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1.
Economic Modelling ; : 106147, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165237

ABSTRACT

We estimate the economic impacts of COVID-19 in the U.S. using a disaster economic consequence analysis framework implemented by a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. This facilitates identification of relative influences of several causal factors as "shocks” to the model, including mandatory business closures, disease spread trajectories, behavioral responses, resilience, pent-up demand, and government stimulus packages. The analysis is grounded in primary data on avoidance behavior and healthcare parameters. The decomposition of the influence of various causal factors will help policymakers offset the negative influences and reinforce the positive ones during the remainder of this pandemic and future ones.

2.
Behavioural Processes ; : 104817, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165104

ABSTRACT

Behavioral economic demand models quantify the extent to which an organism defends its consumption of a commodity. Commodity purchase tasks permit humans a quick yet psychometrically sound approach to assessing commodity demand for various retail products. Operant behavioral economic literature suggests economy type (open vs closed) can significantly alter demand, yet this effect is largely undocumented in the commodity purchase task literature. In this study, we leveraged the market pressures for retail goods (hand lotion and sanitizer;paper towels and toilet paper;soda and water) resulting from SARS-CoV-2 into a natural experiment comparing within-subject demand across two time-points during the pandemic using a crowdsourced approach. Results suggest that hypothetical commodity purchase tasks are sensitive to extra-experimental market pressures (e.g., scarcity due to the closing of economies), adding additional confidence to the self-report nature of purchase task responding and providing further construct validity to these approaches.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068512

ABSTRACT

Epidemics represent a threat to human life and economy. Meanwhile, medical and non-medical approaches to fight against them may result in additional economic shocks. In this paper, we examine the economic impact of the 2003 SARS outbreak in China and associated government policies. Although the epidemic caused a substantial economic loss in the short term, the interventions for medical purposes positively impacted the economy of the severely affected regions through the increase in investments such as other fiscal stimuli. There is strong and robust evidence suggesting that the SARS epidemic and its associated countermeasure policies boosted local output by around 4% and industrial production by around 5%. The positive growth was mainly derived from the increase in investment and government activity, especially government expenditure. Besides that, lagged impacts were particularly pronounced to the economic system and lasted for longer even than the epidemic period in a biological sense. We attribute this to the relatively aggressive stance of policymakers in the face of the epidemic situation.


Subject(s)
Epidemics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Humans , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , China/epidemiology , Government , Economic Development
5.
Journal of Small Business Strategy ; 32(4):30-47, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2164875

ABSTRACT

The goals of this study are to explore the use of the Management Control Systems (MCS) by SMEs' managers at the country level in order to identify the importance given to financial and nonfinancial measures, as well as key performance indicators. In this study, we use the behavioral accounting lens and adopt mixed methods approach to study the use of the MCS in Portuguese small to medium enterprises (SMEs): a correlational and a configurational analysis. Data was collected from a cross-sectional survey of 414 top managers of Portuguese SMEs across several industries. The results show that managers' perceptions of the importance given to financial measures is positively and significantly related to the importance given to several nonfinancial measures. We take an original approach by addressing the managers' perceptions to contribute to the understanding of Portuguese SMEs' use of tools for strategy implementation: the use of different MCS. Additionally, the study discovers alternative configurations of individual and organizational conditions that lead to the managers' perception of the importance given to financial and nonfinancial measures. This paper offers support for SMEs based on controlling strategy implementation by using MCS. The study's limitations regard a relatively low response rate to the questionnaire (4.56%), which may be justified because data was collected during the COVID-19 pandemic. We offer alternative configurations that generate the perception of managers about the importance of using financial and nonfinancial measures. Our results enlighten the use of such tools in support of strategic accomplishment.

6.
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal ; 24(10), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2164664

ABSTRACT

Background: The covid-19 pandemic has affected the health insurance industry in numerous ways.

7.
Management : Journal of Contemporary Management Issues ; 27(2):109-128, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2164624

ABSTRACT

Globalna kriza koronavirusa vodila je prema radikalnoj transformaciji obrazovnog sustava. Obrazovne institucije su morale prihvatiti metode on-line podučavanja zbog obvezne izolacije i smanjenja ekonomske aktivnosti. On-line učenje je predstavljalo iznenadenje te izazov, kako za sveučilišta, tako i za studente. Da bismo analizirali učinkovitost on-line učenja, na Ekonomskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Prištini, u razdoblju od prosinca 2021. do ožujka 2022., proveli smo 500 anketa. Procijenili smo čimbenike, koji uključuju motivaciju za on-line učenje, uvjete kod kuće, motivaciju za dodatno čitanje te razinu suradnje izmedu studenata za vrijeme pandemije COVIDA-19. Navedeni su čimbenici korišteni za procjenu učinkovitosti on-line učenja. U mjerenju učinkovitosti on-line učenja, mjerili smo iskustvo studenata s on-line učenjem prije pandemije, spremnost studenata za daljnjim akademskim obrazovanjem u budućnosti, ohrabrivanje od strane profesora na aktivnost, količinu aktivnosti za vrijeme on-line učenja te želju za nastavkom on-line obrazovanja u budućnosti. Na temelju prikupljenih podataka, koristili smo metodu modeliranja strukturnih jednadžbi (Structural Equation Modelling - SEM), koja pokazuje da su rezultati značajni, ali da je učinkovitost on-line učenja niska. Ovo će istraživanje pomoći u identificiranju izazova, s kojima se studenti suočavaju za vrijeme on-line učenja uslijed izolacije te na koji način navedeno djeluje na holističku učinkovitost on-line učenja.Alternate :The global coronavirus crisis led to a radical transformation of the education system. Educational institutions had to switch to virtual teaching methods due to mandatory isolation and the decline of economic activity. Online learning was a surprise and a challenge for both universities and students. To analyze the effectiveness of online learning, we conducted 500 surveys from December 2021 to March 2022 at the Faculty of Economics, University of Prishtina. We assessed factors such as motivation for online learning, home conditions, motivation to read more, and the level of collaboration between students during the Covid-19 pandemic. These factors were used to determine the effectiveness of online learning. In measuring the effectiveness of online learning, we measured students' experience with online learning before the pandemic, students ' willingness to pursue additional academic levels in the future, professors ' encouragement to be active, work done during online learning, and desire to practice online education in the future. Based on the collected data, we applied a structural equation model (SEM), which shows that the results are significant, but the effectiveness of online learning is low. The research will help to identify the challenges students face during online learning due to their isolation and how this affects the holistic effectiveness of online learning.

8.
Revista de Management Comparat International ; 23(4):560-572, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2164565

ABSTRACT

According to the European Parliament, the EU is facing a major energy crisis, triggered on the one hand by natural gas shortages and on the other by the explosive rise in energy prices. In this context, the aim of this paper is to identify the requirements of the final energy consumer and the opinions on energy produced from renewable sources (E-RES) and to analyze the factors influencing investments in E-RES. In order to achieve the proposed goal, the following objectives were formulated: objective 1 - review of the literature on investments in renewable energy;objective 2 - to establish the implications generated by the Russian-Ukrainian conflict on the activity of the energy sector;objective 3 - evaluation of the contribution of green certificates (CV) in stimulating the production of green energy;objective 4 - identify the end consumer's perspective on the transition from conventional to renewable energy sources.

9.
Revista de Management Comparat International ; 23(4):525-539, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2164564

ABSTRACT

On the post-pandemic work scene there is an increased desire of flexibility and individual job design. As such, the purpose of present endeavour is to grasp a better understanding of the phenomena, by performing a scientific evolution analysis, in the business management research field. To navigate through significant number of publications and to visually present the current state of research, trends and future research directions, a sophisticated bibliometric analysis has been implemented. We opted to merge relevant findings from Scopus and Web of Science databases with the help of in-house developed R programming language code, enabled within RStudio. The collated results were further analysed with the help of VOSviewer software and revealed an intellectual distribution map and a geographical influence map in academic research on job crafting in busine ss and management.

10.
International Journal of Business and Economic Development (IJBED) ; 10(2), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2164545

ABSTRACT

Multiple financial institutions are struggling to survive in the current business environment, due to the challenges that arose due to outbreak of COVID 19 and subsequent economic contraction in Namibia. The outbreak of war in Ukraine where Russia is attacking Ukraine has made the business operating environment more challenging in Namibia. The contemporary economic challenges require different types of leadership that are able to accurately assess the business environment, and then initiate innovative and creative approaches to addressing them. This research was motivated by the need to explore a leadership style that would be able to help banks to cope with the harsh business environment and also to suggest innovative approaches and strategies that could lead to profitability and competitiveness of the banking sector in Namibia. The study employed a quantitative research approach to analyse the relationship between leadership style and bank profitability and competitiveness. Four branches were selected in Namibia from two regions, to take part in the study, with a population of 164 employees and management. A sample size that represented more than 60% of the population was selected utilizing, using a stratified sampling method. The data analyses were done usingKruskal Wallis Test and the Mann-Whitney Test, as well as the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis.The findings of the study demonstrated that bank profitability and competitiveness in Namibia was linked to leadership styles such as transformational leadership and authentic leadership. The study also noted that organizational style can improve by embracing transformational and authentic leadership style. The study recommended that financial institutions must invest more in developing leadership styles that can lead to more productivity and profitability.

11.
International Journal of Innovation and Economic Development ; 8(4):28-36, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2164423

ABSTRACT

The tourism development is running rapidly in line with the increase in people's income which shifts from the lower class to the middle class which has a positive impact on the tourism development, both natural tourism, maritime tourism, as well as rural tourism which has become a trend of tourist visits so as to improve the community's welfare. Although the conditions of the Covid-19 pandemic era, the tourism sector has decreased, but in line with government policies that have opened the tourism sector with strict of health protocol so that tourism able to operate again with strict of health protocol requirements. Development of rural tourism based on local culture and a sustainable environment by involving stakeholders, namely local communities, government and the private sector who can participate in increasing tourism, especially in rural areas. The population in this study is all parties of Small and Medium Enterprises or communities in rural tourism in Lerep Village and Kandangan Village, Semarang District. Those sample are amount 54 people and sampling techniques, namely purposive sampling and analysis techniques by using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) Partial Least Square or PLS. This study aims to build tourism activity during covid 19 conditions by using the Theory of Competitive Advantage and Resource Based View (RBV), this study applies 2 Hypotheses, namely Hypothesis 1 explains a positive and significant influence of Local Community involvement on Sustainable Rural Tourism, and Hypothesis 2 explains a positive and significant influence between Sustainable Rural Tourism on Competitive Advantage.

12.
Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics ; 63(2):104-125, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2164321

ABSTRACT

Daily variations in government bond yields and foreign exchange spot rates for 46 countries on FOMC meeting days show that the influence of U.S. monetary policy surprises intensified after the financial crisis. Keywords: financial crisis, monetary policy, interest rates, exchange rate JEL Classification Codes: E43, E52, F31 I. Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic forced the Federal Reserve (Fed) to cut the Fed Funds rate to zero and launch a new round of quantitative easing (QE). Using daily variations in government bond yields and foreign exchange spot rates for 46 sample countries on FOMC meeting days, I find that the global influence of U.S. monetary policy surprises intensified after the financial crisis: When taking into account exchange rate regimes (hard pegs, soft pegs, managed float, and free float), I find that free-floating arrangements lead to the larger responses to U.S. monetary policy surprises.

13.
International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies ; 13(10), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2164297

ABSTRACT

The implementation of robotics in agriculture is influenced by objective reasons, including a shortage of personnel in the industry, especially during the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic. In Russia, the use of robots in agriculture is very irregular across the federal districts. The largest number of robots is used in agriculture in the Central Federal District - 184 units, the Volga Federal District - 95 units and the Urals Federal District - 68 robots. The study aims to identify the dependence of the use of robotics in agriculture in the federal districts of Russia, considering their socio-economic characteristics. It has been established that in the federal districts with traditionally developed agriculture and a high share of agriculture in GDP, the number of robots is decreasing and there is a technological lag. The highest correlation coefficient of 0.73 is observed between animal productivity and the number of used robots. This allows making the conclusion that agricultural economic entities aim to reduce the payback period for robotization projects and thus reduce risks. To make conditions for the implementation of robotics, it is proposed to use agricultural growth corridors (agro-corridors) and agro-clusters.

14.
Frontiers in Environmental Science ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2163005

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the interaction between the accessibility of various urban public facilities and the price of urban space by analysing the influence of urban hospitals and rail accessibility on housing prices. In recent years, with the development of social civilisation and the influence of COVID-19, people have become increasingly interested in the quality of hospitals in their living environment. This makes medical convenience (hospital accessibility) a crucial element in determining housing prices. At the same time, people regard rail as one of the important means to access hospitals. Therefore, demonstrating the intrinsic value of accessibility to hospitals and rail in residential areas is essential. As a point of reference, this paper presents an empirical analysis of Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China, a city in a developing nation with relatively widespread access to hospitals during a significant rail construction period. The study demonstrates the interaction between hospital and rail accessibility and their moderate influence on housing prices, which is geographically heterogeneous. The study also determines the optimal metric model for assessing geographical interaction based on the significance and stability of the interaction in geographic space. It concludes with a discussion of the findings and social recommendations. Copyright © 2022 Chen, Lin, Cao, Han, You, Shyr, Lu and Huang.

15.
Frontiers in Environmental Science ; 10(August), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2163004

ABSTRACT

Cibodas village is one of the villages in the regency of West Bandung, which shows potential for agrotourism and a creative economy. However, the dynamic environmental changes in the post-COVID-19 era have presented challenges to developing these economic potentials. Therefore, creating a model to develop agrotourism and a creative economy in Cibodas village is necessary. This study aims to create a system dynamics model with a causal loop diagram (CLD) based on the village innovation system framework to develop the agrotourism-creative economy in Cibodas village. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches are used to identify the main variables and to develop and review the CLD. The quantitative approach provides researchers with three main variables that must be involved in the study, namely, the general innovation infrastructure, specific industrial clusters, and intermediation. The three variables are interrelated and form a CLD. The formed CLD was further explored with a qualitative approach in the form of an in-depth interview and focus group discussions (FGDs) with several key informants: the Head of the Agronative Cooperative, the Head of Cibodas Village, and the Regency Tourism and Culture Office (Disparbud) of West Bandung. Based on the results of the scenario for the existing conditions for a 24-month period, it was found that the innovation infrastructure variables had increased by 10.94% and the intermediation variables had increased by 0.22%. The simulations were carried out by increasing the intermediation intervention twice as much as that of the existing conditions. Hence, the innovation infrastructure variables increased by 18.01% and the intermediation variables increased by 0.05%. Cibodas village would take advantage of these R & D products to help its creative economy actors produce more products having a high-selling value. Moreover, by employing this strategy, they could also help their creative economy actors increase the absorption of an innovation to have such a high competitiveness.

16.
Zagreb International Review of Economics & Business ; 25(s1):31-44, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2162852

ABSTRACT

This paper analyses household financial fragility during the COVID-19 pandemic. Considering the barging theory in households' decision-making, this paper proposes that women's financial literacy and their involvement in paid and unpaid work will influence family financial fragility in times of crisis. The results show that women's financial literacy, their participation in the labour market, and their financial independence have a significant and positive effect on the family's financial situation during the pandemic. Moreover, the level of women's unpaid work was identified as a significant element that jeopardizes family financial stability. The results further support the bargaining power theory regarding a better understanding of the complexity of decision-making within households. The results point to a new channel for preserving family financial stability, through the improvement of women's financial literacy and the development of institutional and social support for their participation in the labour market.

17.
Society and Economy ; 43(3):192-207, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2162668

ABSTRACT

The paper presents a comprehensive overview of the public health system in the separatist Trasnistrian region of Moldova, an analytically unorthodox undertaking, as this entails looking at the health system of a fragile breakaway state-like entity, a set of circumstances that — rather inevitably, it seems — may define certain basic features of the health system at hand. Attention will be dedicated to outlining the main challenges the region's public health system faces, for instance, concerning the spread of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and SARS-CoV-2. Studying the impact of the coronavirus pandemic can especially serve as a litmus test of the available capacities in Transnistria to deal with public health challenges: facing a novel pathogen, and the related disease and epidemic which threaten to overburden the local institutions. A key question examined here, through the example of Transnistria, is the degree to which international support to the region and the increasing cooperation with the internationally recognized state of Moldova are indispensable for public health security in the unrecognized state.

18.
Society and Economy ; 43(3):208-226, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2162667

ABSTRACT

How China will contribute to global governance has become a critical question in international relations, amplified by the linkages between the Covid-19 pandemic, escalating geopolitical contest and multilateralism in crisis. China has been doubling down on its authoritarian model of domestic governance while becoming more internationally assertive, including in existing and new multilateral institutions. Meanwhile, the United States appeared in recent years to be undermining the institutions, norms and rules of the liberal international order that it, itself, built. The subsequent decline in international cooperation poses grave risks to public health, economic and other forms of security. Can China cooperate with other actors to contribute public goods and stabilisation of global governance in such a deteriorating international environment? While there is a wide range of institutions in which to examine China's growing role in international governance, from United Nations bodies such as the World Health Organisation and World Trade Organisation to regional initiatives such as the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, this paper examines the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), an example of Chinese innovation in multilateralism. Established amidst geopolitical contest, the new institution seeks to address the Asian deficit of financing for sustainable development. The bank challenges a number of prevailing norms, including replacing the disproportionate power of the US and the advanced economies in the multilateral system with a more proportionate role for China and other developing countries;a new focus on infrastructure-led development which is built on Chinese confidence in the East Asian development model;and a shift away from the Bretton Woods practices of using financing conditions to drive liberal democratic and neo-liberal economic reforms. At the same time as representing a challenge to the traditional order, the bank exhibits – at least to date – best practices in implementation and addresses previously unmet concerns of the developing world. While it is not possible to extrapolate from only one initiative to draw comprehensive conclusions about China's likely future role in global governance, the AIIB case nonetheless suggests that, at least in some fields, China will challenge liberal norms to reform rather than revolutionise the international order.

19.
International Journal of Technology Intelligence and Planning ; 13(2):127-142, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2162618

ABSTRACT

The Fourth Industrial Revolution - Industry 4.0 (I-4.0) provides innovators new commercial promise and challenges. For the first time, service-based disruptive technologies are included as harbingers of the Schumpeterian economic industrial waves. The strategic, tactical, and operational importance of disruptive technologies and their resultant discontinuous innovations that underpin a new industrial wave are game-changing for state, regional, national, and global economies. However, there are always barriers, both technical and social, to new technology product adoption. The COVID-19-induced industry forcing function has created a ‘low-touch economy', changing business action and creating a new normal. We focus on the challenges to the realisation of I-4.0. We use the internet of things (IoT) as our exemplar. IoT is the first service-based technology to support an industrial revolution. It challenges the traditional view of how firms compete. It is creating wealth and jobs and is an agent of societal transformation. Copyright © 2022 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

20.
Energy and Environment ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2162115

ABSTRACT

Investigating the current and future dynamics of energy consumption in modern economies such as the UK is crucial. This paper predicts the UK's energy consumption using data spanning January 1995 to March 2022 by comparing and evaluating the forecast performance of machine learning, dynamic regression, time series and combination modelling techniques. The analysis reveals that the seasonal ARIMA and TBATS hybrid models yield the lowest forecast errors in predicting the UK's electricity and gas consumption. Although the combination forecasts performed poorly relative to other models, machine learning techniques such as neural network and support vector regression produced better results compared to the dynamic regression models, whereas the seasonal hybrid model performed better than the machine learning and time series models. The results indicate that the UK's electricity consumption would either stabilise or decline over the forecast horizon, suggesting that it will take some years for electricity consumption to attain pre-2019 levels. For gas consumption, the results indicate that consumption would either maintain current levels or increase over the forecast period. We also show that combination forecasts do not often generate the best predictions, and therefore, choice of methodology matters in energy consumption forecasting. Overall, changing seasonal patterns, energy efficiency improvements, shift to renewable sources and uncertainties due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Brexit, and the Russia–Ukraine crisis appear to be significant drivers of energy consumption in the UK in recent times. These findings are expected to help in designing more effective energy policies as well as guide investor decisions in the energy sector. © The Author(s) 2022.

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