the course of history. It has been estimated that Justinian plague has affected half of the population of Europe and killed in three pandemics 50 million people, the avian-borne flu (Spanish flu), resulted in 50 million deaths worldwide in the years 1918-1919, and recently the COVID-19 is officially a pandemic, after barreling through 114 countries in just three months. In the past, rinderpest has hit Europe with three long panzootics, African swine fever (ASF), is still a threat to both the swine production industry and the health of wild boar populations. Several molecular changes occur in the pathogen that may trigger an epidemic or even pandemic. These include increase of virulence, introduction into a novel host, and changes in host susceptibility to the pathogen. Once the infectious disease threat reaches an epidemic or pandemic level, the goal of the response is to mitigate its impact and reduce its incidence, morbidity and mortality as well as disruptions to economic, political, and social systems. An epidemic curve shows progression of illnesses in an outbreak over time and the SIR, SI, SIRD and SEIR represent the simplest compartmental models that enable simplify the mathematical modelling of epidemics. This article throws a light on changing ideas in epidemiology of infectious diseases.

12.
Infectious Diseases Now ; 51(8 Suppl), 2021.
Article in French | GIM | ID: covidwho-2010651

ABSTRACT

This proceedings contains s on the proper use of antibiotics, multidrug-resistant infections and new molecules;influenza and COVID-19;osteoarticular infections;and pneumocystis and CMV in the immunocompromised (excluding HIV).

13.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(5):603-609, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994656

ABSTRACT

To establish a J2-KD (knockdown) cell line stably expressing interfered IFITM1 and study the effect of interference with IFITMI gene on the infection of PCV2, PRV and TGEV. Gene cloning tech- niques were used to constructed pLKO. l-EGFP-Puro-IFITMI recombinant vector, which was co-transfected into 293 FT cells with lentiviral packaging plasmids psPAXZ and pMDZ. G to produce green fluorescent protein labeled lentiviruses expression IFITMlshRNA, the viral supernatant was collected at 48 hours after post transfection. J2 cells were infected with the harvested lentiviruses, screened by puromycin and cloned via cell limited dilution. Real-time PCR identify that the cell lines with stable interference with IFITMl gene were obtained, and via MTT method verify that interference with IFITMI expression had no effect on the growth of J2 cells, the successfully constructed J2 stable cell line interfere with IFITMl expression was named as JZ-KD. PRV, PCV2 and TGEV infected J2-KD cells, respectively. Using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR detect virus replication. The results showed that J2-KD cell line was successfully generated with interfered IFITMl expression;the copy number of PCV2 and TGEV were in- creased, while PRV was decreased in J'Z-KD cell. Indicating that the interference of IFITMI gene expression markedly inhibited the replication of PRV while promoted that. of TGEV and PCV2, providing a basis for further study on the function of porcine IFITMI protein and elucidates its antiviral mechanism.

14.
Van Medical Journal ; 29(1):120-127, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994394

ABSTRACT

In historical and prehistoric times, various pathogens from human origin or from animals to humans have affected millions of people as diseases such as plague, smallpox, and tularemia. It is known that epidemic diseases played a role in the historical records on the way to the collapse of the Hittite state. There are many records of epidemics in ancient Greek and Roman states. Geographical discoveries have opened up new opportunities for the spread of diseases. The corona virus epidemic, which emerged in China at the end of 2019 and spread from there to the whole world, was named COVID-19 by the World Health Organization. It causes problems in many parts of the body in addition to the respiratory tract. COVID-19 has become the biggest epidemic of recent years, affecting millions of people. Restrictions against COVID-19 have raised concerns about health problems in people as well as economy. Psychological problems, anxiety and sleep disorders related to decreased sociality have been reported in many studies. Possible problems due to inactivity are areas where more data can be revealed in the future. The purpose of this review is to gather historical information on past outbreaks and present some of the selected effects of the current Covid-19 outbreak on human health.

15.
Van Medical Journal ; 29(1):76-83, 2022.
Article in Turkish | GIM | ID: covidwho-1994393

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to examine the descriptive characteristics of randomized controlled trials published in PubMed on COVID-19 vaccines until May 30, 2021. METHODS: Seventy three articles reached by scanning the keywords "vaccine" and "COVID 19" in the PubMed database were reviewed by researchers, 33 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) related to COVID 19 vaccines were included in the study. According to the 17-item questionnaire created by the researchers, the descriptive features of included studies were examined. RESULTS: The total number of investigative authors in 33 RCT articles published in approximately one and a half years from the outbreak of the pandemic was 946, and the average number of authors per article was 28.67+or-18.56.39.3% of the articles were published in The Lancet and 27.2% in The New England Journal of Medicine. Of the vaccines used in the studies, 36.3% mRNA vaccine, 21.2% Inactivated vaccine, 18.1% Recombinant adenovirus vaccine, 12.1% Chimpanzee adenovirus-based vector vaccine, 6% BCG vaccine. 22.5% of vaccines are Phase 1, 12.9% Phase 2, 19.3% Phase 3, 3.2% Phase 4, 32.3% Phase 1-2, 9%,6 of them are Phase 2-3 studies. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The majority of randomized controlled trials on COVID-19 vaccines are phase 1 and phase 2 trials for mRNA vaccines and inactivated vaccines. Studies have generally been conducted on the adult age group and studies are needed to evaluate the effect of vaccines on the pediatric age group. In studies, the safety of vaccines has been examined more, and there is limited information on efficacy and effectiveness of vaccines.

16.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(4):424-426, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994245

ABSTRACT

In March 2022, a total of 63 infectious diseases were reported globally, affecting 230 countries and regions. Except for influenza, the top five infectious diseases affecting greatest number of countries and regions were COVID-19 (230), dengue fever (32), measles (29), chikungunya fever (10) and cholera (9). The top five infectious diseases with highest case fatality rates were Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (33.3%), Rift Valley fever (20.0%), Lassa fever (18.6%), yellow fever (11.3%) and monkeypox (5.5%). The top five infectious diseases with greatest number of deaths were COVID-19, malaria, measles, cholera and Lassa fever. The prevalent infectious diseases in Asia were COVID-19 and dengue fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in Africa were COVID-19, cholera, yellow fever, Lassa fever, malaria, measles and poliomyelitis, the prevalent infectious diseases in America were COVID-19, dengue fever and chikungunya fever, the prevalent infectious disease in Europe was COVID-19.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; 57(4):917-930, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1975501

ABSTRACT

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a class of key enzymes that regulate epigenetics. There are 5 small-molecule HDACs inhibitors having been approved for anti-cancer therapy on the market. In recent years, there have been more and more studies on the antiviral aspects of HDACs inhibitors. This article classifies viruses into human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and other viruses, systematically summarizes the recent advances of antiviral effects of the HDACs inhibitors from the perspective of medicinal chemistry. This review aims to provide the researchers the convenience of accessing the latest advances of the antiviral effects of HDACs inhibitors, and to analyze the challenges and prospects of this field in future drug discovery.

18.
Bulletin des GTV ; 104:85-92, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1957885

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have a high evolutionary capacity which has led to their very large genetic diversity. Their prevalence in nature is very high and they can infect a wide spectrum of hosts including mammals (including humans) and birds. To date, six porcine coronaviruses have been identified. Two of which were responsible for severe epizootics in pigs with a major impact in the global swine industry in the 60's to 80's for porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus and since the 2010's in China and 2014 in North America for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus. The latter has also become the third most important pathogen for pigs in China after the African swine fever virus and the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. This review summarizes the latest developments in scientific knowledge of these porcine coronaviruses.

19.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ; 93(31-37):31-37, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1935013

ABSTRACT

The informal poultry and pig sector in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa is of significant socio-economic importance as it sustains livelihoods and ensures food security;yet little is known about the distribution and prevalence of infectious and zoonotic diseases in this region. This paper reviews data published for pig and poultry diseases in the province during the last 20 years (2000-2020). The review included relevant published papers identified by a computerised literature search from Web of Science;provincial animal health reports;the national database from the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD);animal health reports submitted by DALRRD to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) via the World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID) interface and laboratory records. A publication was considered eligible if it included qualitative or quantitative information on any disease affecting pigs and poultry including zoonosis. The search retrieved 174 publications, of which 26 were relevant. The review found that Newcastle disease (ND), coccidiosis and fowl pox (FP) were the most reported avian diseases in the national database, whereas avian infectious bronchitis (AIB), ND and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) were the most reported diseases in the OIE database. Classical swine fever (CSF) was the most reported pig disease in both databases. The retrieved literature on pig and poultry diseases was scarce and no longer up to date, providing decision makers with little information. The review identified important zoonotic diseases that require further studies yet failed to find information on important neglected diseases like leptospirosis.

20.
HPS Weekly Report ; 56:26, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1929163

ABSTRACT

On 28 July 2022, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) published a technical report, offering contact tracing guidance to public health authorities in EU and EEA countries which can be utilised during the 2022 monkeypox outbreak. The ECDC note that although monkeypox is not a traditional sexually transmitted infection (STI), the virus takes the opportunities for close-contact transmission wherever they arise. The priority for public health authorities in EU and EEA countries is the early identification and isolation of cases and prompt tracing of their contacts to break the chains of transmission. The collaboration between public health and sexual health professionals, who are already experienced and have established procedures for partner notification for STIs, is critical to ensure that as many close contacts as possible are identified and informed about their exposure. Close collaboration with civil society and community-based organisations is also recommended to build trust in contact tracing strategies and to ensure these strategies and accompanying risk communication is adapted to the affected groups, while minimising stigmatization, as this outbreak is currently circulating largely among men who have sex with men (MSM) with multiple partners. On 2 June 2022, the ECDC and the World Health Organization (WHO) jointly published interim guidance, aimed at providing advice to health authorities on the communication of risks and engagement of groups most affected by the outbreak. The joint report highlighted the need to build trust between authorities and at-risk groups, ensuring timely and consistent health information and advice to broader populations, while using more direct channels to, and engagement with, those at increased risk through two-way communication. With COVID-19 restrictions ending, the number of large gatherings has increased, as has international travel, and in response the ECDC and the WHO jointly published interim advice for public health authorities on summer events during the monkeypox outbreak. Although the focus of the report is monkeypox, much of the advice addresses good public health practices in general, which may help prevent the transmission of several infectious diseases. The guidance includes sections which can be used to formulate advice to business and venue owners and event organisers, as well as participants themselves before, during and after events. In order to raise awareness directly with the group that has been most affected by the current outbreak, that is gay and bisexual men and other MSM, the ECDC partnered with community organisations and public health experts from The Love Tank, Prepster, and MPact, to produce guidance, explaining what precautions people should take and providing useful links with additional information.

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