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1.
Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery ; 18(1 Supplement):84S, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20245371

ABSTRACT

Objective: Is to find out which revascularization methods have less of risk factors and complications after the surgery and long-term period. Method(s): From January 2018 to December 2019 were operated 134 patients with LAD CTO. 48 of them underwent MIDCAB: 36 (75%) males and 12 (25%) females;aged 58.7 +/-8.7;7 (14.6%) with previous diabetes;10 (20.8%) with previous PCI of LAD with drug-eluting stent. In the PCI group there were 86 patients: 52 (60.5%) males and 34 (39.5%) females;aged 64.8 +/-8.3;23 (26.7%) with previous diabetes. Result(s): Hospital mortality was 0 (0%) in MIDCAB unlike 1 (1.2%) in PCI. Myocardial infarction was 0 (0%) in both the groups. In MIDCAB the number of conversions to onpump and sternotomy was 0 (0%), there were 6 (12.5%) pleuritis with pleural puncture and 3 (6.2%) with long wound-aches. The hospitalization period was 10.7+/-2.9 days for MIDCAB and 9.9 +/-3.9 days for PCI. In the PCI group 2.0 +/-1.0 drug-eluting stents were used. In-hospital costs were higher for PCI 3809 unlike 3258 for MIDCAB. After one year in MIDCAB group died 2 (4.2%) patients, from noncardiac causes. In PCI group died 3 (3.5%) patients, all from cardiac causes. Because of pandemic COVID-19 were checked only 48 patients by angiography and general clinical examination: 25 after MIDCAB and 23 after PCI. 5 patients have a graft failure, caused by surgical mistakes. 4 patients have stents restenosis and 1 has LAD's reocclusion. Conclusion(s): Both methods of revascularization for LAD CTO are demonstrated similar results. EuroSCORE II (P = 0.008) and glomerular filtrating rate (P = 0.004) are significant potential risk factors for mortality in both groups, age is potential risk factor for graft failure (P = 0.05). Dyslipidemia is significant risk factor for LAD restenosis in PCI group (P = 0.02). MIDCAB is associated with lower incidence of revascularization repeat and in-hospital mortality in the literature data and it costs lower than PCI for LAD CTO as our study has shown.

2.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 82(Suppl 1):1277, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20244248

ABSTRACT

BackgroundConsideration is needed when using Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors to treat RA in pts aged ≥65 years or those with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. The JAK1 preferential inhibitor FIL was generally well tolerated in clinical trials[1];safety has not been determined in a real-world setting.ObjectivesTo report baseline characteristics and up to 6-month safety data from the first 480 pts treated with FIL in the FILOSOPHY study (NCT04871919), and in two mutually exclusive subgroups based on age and CV risk.MethodsFILOSOPHY is an ongoing, phase 4, non-interventional, European study of pts with RA who have been prescribed FIL for the first time and in accordance with the product label in daily practice. Baseline characteristics and the incidence of select adverse events (AEs) are assessed in pts aged ≥65 years and/or with ≥1 CV risk factor (Table 1), and in those aged <65 years with no CV risk factors.ResultsAs of the end of June 2022, 480 pts had been treated: 441 received FIL 200 mg and 39 received FIL 100 mg. Of the 480 pts, 148 (30.8%) were aged ≥65 years;332 (69.2%) were aged <65 years. In total, 86 (17.9%) were former smokers, 81 (16.9%) were current smokers and 203 (42.3%) were non-smokers (data were missing for 110 pts [22.9%]). In addition to smoking, the most frequent CV risk factors included a history of hypertension (32.3%), a history of dyslipidemia (10.2%) and a family history of myocardial infarction (8.5%;Table 1).23 pts (4.8%) discontinued treatment due to AEs. Of the 354 pts aged ≥65 years or with ≥1 CV risk factor, infections affected 64 pts (18.1%), 34 (9.6%) had COVID-19, 2 (0.6%) had herpes zoster, and cardiac disorders (angina pectoris, atrial fibrillation, palpitations and tachycardia) affected 5 pts (1.4%);no cases of malignancies were observed. In the subgroup aged <65 years and with no CV risk factors (n=126), infections occurred in 18 pts (14.3%) (9 [7.1%] had COVID-19;3 [2.4%] had herpes zoster) and malignancies (myeloproliferative neoplasm) affected 1 pt (0.8%);no pts had cardiac disorders. There were no cases of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism in either subgroup.ConclusionIn this interim analysis of FILOSOPHY, no unexpected safety signals emerged at up to 6 months. Although infections and cardiac disorders affected a numerically greater proportion of pts aged ≥65 years or with ≥1 CV risk vs those aged <65 years with no CV risk, longer follow-up on a broader cohort is necessary to further characterize the safety of FIL in different groups of pts with RA.Reference[1]Winthrop K, et al. Ann Rheum Dis 2022;81:184–92Table 1.Baseline characteristics and CV risk factorsBaseline demographics/CV risk factorsAll FIL-treated pts (N=480)≥65 years or with ≥1 CV risk factor (n=354)<65 years and no CV risk factor (n=126)*Female sex, n (%)351 (73.1)252 (71.2)99 (78.6)Age, years, mean (SD)57.6 (11.5)60.4 (10.8)49.6 (9.6)Rheumatoid factor positive, n (%)†228 (47.5)167 (47.2)61 (48.4)Anti-citrullinated protein antibody positive, n (%)‡243 (50.6)176 (49.7)67 (53. 2)Body mass index, kg/m2, mean (SD)27.6 (5.7) n=43728.0 (5.4) n=33126.3 (6.4) n=106RA disease duration, years, mean (SD)10.4 (9.4) n=47810.5 (9.5) n=35310.0 (8.8) n=125Tender joint count 28, mean (SD)8.6 (6.9) n=4578.7 (7.1) n=3408.3 (6.3) n=117Swollen joint count 28, mean (SD)5.6 (5.2) n=4525.7 (5.4) n=3365.4 (4.4) n=116Former smoker, n (%)§86 (17.9)86 (24.3)0Current smoker, n (%)§81 (16.9)81 (22.9)0Non-smoker, n (%)§203 (42.3)130 (36.7)73 (57.9)Family history of myocardial infarction, n (%)41 (8.5)41 (11.6)0Medical history of: n (%) CV disease33 (6.9)33 (9.3)0 Diabetes35 (7.3)35 (9.9)0 Dyslipidemia49 (10.2)49 (13.8)0 Hypertension155 (32.3)155 (43.8)0 Ischemic CNS  vascular disorders11 (2.3)11 (3.1)0 Peripheral vascular disease17 (3.5)17 (4.8)0*Includes 53 pts with missing smoking status data who were aged <65 years with no other CV risk factors.†Missing/unknown in 154 pts;‡Missing in 153 pts;§Smoking status data missing in 110 pts (22.9%).AcknowledgementsWe thank the physicia s and patients who participated in this study. The study was funded by Galapagos NV, Mechelen, Belgium. Publication coordination was provided by Fabien Debailleul, PhD, of Galapagos NV. Medical writing support was provided by Debbie Sherwood, BSc, CMPP (Aspire Scientific, Bollington, UK), and funded by Galapagos NV.Disclosure of InterestsPatrick Verschueren Speakers bureau: AbbVie, Eli Lilly, Galapagos, Roularta, Consultant of: Celltrion, Eli Lilly, Galapagos, Gilead, Nordic Pharma, Sidekick Health, Grant/research support from: Galapagos, Pfizer, Jérôme Avouac Speakers bureau: AbbVie, AstraZeneca, BMS, Eli Lilly, Galapagos, MSD, Novartis, Pfizer, Sandoz, Sanofi, Consultant of: AbbVie, Fresenius Kabi, Galapagos, Sanofi, Grant/research support from: BMS, Fresenius Kabi, Novartis, Pfizer, Karen Bevers Grant/research support from: Galapagos, Susana Romero-Yuste Speakers bureau: AbbVie, Biogen, BMS, Lilly, Pfizer, Consultant of: Sanofi, Lilly, Grant/research support from: Lilly, MSD, Roberto Caporali Speakers bureau: AbbVie, Amgen, BMS, Celltrion, Eli Lilly, Galapagos, Janssen, MSD, Novartis, Pfizer, Sandoz, UCB, Consultant of: AbbVie, Amgen, BMS, Celltrion, Eli Lilly, Fresenius Kabi, Galapagos, Janssen, MSD, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, Sandoz, UCB, Thomas Debray Consultant of: Biogen, Galapagos, Gilead, Francesco De Leonardis Employee of: Galapagos, James Galloway Speakers bureau: AbbVie, Biogen, Eli Lilly, Galapagos, Gilead, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, UCB, Consultant of: AbbVie, Eli Lilly, Galapagos, Gilead, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, Grant/research support from: AstraZeneca, Celgene, Gilead, Janssen, Medicago, Novavax, Pfizer, Monia Zignani Shareholder of: Galapagos, Employee of: Galapagos, Gerd Rüdiger Burmester Speakers bureau: AbbVie, Amgen, BMS, Chugai, Galapagos, Lilly, Pfizer, Sanofi, Consultant of: AbbVie, Amgen, BMS, Galapagos, Lilly, Pfizer, Sanofi.

3.
HemaSphere Conference: 17th Annual Scientific Conference on Sickle Cell and Thalassaemia, ASCAT Online ; 7(Supplement 1), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232429

ABSTRACT

The proceedings contain 115 papers. The topics discussed include: clinical and genetic predictors of sickle cell nephropathy in Malawi;clinicohematological characteristics of iron deficiency anemia and hemoglobinopathies in Pakistan;an experience of non-hospital based laboratory;assessment of hematological parameters of petrol filling workers at petrol stations in Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional study;burden and risk factor to acute myocardial ischemia in children with sickle cell anemia;dyslipidemia in transfusion-dependent-thalassemia patients and its correlation with serum vitamin D level;impact of COVID-19 pandemic to pre-transfusion hemoglobin level and frequency of transfusion in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients in Indonesia;retinopathy in Egyptian patients with sickle cell disease;and dietary pattern, socio-demographic characteristics and nutritional status of pregnant women attending Barau Dikko teaching hospital and the need to develop recommended dietary allowance and dietary reference intakes for sickle cell disease patients.

4.
Foods ; 12(11)2023 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235825

ABSTRACT

Metabolic syndrome is a complex and multifactorial disorder associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, exacerbated by a sedentary lifestyle and situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Recent studies have shown that consumption of fruits and vegetables high in polyphenols has a protective effect, reducing cardiovascular risk. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) in combination with other plant extracts has recently attracted scientists' attention due to its potential use in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the effects of HS in combination with other plant extracts on the prevention of metabolic syndrome, exploring their synergistic effects and potential as therapeutic agents. For this purpose, a systematic search of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) was conducted in four different databases and the data obtained were then used for a meta-analysis. Initially, the titles and abstracts of 1368 studies were read. From these, 16 studies were examined closely for their eligibility, and finally, seven RCTs with 332 participants were included in both the meta-analysis and the qualitative analysis. Our results show that HS in combination with other plant extracts improved anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and lipid profile (low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol) compared to a placebo control group. It is important to note that although this meta-analysis suggests that HS in combination with other plant extracts may have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular parameters, further research is needed to determine the optimal dose and intake duration.

5.
Semergen ; 49(2): 101874, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328078

ABSTRACT

At least one in three adults has multiple chronic conditions. The assistance of patients with chronic conditions is mandatory. This is one of the main tasks of the primary care physicians. The approach in these patients is challenging, as there are many barriers at different levels (sanitary system, healthcare professionals and patients). In addition, COVID-19 pandemic has worsened this situation even more. Therefore, it is necessary to take actions that try to improve this state. For this purpose, with the aim to find solutions/recommendations that may be helpful to attain a better diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with chronic diseases, a group of experts of SEMERGEN have tried to identify the problems in the attention to these patients, searching for potential solutions and areas of improvement. The present document has specifically focused on four prevalent chronic conditions in primary care: dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, chronic venous disease and depression.

6.
JACCP Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy ; 6(1):53-72, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2321599

ABSTRACT

Comprehensive medication management (CMM) is increasingly provided by health care teams through telehealth or hybrid modalities. The purpose of this scoping literature review was to assess the published literature and examine the economic, clinical, and humanistic outcomes of CMM services provided by pharmacists via telehealth or hybrid modalities. This scoping review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis extension for Scoping Reviews. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included if they: reported on economic, clinical, or humanistic outcomes;were conducted via telehealth or hybrid modalities;included a pharmacist on their interprofessional team;and evaluated CMM services. The search was conducted between January 1, 2000, and September 28, 2021. The search strategy was adapted for use in Medline (PubMed);Embase;Cochrane;Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature;PsychINFO;International Pharmaceutical s;Scopus;and grey literature. Four reviewers extracted data using a screening tool developed for this study and reviewed for risk of bias. Authors screened 3500 articles, from which 11 studies met the inclusion criteria (9 observational studies, 2 RCTs). In seven studies, clinical outcomes improved with telehealth CMM interventions compared to either usual care, face-to-face CMM, or educational controls, as shown by the statistically significant changes in chronic disease clinical outcomes. Two studies evaluated and found increased patient and provider satisfaction. One study described a source of revenue for a telehealth CMM service. Overall, study results indicate that telehealth CMM services, in select cases, may be associated with improved clinical outcomes, but the methods of the included studies were not homogenous enough to conclude that telehealth or hybrid modalities were superior to in-person CMM. To understand the full impact on the Quadruple Aim, additional research is needed to investigate the financial outcomes of CMM conducted using telehealth or hybrid technologies.Copyright © 2022 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

7.
Bahrain Medical Bulletin ; 45(1):1372-1374, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2321501

ABSTRACT

Although case reports have been made regarding adverse transfusion reactions, few have been made regarding blood transfusions leading to cardiac arrest. Today, we present a case of a COVID-19 positive Bahraini male, triple vaccinated, transfused with packed red blood cell (pRBC) after finding out he has low haemoglobin levels (64 g/dl) after routine laboratory investigations. During the blood transfusion, he developed hypertension, tachycardia and tachypnoea. The patient went into cardiac arrest within a few minutes of this presentation. Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved, and the patient was managed as transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) with a good overall outcome.Copyright © 2023, Bahrain Medical Bulletin. All rights reserved.

8.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S2049, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2325173

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Altered mental status (AMS) is a common symptom in patients with liver disease with a wide list of differential diagnoses. Knowledge of etiologies of AMS unique to patients with hepatic dysfunction is vital in order to help recognize, diagnose, and treat the underlying cause in a timely manner. Case Description/Methods: A 46-year-old man with a history of recent COVID infection was transferred to our hospital for further evaluation of acute liver injury and AMS. On arrival, his labs were notable for AST of 408 U/L, ALT of 620 U/L, ALP of 5942 U/L, TB of 11.0 mg/dL, and an INR of 1.1. His work-up included an MRCP that showed segmental biliary ductal dilation with associated restricted diffusion and peribiliary enhancement concerning for sclerosing cholangitis. ERCP revealed a 3cm biliary cast that was removed and noted diffuse rarefaction of ducts throughout the entire biliary tree. A liver biopsy revealed centrizonal cholestasis with portal-based bile ductular reaction and mild bile duct injury. Despite adequate treatment of suspected infection and hepatic encephalopathy, his AMS persisted. His basic metabolic panel (BMP) was notable for Na of 143 mEq/L. A send-out lipid panel that was obtained to work-up his dyslipidemia revealed a total cholesterol of 1018 mg/dL, triglycerides of 420mg/dL, and the presence of lipoprotein X. A venous blood gas (VBG) was obtained showing a Na of 157 mEq/L and serum osmolality was 322 mmol/kg, confirming true hypernatremia. He was slowly treated with hypotonic solutions with significant improvement in his mentation. On follow-up one year later, he has persistent cholestasis and is currently being considered for liver transplant. Discussion(s): The final diagnosis was COVID-related ischemic cholangitis and disappearing bile ducts with persistent cholangiopathy, presenting with severe cholestasis, accumulation of lipoprotein X, and pseudonormonatremia. When faced with severe cholestatic liver disease, clinicians should keep in mind the possibility of accumulation of lipoprotein X and its association with hyperviscosity and spurious electrolyte abnormalities. Clinicians should rely on obtaining blood gas analyses for accurate electrolyte measurement in such cholestatic patients as blood gas analyses utilize direct ion-sensitive electrodes (ISE) to measure electrolytes, whereas routine basic metabolic panels utilize indirect ISE that are liable to spurious results in the presence of hyperlipoproteinemia/lipoprotein X.

9.
Journal of Renal and Hepatic Disorders ; 7(1):2833, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2317777

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis A is a common viral infection worldwide that is transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Since the introduction of an efficient vaccine, the incidence of infection has decreased but the number of cases has risen due to widespread community outbreaks among unimmunized individuals. Classic symptoms include fever, malaise, dark urine, and jaundice, and are more common in older children and adults. People are often most infectious 14 days prior to and 7 days following the onset of jaundice. We will discuss the case of a young male patient, diagnosed with acute hepatitis A, leading to fulminant hepatitis refractory to conventional therapy and the development of subsequent kidney injury. The medical treatment through the course of hospitalization was challenging and included the use of L-ornithine-L-aspartate and prolonged intermittent hemodialysis, leading to a remarkable outcome. Hepatitis A is usually self-limited and vaccine-preventable;supportive care is often sufficient for treatment, and chronic infection or chronic liver disease rarely develops. However, fulminant hepatitis, although rare, can be very challenging to manage as in the case of our patient.Copyright © 2023 The Author(s).

10.
Journal of Cystic Fibrosis ; 21(Supplement 2):S134, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2317116

ABSTRACT

Background: Dyslipidemias and essential fatty acid deficiencies (EFADs) are well established complications of cystic fibrosis (CF). In the general population, a diet high in saturated fat is associated with hyperlipidemia and greater risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Increasing life expectancy in CF brings concern about the risks of the "legacy" high-fat CF diet. The impact of CFTR modulators on CF-related dyslipidemia and EFAD is not known. Previous studies reported dyslipidemia in people with CF (PwCF) using traditional lipid measures. This study aimed to evaluate the lipoprotein and fatty acid profiles in children and adolescents with CF and to correlate biochemical results with clinical and molecular findings. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC) samples were studied to compare the ability of each method to identify EFAD markers. Method(s): Blood samples (n = 171) were obtained from 142 (78 female) children with CF aged 9.8 +/- 4.7 (range 4 months to 18 years) during routine laboratory draws at pediatric CF center clinic visits. Pancreatic insufficiency was present in 92% and glucose intolerance or diabetes in 14%. Body mass index percentile (BMI%ile) for age z-scorewas 0.23 +/- 0.89 (range -2.4-2.6). F508del mutation was homozygous for 56% and heterozygous for 41%. CFTR modulator therapy had been initiated 3 or more months before for 62% of samples. Sample collection began in September 2019, paused during the COVID-19 pandemic, and resumed in July 2021. An accredited, regional laboratory with expertise in fatty acid analysis processed all samples. Serum was separated and refrigerated for lipoprotein analysis, plasmawas separated and frozen, and RBCs were washed and frozen for fatty acid analysis. Nuclear magnetic resonance lipoprotein assayswere conducted to determine particle number and size of lipoprotein classes. Triglyceride, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured directly (Roche). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) were calculated. To correlate laboratory results with clinical findings, medical records were reviewed, and a CF clinic dietitian conducted 24-hour dietary recalls concurrent with study labs. Result(s): Of PwCF homozygous F508del/F508del, 43% tested positive for EFAD biomarkers (RBC linoleic acid, RBC mead acid, RBC triene/tetraene ratio), compared with 13% of PwCF heterozygous F508del ( p <=0.01) (Figure 1). There was no significant difference in concentrations of fatty acid and EFAD biomarkers between those who had or had not initiated CFTR modulator therapy. Lipoprotein abnormalities were identified in 69% of samples with low HDL-C and 39% with large HDL-C, 87% with large VLDL-C particle size and 52% with large VLDL-C particle number, and 5% with high LDL-C or small LDL-C particle numbers. High total cholesterol was found in 15% and high triglycerides in 17%. HDL-C was low in 24%, and 3% had high LDL-C. (Figure Presented) Figure 1. Differences in concentrations of red blood cell (RBC) linoleic and mead acids and triene/tetraene (T/T) ratio between F508del homozygous and F508del heterozygous individuals Conclusion(s): Despite clinical advances and use of CFTR modulator therapy, EFAD remains prevalent and underrecognized in the pediatric CF population. Of PwCF, those homozygous for f508del may have a higher risk of EFAD. Limitations of this study (four different CFTR modulator therapies and small sample sizes in each group) may have precluded significant findings for EFAD and lipid profiles, but PwCF receiving modulator therapy appear to have healthier lipid profiles than those not receiving therapy. Lipids and fatty acid are not routinely evaluated in PwCF, but evaluation should be included in the standard of care for timely dietary interventionsCopyright © 2022, European Cystic Fibrosis Society. All rights reserved

11.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 31(2):287, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2317035

ABSTRACT

Background: The Post-COVID-19 Condition (PCC) is a novel, long-lasting, poorly understood and highly disabling post-viral syndrome, which poses enormous healthcare, economic and socio-political challenges. Lack of validated biomarkers forces clinical management to be based on clinical definitions, which are imprecise. In the clinic, symptoms tend to present in clusters, which have yet to be properly defined. Also, it is unclear how often PCC resolves, and which factors influence PCC resolution. Method(s): To delineate PCC presentation clusters and explore factors related with PCC resolution, we performed a 2-year prospective cohort study in individuals who recovered from acute COVID-19 regardless of its acute and post-acute severity. All subjects were systematically followed in the outpatient post-COVID-19 clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Spain. PCC was defined as per the WHO 2021 definition. Persistent symptoms were those present >3 months after acute COVID-19, and lasting for >2 consecutive months. PCC recovery was the absence of PCC symptoms during >3 consecutive months. Symptom clusters were identified using Gower's distance matrices, dendograms, PCA and Silhouette techniques. Factors associated with PCC recovery were identified using a directed acyclic graph approach. Result(s): 548 subjects were included;341 (62%) had PCC. The latter were mostly females (69.8%) with mean age of 47.9 (SD 12.2) years. Only 38.1% required hospitalization and 9% required high-flow oxygen during acute COVID-19. Their most frequent comorbidities were allergy (31.4%), obesity (24.8%), dyslipidemia (24.0%) and hypertension (19.6%). At least 3 symptom clusters with additive symptoms were identified: considering only symptoms present in >35% of subjects, Cluster A was enriched in fatigue and dyspnea;Cluster B had Cluster A symptoms plus headache, arthralgia and neurocognitive complains;Cluster C had Cluster B symptoms plus chest pain and tachycardia. PCC recovery was achieved by 26 (7.6%) individuals over 2 years. Male sex (RR 3.01;CI 1.4-6.3), ICU admission (RR 7.85;CI 2.6-23.2), metabolic comorbidity (RR 2.07;CI 1.1-4.1), and mild acute COVID-19 (RR 2.70;CI 1.1-4.6) increased the likelihood of PCC recovery. Conversely, subjects with muscle pain, impaired attention, dyspnea, and tachycardia were less likely to recover from PCC (RR 0.26;CI 0.13-0.52). Conclusion(s): At least 3 severity clusters can be identified in the PCC. Over the first 2 years, only a minority of subjects fully recover from PCC.

12.
Neural Regeneration Research ; 18(1):38-46, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2313974

ABSTRACT

Obesity is associated with several diseases, including mental health. Adipose tissue is distributed around the internal organs, acting in the regulation of metabolism by storing and releasing fatty acids and adipokine in the tissues. Excessive nutritional intake results in hypertrophy and proliferation of adipocytes, leading to local hypoxia in adipose tissue and changes in these adipokine releases. This leads to the recruitment of immune cells to adipose tissue and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The presence of high levels of free fatty acids and inflammatory molecules interfere with intracellular insulin signaling, which can generate a neuroinflammatory process. In this review, we provide an up-to-date discussion of how excessive obesity can lead to possible cognitive dysfunction. We also address the idea that obesity-associated systemic inflammation leads to neuroinflammation in the brain, particularly the hypothalamus and hippocampus, and that this is partially responsible for these negative cognitive outcomes. In addition, we discuss some clinical models and animal studies for obesity and clarify the mechanism of action of anti-obesity drugs in the central nervous system.Copyright © 2023 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

13.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314164

ABSTRACT

South Asians (SAs) account for a quarter of the world's population and are one of the fastest-growing immigrant groups in the United States (US). South Asian Immigrants (SAIs) are disproportionately more at risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) than other ethnic/racial groups. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder and is the major cause of CVD. Traditional CVD risk factors, though important, do not fully explain the elevated risk of CVD in SAIs. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are heterogeneous lipoproteins that modify their composition and functionality depending on physiological or pathological conditions. With its cholesterol efflux, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant functions, HDL is traditionally considered a protective factor for CVD. However, its functions can be compromised under pathological conditions, such as chronic inflammation, making it dysfunctional (Dys-HDL). SAIs have a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, which may further promote Dys-HDL. This review explores the potential association between Dys-HDL and CVD in SAIs and presents current literature discussing the role of Dys-HDL in CVD.

14.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 23(1): 57, 2023 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Components of metabolic syndrome can be observed in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). The link between these disorders remains unclear due to the lack of relevant experimental models and the heterogeneity of examined groups. The effect of surgery on metabolic abnormalities is also controversial. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of metabolic parameters in young patients with PHPT. METHODS: One-center prospective comparative study was carried out. The participants underwent a complex biochemical and hormonal examination, a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamps, a bioelectrical impedance analysis of the body composition before and 13 months after parathyroidectomy compared to sex-, age- and body mass index matched healthy volunteers. RESULTS: 45.8% of patients (n = 24) had excessive visceral fat. Insulin resistance was detected in 54.2% of cases. PHPT patients had higher serum triglycerides, lower M-value and higher C-peptide and insulin levels in both phases of insulin secretion compared to the control group (p < 0.05 for all parameters). There were tendencies to decreased fasting glucose (p = 0.031), uric acid (p = 0.044) and insulin levels of the second secretion phase (p = 0.039) after surgery, but no statistically significant changes of lipid profile and M-value as well as body composition were revealed. We obtained negative correlations between percent body fat and osteocalcin and magnesium levels in patients before surgery. CONCLUSION: PHPT is associated with insulin resistance that is the main risk factor of serious metabolic disorders. Surgery may potentially improve carbohydrate and purine metabolism.


Subject(s)
Hyperparathyroidism, Primary , Insulin Resistance , Humans , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/complications , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/surgery , Insulin , Prospective Studies , Insulin Secretion
15.
Practical Diabetes ; 40(2):14-18a, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2291057

ABSTRACT

Aim: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are linked to morbidity, decreased mobility, and feelings of isolation, powerlessness and sadness. The aim of our study was to explore the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in adult patients with DFU. Method(s): We analysed questionnaires completed by patients with DFU attending our University Hospital Multidisciplinary Foot Clinic service over a one-month period in March 2022. The patients had completed three questionnaires, comprising of questions relating to socio-demographic status and care perceptions, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale to assess depression, and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) to assess anxiety. Result(s): Of the 60 patients who completed the questionnaires, 35% (n=21) reported anxiety symptoms and 40% (n=24), depressive symptoms. Individuals with comorbidities were three times more likely to report depression relative to those without any comorbidities (OR 3.3;95% CI 1.13-12.56). Younger individuals (less than 50 years), were almost nine times more likely to report anxiety in comparison to those aged 60 years or more (adjusted OR 8.9;95% CI 1.01-86.41), despite adjustment for confounding variables. Conclusion(s): The prevalence of depression and anxiety in this cohort of patients with DFU was low, but those who were affected reported moderate to severe symptoms. Younger individuals and those with comorbid conditions with DFU are more likely to experience an adverse impact on their mental health. This is a crucial factor to consider in the management of people undergoing DFU care. Strategies to reduce anxiety and/or depressive symptoms could impact both quality of life and wound healing. Copyright © 2023 John Wiley & Sons.Copyright © 2023 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

16.
European Respiratory Journal ; 60(Supplement 66):2430, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2302914

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In the face of the global pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has created, readily available prognostic markers may be of great use. Purpose(s): To evaluate the association between serum magnesium levels (sMg) on admission and clinical outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Method(s): We retrospectively analyzed all consecutive patients admitted to our medical center with a primary de novo diagnosis of COVID- 19.Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were extracted from the electronic medical record. Clinical outcomes were compared between five groups of patients according to the quintiles of sMg on hospital admission. Result(s): From 2,433 consecutive COVID-19 patients during the years 2020-2021, we included 1,522 patients with sMg on admission (1-3 day of hospitalization) (58% male, 69+/-17 years old). Patients were followed for a mean of 10+/-7 months. A low sMg level (1st quintile) was associated with higher rates of diabetes and steroid use, whereas a high sMg level (5th quintile) was associated with dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, andhigher levels of inflammatory markers (Table 1). Both low and high sMg levels were associated with lower oxygen saturation during hospitalization. All-cause in-hospital and long-term mortality was higher in patients with both low and high sMg levels, compared with mid-range sMg levels (2nd, 3rd and 4thquintiles;19% and 30% vs. 9.5%, 10.7% and 17.8% and 35% and 45.3% vs. 23%, 26.8% and 27.3% respectively;p<0.001 for all) (Figure 1). Conclusion(s): Both low and high sMg levels were associated with worse short- and long-term clinical outcomes and all-cause mortality in a large cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Thus, admission sMg levels may play a prognostic role in risk stratificationof COVID-19 patients. (Figure Presented).

17.
Hla ; 101(4):342-343, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2302290

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has aspects on its pathogenesis that still need elucidating and an analysis of clinical and immunogenetic factors in each cohort of patients is paramount to understanding how genetic variability can explain the multiple clinical spectra seen in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this study was to correlate the KIR polymorphism/HLA class I ligand interactions from patients and healthy subjects with either the susceptibility or severity to COVID-19. Genotyping of HLA-A, -B, -C and KIR genes were carried out from 459 symptomatic as well as 667 non-infected Spanish Caucasian individuals using Lifecodes HLA-SSO and KIR-SSO kits (ImmucorTM, USA) and analyzed in the Luminex in this uni-centre case-control study performed at the University Hospital of Salamanca, Spain. Comparative KIR gene analysis showed that KIR2DS4 was significantly more representative in healthy versus infected individuals. When comparing subgroups of infected patients, KIR2DS3 had a higher frequency in those who progressed to a more severity disease and yet with higher mortality rate. Three functional combinations were significant on univariate analysis: KIR2DL2/C1, KIR2DS2/C1, and KIR2DS3/C1. However, in the multivariate analysis, only the KIR2DL2/C1 interaction remained significant (OR = 15.2 (95% CI 1.5-147), p = 0.0189). Compared with the solo-clinical characteristics predictive model, that included well-known comorbidity variables such as hypertension, age, sex, diabetes, C-reactive protein, dyslipidemia, smoking, ferritin, and fibrinogen, the clinical-and-KIR-based model showed a better ability to discriminate between severe and nonsevere patients with higher sensitivity and specificity. Our results support a fundamental role of KIR/ligand interaction in the clinical course of COVID-19. Since the KIR2DL2 gene has a high frequency in Spain (60%), the analysis of the KIR2DL2/C1 in symptomatic patients who require hospitalization could be helpful to better determine their prognosis.

18.
European Respiratory Journal ; 60(Supplement 66):1955, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2301162

ABSTRACT

Background: Growing evidence focuses on the role of hypoalbuminemia in the COVID-19 course and the role of vascular inflammation in the progression to Capillary Leak Syndrome (CLS). CLS may be mediated by a derangement of endothelial barrier following vascular endothelial dysfunction. We investigated the role of cardiometabolic risk factors in the association of hypoalbuminemia with endothelial dysfunction of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Method(s): In this cross-sectional study, patients hospitalized for COVID- 19 at the medical ward or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) were enrolled. Medical history and laboratory examinations were collected while the endothelial function was assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) between the first 24-72 hours of their admission to the hospital. According to the body mass index, history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus, COVID-19 patients were categorized in those with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors (CRFact) or without CRFact (no-CRFact). From the study population, we excluded subjects with established cardiovascular disease. Result(s): Sixty-six patients with COVID-19 (37% admitted in ICU) were recruited. From the study population, 41 were in the group of CRFact and 25 in the no-CRFact. Patients with CFRact were older (65+/-9 years vs. 53+/-14 years, p<0.001), had more impaired FMD (1.16+/-2.13% vs. 2.60+/-2.44%, p=0.01), and lower serum albumin levels (3.10+/-0.68 g/dL vs. 3.52+/-0.26 g/dL, p=0.006) compared to the no-CRFact group. Between CRFact and no-CRFact, there was no difference in CRP and IL-6 levels. Interestingly, serum albumin in patients with CRFact was significantly lower than the lower reference limit (LRL) (=3.5 g/dl) of albumin (p=0.001), while no such finding was noted in subjects with no CRFact (p=0.64). Furthermore, regression analysis revealed that, even after adjustment for age, the presence of CRFact was associated with decreased serum albumin levels by 0.31mg/dl (95% CI 0.08 to 0.63, p=0.04). In the CRFact population, there was a correlation of albumin with FMD (R=0.29, p=0.05) and an inverse correlation with CRP (rho=-0.48, p=0.02) and IL-6 (rho=-0.66, p<0.001), while in the no-CRFact group no such correlation were observed (p=NS for all). Conclusion(s): COVID-19 patients with cardiometabolic risk factors present with low serum albumin levels early at the course of the disease, which may be driven by endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation. This data gives insights into the potential association of a dysfunctional endothelial layer and the progression to capillary leak syndrome. (Figure Presented).

19.
European Respiratory Journal Conference: European Respiratory Society International Congress, ERS ; 60(Supplement 66), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2276329

ABSTRACT

Case History:A 73-year old male patient with Hypertensive Cardiomyopathy, pulmonary emphysema, dyslipidemia,presented to our Pulmonary Department for COVID-19 pneumonia associated with respiratory failure. He was started on medical therapy and high flow oxygen reduced during hospitalization,he was not treated with noninvasive ventilation. During hospitalization,he developed before SPM,showed chest CT scan,and we achieved good results with conservative management, consisting of bed rest with oxygen inhalation or supportive pain control. After ten days,as the patient complained of continued abdominal pain, computed tomography(CT)abdomen was ordered and revealed sigmoid colonic diverticular and intestinal perforation. He underwent to resected sigmoid colon but few days after surgery the patient died. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM),unrelated to positive pressure ventilation and intestinal perforation (IP)have been recently reported as an unusual complications in cases of COVID19 pneumonia. For SPM, the presumed pathophysiological mechanism is diffuse alveolar injury leading to alveolar rupture and air leak, for GP is unclear,the perforation could result from altered colonic motility due to neuronal damage in addition to local ischemia resulting from hypercoagulable state caused by the virus. We present a case of COVID-19 pneumonia complicated both SPM and IP in the same patient,not yet described in literature. On this basis,we believe it is vital to institute SARS-CoV-2 precautions in patients who present with either respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms,therefore high index of suspicion is needed to further manage those patients and,thus,improve their outcome.

20.
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry ; 37(Supplement 1):S76-S77, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2275841

ABSTRACT

Dysregulation of liver enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST) and alaninetransaminase (ALT) are common in CO VID-19 patients. De Ritis ratio (ASTIALT) ratio is a noninvasive, cost-effective test however usefulness of De Ritis ratio in COVID-19 is unclear. Intraindividual variation of AS T and ALT are large leading to misclassification as normal on repeat testing compared to De Ritis ratio which may not be relatively large as predicted by the product of the individual variances. This was a retrospective study which included subject's male and female adults aged 18-50 years. Dyslipidemic, obese, hypothyroid, nephrotic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, pregnant women were excluded from the study. The study aimed to determine the levels of AST, ALT and De Ritis ratio and investigate association of De Ritis ratio between COVID-19 admitted patient's survivors and inhospital mortality in 500patients admitted to ESIC Medical College and Hospital, Faridabad.The De Ritis ratio was significantly lower in survivors than nonsurvivors (median: 0.94;IQR: 0.71-1.2 vs 1.53;IQR: 1.11-2.46,P= .04)whereas no significant differences was seen in ALT and AST concentrations. In ROC Curve analysis, the AUC value of the De Ritis ratio was 0.80(95% CI 0.56 to 0.65, P < 0.0001) with sensitivity and specificity of 70.64% and 70.27%, respectively as compared toAST (0.60) and ALT (0.64).De Ritis ratio along with correlation with inflammatory markers can be used as a significant biomarker in prognosis and management of COVID-19 admitted patients without incurring any additional cost.

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