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1.
Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1885424

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has posed a tremendous threat to the public and health authorities. Wuhan, as one of the cities experiencing the earliest COVID-19 outbreak, has successfully tackled the epidemic finally. The main reason is the implementing of Fangcang shelter hospitals, which rapidly and massively scale the health system's capacity to treat COVID-19 confirmed cases with mild symptoms. To give insights on what degree Fangcang shelter hospitals have contained COVID-19 in Wuhan, we proposed a piecewise smooth model regarding the patient triage scheme and the bed capacities of Fangcang shelter hospitals and designated hospitals. We used data on the cumulative number of confirmed cases, recovered cases, deaths, and data on the number of hospitalized individuals in Fangcang shelter hospitals and designated hospitals in Wuhan to parameterize the targeted model. Our results showed that diminishing the bed capacity or delaying the opening time of Fangcang shelter hospitals, both would result in worsening the epidemic by increasing the total number of infectives and hospitalized individuals and the effective reproduction number Re(t)$$ {R}_e(t) $$. The findings demonstrated that Fangcang shelter hospitals avoided 17,013 critical infections and 17,823 total infections while it saved 7?days during the process of controlling the effective reproduction number Re(t)<1$$ {R}_e(t)<1 $$. Our study highlighted the critical role of Fangcang shelter hospitals in curbing and eventually stopping COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China. These findings may provide a valuable reference for decision-makers in regarding ramping up the health system capacity to isolate groups of people with mild symptoms in areas of widespread infection.

2.
J Mass Spectrom Adv Clin Lab ; 25: 27-35, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885932

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Remdesivir (GS-5734) is a nucleoside analog prodrug with antiviral activity against several single-stranded RNA viruses, including the novel severe respiratory distress syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is currently the only FDA-approved antiviral agent for the treatment of individuals with COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2. However, remdesivir pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) and toxicity data in humans are extremely limited. It is imperative that precise analytical methods for the quantification of remdesivir and its active metabolite, GS-441524, are developed for use in further studies. We report, herein, the first validated anti-viral paper spray-mass spectrometry (PS-MS/MS) assay for the quantification of remdesivir and GS-441524 in human plasma. We seek to highlight the utility of PS-MS/MS technology and automation advancements for its potential future use in clinical research and the clinical laboratory setting. Methods: Calibration curves for remdesivir and GS-441524 were created utilizing seven plasma-based calibrants of varying concentrations and two isotopic internal standards of set concentrations. Four plasma-based quality controls were prepared in a similar fashion to the calibrants and utilized for validation. No sample preparation was needed. Briefly, plasma samples were spotted on a paper substrate contained within pre-manufactured plastic cassette plates, and the spots were dried for 1 h. The samples were then analyzed directly for 1.2 min utilizing PS-MS/MS. All experiments were performed on a Thermo Scientific Altis triple quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing automated technology. Results: The calibration ranges were 20 - 5000 and 100 - 25000 ng/mL for remdesivir and GS-441524, respectively. The calibration curves for the two antiviral agents showed excellent linearity (average R2 = 0.99-1.00). The inter- and intra-day precision (%CV) across validation runs at four QC levels for both analytes was less than 11.2% and accuracy (%bias) was within ± 15%. Plasma calibrant stability was assessed and degradation for the 4 °C and room temperature samples were seen beginning at Day 7. The plasma calibrants were stable at -20 °C. No interference, matrix effects, or carryover was discovered during the validation process. Conclusions: PS-MS/MS represents a useful methodology for rapidly quantifying remdesivir and GS-441524, which may be useful for clinical PK/PD, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), and toxicity assessment, particularly during the current COVID-19 pandemic and future viral outbreaks.

3.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):333, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880925

ABSTRACT

Background: Antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDT) for SARS-CoV-2 are an inexpensive diagnostic tool with fast turnaround times. Ag-RDTs in combination with measures to reduce contact rates after a positive test result can reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Understanding when and in what settings Ag-RDTs can best be utilized to reduce transmission is critical for resource allocation. Here, we used a suite of mathematical models to quantify the impact of SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDT testing strategies on COVID-19 outcomes in a variety of use-cases. Methods: Our analysis synthesized the results from eight mathematical models from different modeling groups to assess the potential impact of Ag-RDT testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection across multiple use cases: (a) community testing, (b) mass gatherings, (c) K-12 schools (kindergarten to 12th grade/high school, or primary/secondary education), (d) universities, (e) border crossings, and (f) testing to exit quarantine. We calculated two outcomes relative to the status quo in each use case: (1) impact: the percent and number of infections averted and (2) efficiency: the number of tests required to avert one infection. We investigated the impact of different epidemic conditions including effective reproductive number (Rt) and COVID-19 prevalence, and the frequency of testing (for community testing, K-12 schools, and universities). Results: Different use cases require varying testing strategies to reduce infections most efficiently and effectively across a range of epidemic conditions, with some global trends. Overall, there were tradeoffs with impact and efficiency. Across use cases, increasing test frequency (and/or more testing) was associated with greater percentage of infections averted. However, lower testing frequency was generally more efficient. In the community testing and university use cases, testing was most effective and efficient when Rt and/or infection prevalence was low but for border crossings testing was most effective and efficient when Rt and/or infection prevalence were high (Table 1). Conclusion: The optimal timing of the intervention depends on whether one is trying to maximize effectiveness or efficiency, and on the use case itself. For a robust understanding of total community-level impact and cost-effectiveness, future work should aim to assess the combined impact of interventions through a single model that can consider all use-cases.

4.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 14(11): 4624-4633, 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879716

ABSTRACT

Since the late 2020, the evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern has been characterized by the emergence of spike protein mutations, and these variants have become dominant worldwide. The gold standard SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis protocol requires two complex processes, namely, RNA extraction and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). There is a need for a faster, simpler, and more cost-effective detection strategy that can be utilized worldwide, especially in developing countries. We propose the novel use of direct RT-qPCR, which does not require RNA extraction or a preheating step. For the detection, retrospectively, we used 770 clinical nasopharyngeal swabs, including positive and negative samples. The samples were subjected to RT-qPCR in the N1 and E genes using two different thermocyclers. The limit of detection was 30 copies/reaction for N1 and 60 copies/reaction for E. Analytical sensitivity was assessed for the developed direct RT-qPCR; the sensitivity was 95.69%, negative predictive value was 99.9%, accuracy of 99.35%, and area under the curve was 0.978. This novel direct RT-qPCR diagnosis method without RNA extraction is a reliable and high-throughput alternative method that can significantly save cost, labor, and time during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-338255

ABSTRACT

Background. Human behavior, economic activity, vaccination, and social distancing are inseparably entangled in epidemic management. This study aims to investigate the effects of various parameters such as stay-at-home restrictions, work hours, vaccination and social distance on the containment of pandemics such as COVID-19. Methods. To achieve this, we developed an agent-based model based on a time-dynamic graph with stochastic transmission events. The graph is constructed from a real-world social network. The graph's edges have been categorized into three categories: home, workplaces, and social environment. The conditions needed to mitigate the spread of wild-type (WT) COVID-19 and the delta variant have been analyzed. Our purposeful agent-based model has carefully executed tens of thousands of individual-based simulations. We propose simple relationships for the trade-offs between effective reproduction number (Re), transmission rate, work hours, vaccination, and stay at home restrictions. Results. For the WT, it has been found that a 13% increase in vaccination impacts the reproduction number, like the magnitude of decreasing nine hours of work to four and a single day of stay-at-home order. For the delta, 16% vaccination has the same effect. Also, since we can keep track of household and non-household infections, we observed that the change in household transmission rate does not significantly alter the Re. Household infections are not limited by transmission rate due to the high frequency of connections. For COVID-19's specifications, the Re depends on the non-household transmissions rate. Conclusions. Vaccination and transmission reduction are almost interchangeable. Without vaccination or teaching people how to lower their transmission probability significantly, changing work hours or weekend restrictions will only make people more frustrated.

6.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-338032

ABSTRACT

Nigeria currently reports the second highest number of cholera cases in Africa, with numerous socioeconomic and environmental risk factors. Less investigated are the role of extreme events, despite recent work showing their potential importance. To address this gap, we estimated time varying reproductive number (R) from cholera incidence in Nigeria and used a machine learning approach to evaluate its association with extreme events (conflict, flood, drought) and pre-existing. vulnerabilities (poverty, sanitation, healthcare). We then created a traffic-light system for cholera outbreak risk, using three hypothetical traffic-light scenarios (Red, Amber and Green) and used this to predict R. The system highlighted potential extreme events and socioeconomic thresholds for outbreaks to occur. We found that reducing poverty and increasing access to sanitation lessened vulnerability to increased cholera risk caused by extreme events (monthly conflicts and the Palmers Drought Severity Index). The work presented here shows the need for sustainable development for disaster prevention and mitigation and to improve health and quality of life.

7.
Asia Pacific Journal of Educators and Education ; 36(2):205-231, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1876342

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 saw the rapid adoption of fully online higher education (HE) academic programmes across the world. With the likely post-pandemic return to on-campus education, online learning in some form is expected to continue. It is apparent also that globally, students’ mindsets about online learning have changed during the pandemic period. It is thus timely to investigate the potential of blended learning (BL), a hybrid form of online and faceto- face education, as a pedagogical approach for HE in the future worldwide. As academic staff are instrumental in implementing effective HE pedagogical approaches, this study explored the academic staff’s views and practices with BL. The study implemented the qualitative case study approach, and the in-depth interview method was applied with eight academic staff representing different departments in a Singaporean higher education institution. Thematic analysis on the qualitative data gathered in accordance with the study’s foci elicited inputs about the academic staff’s BL understandings, usage and impacts, as well as challenges and suggestions for enhancing BL in HE. The findings revealed the academic staff’s positive BL perceptions, sound understandings, and strong experience with various digital tools. From this sound foundation, the staff interviewees made suggestions for developing effective BL practices which apply for HE in the future. The study’s important implication is that the findings are relevant and valuable in the situation where, post the pandemic, HE adjusts for students return to campuses where BL is likely to replace the face-to-face education. Importantly, these suggestions form the elements of a BL ecosystem that includes policy, infrastructure, training and evaluation and demonstrates flexibility for the ecosystem’s application to both the Singaporean context and to effective HE BL design globally post the pandemic. © Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2021.

8.
International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications ; 13(4):916-924, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1876222

ABSTRACT

Garbage collection is a responsibility faced by all cities and, if not properly carried out, can generate greater costs or sanitary problems. Considering the sanitary situation due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it is necessary to take sanitary safety measures to prevent its spread. The challenge of the present work is to provide an efficient and effective solution that guarantees a garbage collection that optimizes the use of resources and prioritizes the attention to garbage containers located in or near contagion risk zones. To this end, this research proposes the integration of a basic garbage monitoring system, consisting of a wireless sensor network, and a route planning system that implements the decomposition of the Vehicle Routing problem into the subproblems of clustering and sequencing of containers using the K-Means and Ant Colony algorithms. For the monitoring of garbage, a significant reduction in the measurement error of waste level in the containers was achieved compared to other authors. About route planning, adequate error ranges were obtained in the calculation of the optimal values of distance traveled and travel time indicators with respect to an exhaustive enumeration of routes. © 2022. All Rights Reserved.

9.
International Journal of Technology Transfer & Commercialisation ; 19(1):69-82, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1875149

ABSTRACT

To enhance good experience of students it becomes important to understand the student's perception of online teaching and learning. The outbreak of COVID-19 was unexpected and it forced universities to launch live online programs. MOOCS and various other platforms have enhanced the student experience which is more involving, flexible, cost and time saving. This study aims to assess the students experience in online learning, and identify the components and activities they expect in an online learning environment. The study identifies critical success factors of effective online environment to find their priorities for success in online learning. Data from 500 students were collected from different courses taught online during COVID-19 crisis of various universities of higher education in India. The study is descriptive in nature. The results of the study would improve the online learning environment, help the higher education institutions develop quality online learning content and provide effective delivery which is more engaging. This also benefits society at large even after the COVID-19 pandemic.

10.
1st International Conference on Technologies for Smart Green Connected Society 2021, ICTSGS 2021 ; 107:4987-4998, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874787

ABSTRACT

The speed with which the COVID-19 pandemic has spread is astounding, but the global response is based on lessons learned from earlier sickness outbreaks in recent years. In a human test immunization study, solid volunteers are given a test antibody and afterward intentionally presented to the life from making the sickness check whether the antibody works or not. Nonetheless, there are significant moral contemplations that should be tended to especially for another infection like COVID-19, which perhaps not yet completely comprehend as yet it tends to figure out how to treat. It could be hard for the clinical local area and expected volunteers to appropriately appraise the possible dangers of taking an interest in a COVID-19 human test study. The investigation is completed utilizing managed AI calculations where it has been attempted to foresee the yield with greatest exactness. © The Electrochemical Society

11.
International Review of Financial Analysis ; 82, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1873095

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates the directional causal relationship and information transmission among the returns of West Texas Intermediate (WTI), Brent, major cryptocurrencies, and stablecoins by drawing on daily data from July 2019 to July 2020. Applying effective transfer entropy, a non-parametric statistic, the results show that the direction of the causal relationship and the nature of information spillovers changed after the COVID-19 pandemic. More precisely, our findings reveal that WTI and Brent are leading the prices of Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash. Conversely, Bitcoin futures and stablecoins (TrueUSD and USD Coin) are leading WTI and Brent prices. In addition, the stablecoin Tether became a leader against Brent prices after the pandemic, although it is still following WTI prices. Moreover, Ethereum and USD coin preserved their position as leaders against Brent prices. Interestingly, our results also reveal that Ethereum, Litecoin, and Ripple preserved their position as leaders of WTI prices. The change in the nature of directional causality and the spillover effect after the COVID-19 crisis provide valuable information for practitioners, investors, and policymakers on how the ongoing pandemic influences the connection and network correlation among the energy, cryptocurrency, and stablecoin markets. © 2022 Elsevier Inc.

13.
Mier-Journal of Educational Studies Trends and Practices ; 12(1):171-183, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1870355

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the effectiveness of techno-pedagogical skills of secondary school teachers in their online teaching. A sample consists of 42 CBSE and ICSE secondary school teachers. The research adopts a descriptive survey design for collecting data using the ???Techno-Pedagogical Skill Assessment Scale??? developed by Sibichen (2011). Structured interviews also formed a part of data collection. The results reveal a moderately positive correlation between techno-pedagogical skills and effective online teaching. There is a significant difference between the high level and low level of techno-pedagogical skills of secondary school teachers with their effective online teaching. The positive impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the techno-pedagogical skill of secondary school teachers is reported in the study.

14.
Mathematical Modelling of Natural Phenomena ; 17:20, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1868030

ABSTRACT

We develop a new data-driven immuno-epidemiological model with distributed infectivity, recovery and death rates determined from the epidemiological, clinical and experimental data. Immunity in the population is taken into account through the time-dependent number of vaccinated people with different numbers of doses and through the acquired immunity for recovered individuals. The model is validated with the available data. We show that for the first time from the beginning of pandemic COVID-19 some countries reached collective immunity. However, the epidemic continues because of the emergence of new variant BA.2 with a larger immunity escape or disease transmission rate than the previous BA.l variant. Large epidemic outbreaks can be expected several months later due to immunity waning. These outbreaks can be restrained by an intensive booster vaccination.

15.
Journal of Technology and Science Education ; 12(1):259-273, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1862990

ABSTRACT

During the current emergency of Pandemic disease of Covid-19, the importance of online learning strategy has much increased due to closure of schools, colleges and universities in most part of the globe. To evaluate the effectiveness of online learning, a statistical study has been conducted on the academic achievements of postgraduate students learned by online versus face-to-face learning modes. The statistical analysis of academic achievements of postgraduate students has been done by SPSS-20 statistical tool. The t-test analysis showed that the t-value was 0.549 and p-value was 0.583. The significance level for t-test analysis was 0.05. As, the p-value was more that 0.05 (p>0.05) so, no significant relation has been found in the academic achievements of the students learned by online and face to face modes of learning. The null hypothesis (Ho) was proved true and the alternative hypothesis (H1) rejected. The reasons for no significant relation were abruptly shifting of learning modes from face to face to online, slow working of LMS accounts due to over burden, login and voice problems during the online classes. Overall, the students performed better in the online modes of learning. Some students performed good in face-to-face learning and performed poor in online modes of learning. So, to generalize, it is necessary to do more research on online modes of learning under regional context. © 2022

16.
Signa Vitae ; 18(3):18-32, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1856565

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the worst public health crises in Brazil and the world that has ever been faced. One of the main challenges that the healthcare systems have when decision-making is that the protocols tested in other epidemics do not guarantee success in controlling the spread of COVID-19, given its complexity. In this context, an effective response to guide the competent authorities in adopting public policies to fight COVID-19 depends on thoughtful analysis and effective data visualization, ideally based on different data sources. In this paper, we discuss and provide tools that can be helpful using data analytics to respond to the COVID-19 outbreak in Recife, Brazil. We use exploratory data analysis and inferential study to determine the trend changes in COVID-19 cases and their effective or instantaneous reproduction numbers. According to the data obtained of confirmed COVID-19 cases disaggregated at a regional level in this zone, we note a heterogeneous spread in most megaregions in Recife, Brazil. When incorporating quarantines decreed, effectiveness is detected in the regions. Our results indicate that the measures have effectively curbed the spread of the disease in Recife, Brazil. However, other factors can cause the effective reproduction number to not be within the expected ranges, which must be further studied. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Signa Vitae is the property of Pharmamed Mado Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

17.
Math Comput Simul ; 194: 1-18, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851738

ABSTRACT

This manuscript describes a mathematical epidemiological model of COVID-19 to investigate the dynamics of this pandemic disease and we have fitted this model to the current COVID-19 cases in Italy. We have obtained the basic reproduction number which plays a crucial role on the stability of disease free equilibrium point. Backward bifurcation with respect to the cure rate of treatment occurs conditionally. It is clear from the sensitivity analysis that the developments of self immunities with proper maintaining of social distancing of the exposed and asymptomatic individuals play key role for controlling the disease. We have validated the model by considering the COVID-19 cases of Italy and the future situations of epidemicity in Italy have been predicted from the model. We have estimated the basic reproduction number for the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy and effective reproduction number has also been studied. Finally, an optimal control model has been formulated and solved to realize the positive impacts of adapting lock down by many countries for maintaining social distancing.

18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 121: 195-202, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851259

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Because of the spread of the Omicron variant, many countries have experienced COVID-19 case numbers unseen since the start of the pandemic. We aimed to compare the epidemiological characteristics of Omicron with previous variants and different strains of influenza to provide context for public health responses. METHODS: We developed transmission models for SARS-CoV-2 variants and influenza, in which transmission, death, and vaccination rates were taken to be time-varying. We fit our model based on publicly available data in South Africa, the United States, and Canada. We used this model to evaluate the relative transmissibility and mortality of Omicron compared with previous variants and influenza. RESULTS: We found that Omicron is more transmissible and less fatal than both seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza and the Delta variant; these characteristics make Omicron epidemiologically more similar to influenza than it is to Delta. We estimate that as of February 7, 2022, booster doses have prevented 4.29×107 and 1.14×106 Omicron infections in the United States and Canada, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the high infectivity of Omicron will keep COVID-19 endemic, similar to influenza. However, because of Omicron's lower fatality rate, our work suggests that human populations living with SARS-CoV-2 are most likely.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/pathogenicity , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States/epidemiology
19.
Air Qual Atmos Health ; 15(5): 825-835, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850417

ABSTRACT

A radon survey was carried out in 18 high schools located in Tenerife Island when anti-pandemic strategies were used to reduce COVID-19 dissemination during 2021. High schools were located in radon-prone areas previously identified by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council. Our results showed that 12 high schools presented radon activities lower than 100 Bq/m3, 5 high schools presented values in the range 100-200 Bq/m3, and only 1 high school presented radon activity concentration higher than 200 Bq/m3. Such values are below the reference level (300 Bq/m3) recommended by the Spanish legislation in the Basics Document of Health Standards (section HS6) of the Technical Building Code and the European Union directive (2013/59/EURATOM). Assuming an indoor occupancy time of about 1620 h per year, the annual dose contribution due to indoor radon exposure ranged from 0.07 to 1.18 mSv/year. Comparing such result against previous values reported in the literature on the island of Tenerife, we conclude that during the pandemic situation the indoor radon concentration (median valued) was reduced from 130.9 (2007) to 73.5 (2021) Bq/m3. Finally, continuous indoor radon concentration measurements were obtained to study short-time fluctuations (intra-day changes) under different ventilation conditions.

20.
Journal of Turkish Science Education ; 19(1):180-193, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1848149

ABSTRACT

One of the obstacles that occur in Chemistry learning is low student motivation due to monotonous media. Another thing that currently becomes an obstacle is the Covid-19 pandemic which limits face-to-face learning. However, Chemistry practicum learning in the laboratory is difficult to carry out at students' homes. The purpose of the study is to develop a virtual laboratory, the validity and effectiveness of which are measured, to increase students' understanding and motivation in Chemistry, the topic of exothermic and endothermic reactions. The 4D model is used in the development of learning media in the form of a virtual laboratory. The validity of virtual laboratory products is confirmed by media experts and material experts in their fields. Product effectiveness was measured using a posttest-only control group design with two groups of students involving 63 students. Data collection was carried out through questionnaires, tests, and interviews, with descriptive analysis for the results of validation of the learning media and pilot test and t-tests for testing the effectiveness of virtual laboratories. The results showed that the virtual laboratory is easy to use and has feedback at the end of the practicum simulation so that the virtual laboratory can be applied as a valid and effective learning media in increasing student understanding and motivation © 2022. Journal of Turkish Science Education.All Rights Reserved.

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