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1.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 839(37), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1973036

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the hematological profile and specific immunity of laying hens with the addition of oil extracts of lycopene or astaxanthin to the diet. The study used High Line W36 chickens that were vaccinated against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, avian rhinotracheitis and egg drop syndrome. It was found that the addition of lycopene (20 mg/kg) and astaxanthin (10 mg/kg) for 30 days did not affect the hematological profile of laying hens. Increasing the content of lycopene to 40 and 60 mg/kg or astaxanthin to 20 or 30 mg/kg of feed for 30 days reduced the number of leukocytes and hemoglobin in the blood compared to the control, which received an equivalent amount of refined sunflower oil in the diet. Lycopene and astaxanthin supplements, regardless of dose and duration of administration, did not affect the titer of antibodies to Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, avian rhinotracheitis, and egg drop syndrome in serum of vaccinated laying hens. The obtained data can be used to justify the optimal dose and term of feeding of lycopene or astaxanthin supplements in the development of a model of carotenoid enrichment of chicken egg yolks.

2.
Journal of Food Distribution Research ; 53(1):5-6, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904813

ABSTRACT

The American Rescue Funds Program seeks improvements to infrastructure, capacity, and diversification in meat and poultry processing, with clear prioritization of increased competition via small- and medium-sized processing facilities. The need to euthanize animals at a time when retailers were rationing meat sales was one of several examples of market failures during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture estimated the disruptions to agricultural meat, poultry, and egg production at $15 billion based on CFAP and CFAP2 payments. Marani et al. (2021) estimate the probability of a repeat event at 1% to 2% per year, justifying the use of these public funds to add surplus capacity and infrastructure to mitigate disruptions in case of recurrence. Economics of scale are modest beyond slaughter of more than 125 head per hour in beef plants and 2,000 head per day in pork plants (Duewer and Nelson, 1991;Ollinger, MacDonald, and Madison, 2005). Dozens of such "medium-sized" U.S. pork and beef processing plants have survived since 2000, typically relying upon niche market connections. Given historic processing plant construction costs for medium-sized plants (Aherin, 333333 2021) and an assumed 20% USDA grant to incentivize construction, a $100 million expenditure on each of the beef and pork plants creates an opportunity to add as much as 5% additional capacity for each species, easing current capacity as the industries prepare for local and export growth. Whether producer-ownership of capacity can generate stability and additional benefits in the supply chains is of key interest. Models of producer ownership-including cooperatives and carefully structured LLCs-allow livestock producers to capture processing margins and remove some of the price uncertainty around live animal prices to the plant and producer. It follows, too, that producer-ownership can therefore reduce the ability of existing larger plants to poach supply from medium-sized plants during the crucial startup phase and ensure that plants run at optimum capacity. A significant portion of the additional capacity added to the pork industry in the last 15 years exhibited some form of producer ownership. Anecdotally, the pork and beef sectors may be moving away from commodity production and into systems that maintain animal identity from farm to consumer. Producers have an opportunity to capitalize on this shift by collectively investing in medium-sized plants with the ability to preserve identity and be more responsive to evolving consumer preferences. An overarching concern is of the need to maintain capacity into the future and the potential of existing packers to acquire this subsidized capacity should medium sized processing fail.

3.
21st International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference: Ecology, Economics, Education and Legislation, SGEM 2021 ; 21:401-409, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1903778

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has imposed shocks on all segments of food supply chains, simultaneously affecting farm production, food processing, transport and logistics and final demand. It is therefore important to assess the risks, the probability of their occurrence and their impacts in order to develop risk mitigation recommendations. In Latvia, poultry farming as an agricultural industry has centuries-old traditions. Poultry in Latvia are produced both on large poultry farms and on small and backyard farms. There are 21 large and medium laying hen egg producers in Latvia;however, 96% of the total poultry are concentrated on four farms. There are six producers of processed eggs and egg products in Latvia. Therefore, the aim of the present research is to examine the egg production and processing sector and analyze the risks caused by the Covid-19 pandemic in the sector and develop recommendations for their reduction in Latvia. The research identified 40 risks in the egg production and processing sector based on the methodology developed: 26 internal and 14 external risks, assessed the probability and impacts of their occurrence and, based on interviews with entrepreneurs involved in the sector, developed different level recommendations for stabilizing the situation in similar occasions as well as strengthen the resilience of the sector after the crisis. © 2021 International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference. All rights reserved.

4.
Avian Pathol ; 51(3): 244-256, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873688

ABSTRACT

To achieve long term protection of laying and breeding hens against aberrant egg production caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a vaccination programme incorporating both live-attenuated and inactivated IBV vaccines is required. High quality IBV vaccines of both types are widely available, but the number of IBV variants of global importance continues to increase and it is not possible to develop vaccines against each one of them. Therefore, it is desirable to perform studies under controlled conditions to determine which IBV vaccine(s) provide the best protection for laying hens against different IBV challenges. Previous vaccination and challenge studies have shown that it is possible to obtain relevant data in a small number of laying hens housed under conditions of strict isolation. The present work extends this finding by investigating the efficacy, against challenge with five IBV strains of global importance, of an IBV vaccination programme including two live-attenuated IBV vaccines (Massachusetts and 793B types) and three different commercially available inactivated vaccines each containing antigen against at least one IBV strain. The results reported here confirm the importance of IBV vaccination for laying hens, show that efficient live priming makes a beneficial contribution to this protection and confirm that inactivated IBV vaccines contribute significantly to effective protection against at least the five IBV challenge strains used here. Furthermore, we provide data to support the "protectotype concept", long-established using different live-attenuated IBV vaccines in young chickens, is valid in broadening protection against IBV challenges in laying birds.RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTSIBV vaccination is essential as an aid in protecting laying hens against IBV infection.Live priming is a beneficial part of the IBV vaccination programme.IBV inactivated vaccine improves IBV protection.Heterologous IBV protection is confirmed in laying hens.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Female , Vaccination/veterinary , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, Inactivated
5.
Journal of Veterinary Clinical Pathology ; 15(59), 2021.
Article in Persian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841817

ABSTRACT

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and highly contagious disease of the upper-respiratory tract caused by the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The virus is a member of the Coronaviridae family and has numerous serotypes and strains. Rapid replication combined with high mutation rate and recombination are the main causes of the observed high diversity. Feed conversion and average daily gain are affected in broilers, and infection is often followed by secondary bacterial infections. In layers, IBV causes a reduction in egg production. Today, IB is one of the most economically important diseases in the poultry industry. Transcriptional profiles of trachea tissue of the infected group (IBV) were studied with control group to evaluate changes in transcriptome profile at the early stages of infection. After the challenge of SPF chickens with IBV IS-1494 like (GI-23), the trachea tissue was used for RNA extraction, and changes in the transcriptome were investigated by Illumina RNA-seq technique. Up-regulated and down-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the transcriptome of trachea were identified. Gene ontology category, KEGG pathway were analyzed to identify relationships among differentially expressed genes. In general, the numbers of up-regulated genes were higher than of down-regulated genes in experimental group. In the experimental group, a more severe immune response occurred;an important up-regulated genes in this group's was Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, apoptotic pathway, MAPK signaling pathway. Results of this study could provide a general overview of transcriptome changes in the trachea at the early stage of infection with avian infectious bronchitis (IBV) virus.

6.
Comptes Rendus de l'Acad..mie d'Agriculture de France ; 106(1):74-75, 2020.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1743911

ABSTRACT

This article presents the performance of livestock and poultry farmers in France highlighting their competitiveness in the global market in terms of import, export, and domestic production of meat, milk and poultry products. Also highlighted are measures taken by local livestock producers to cope with the constraints due to Covid-19.

7.
Avian Dis ; 64(2): 149-156, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892406

ABSTRACT

Infection of the oviduct by an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in laying hens has been associated with the false layer syndrome. Because the diagnostic procedure for the detection of cystic oviducts by postmortem examinations in IBV-positive replacement pullet flocks could involve the unnecessary sacrifice of numerous healthy pullets without reproductive tract anomalies, the development of a noninvasive and nonlethal diagnostic procedure would be desirable. The first objective of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a transcutaneous ultrasonography method to predict the presence of cystic oviducts compared to postmortem examinations in a commercial pullet flock positive for an IBV genotype Delmarva (DMV) variant. The second objective was to evaluate the performance of the same ultrasonography method to later detect false layers in the same flock in sexually mature hens by identifying the presence of an egg in the oviduct due to the presence of atretic oviducts undetectable by ultrasonography and the absence of cystic oviducts at that age. In replacement pullets, the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the ultrasonography (index test) compared to the postmortem examination (reference standard test) were 73% and 91%, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 67% and 93%. The ultrasonography technique showed a positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 7.82 and a negative likelihood ratio (LR-) of 0.30. In sexually mature hens, the Se, Sp, PPV, and NPV of the ultrasonography compared to the laying status were 98%. The LR+ was 49.00 and the LR- was 0.02 when compared to the laying status. In conclusion, the ultrasonography could replace postmortem examinations to detect cystic oviducts in commercial flocks of replacement pullets previously infected with an IBV-DMV 1639 variant. Although the test accuracy of ultrasonography was excellent for the hens at production peak to identify laying and nonlaying hens based on the presence of an egg in the reproductive tract, its practicality was limited due to atretic oviducts being not detectable.


Precisión diagnóstica de la ultrasonografía para detectar gallinas falsas ponedoras en una parvada comercial infectada por un virus de la bronquitis infecciosa genotipo Delmarva que causa oviductos quísticos. La infección del oviducto por el virus de bronquitis infecciosa (IBV) en gallinas de postura se ha asociado con el síndrome de la falsa ponedora. Debido a que el procedimiento de diagnóstico para la detección de oviductos quísticos mediante exámenes post mortem en parvadas de pollitas de reemplazo positivas para bronquitis infecciosa podría involucrar el sacrificio innecesario de numerosas pollitas sanas sin anomalías del tracto reproductivo, por lo tanto es deseable el desarrollo de un procedimiento de diagnóstico no invasivo y no letal. El primer objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la precisión diagnóstica de un método de ultrasonografía transcutánea para predecir la presencia de oviductos quísticos en comparación con los exámenes post mortem en un lote comercial de pollitas que resultó positivo para una variante del genotipo Delmarva (DMV) del virus de la bronquitos infecciosa. El segundo objetivo fue evaluar el desempeño del mismo método de ultrasonografía para detectar posteriormente gallinas falsas en la misma parvada en las gallinas sexualmente maduras mediante la identificación de la presencia de un huevo en el oviducto debido a la presencia de oviductos atrésicos indetectables por ultrasonografía y la ausencia de oviductos quísticos a esa edad. En las pollitas de reemplazo, la sensibilidad (Se) y la especificidad (Sp) de la ultrasonografía (prueba de índice) en comparación con el examen post mortem (prueba estándar de referencia) fueron de 73% y 91%, respectivamente. El valor predictivo positivo (VPP) y el valor predictivo negativo (VPN) fueron 67% y 93%. La técnica de ultrasonografía mostró una razón de probabilidad positiva (LR+) de 7.82 y una razón de probabilidad negativa (LR­) de 0.30. En las gallinas sexualmente maduras, la Se, Sp, PPV y NPV de la ultrasonografía en comparación con el estado de postura fueron del 98%. El LR + fue 49.00 y el LR­fue 0.02 en comparación con el estado de la postura. En conclusión, la ultrasonografía podría reemplazar los exámenes post mortem para detectar oviductos quísticos en parvadas comerciales de pollitas de reemplazo previamente infectadas con una variante DMV-1639 del virus de la bronquitis infecciosa. Aunque la precisión de la prueba de la ecografía fue excelente para las gallinas en el pico de producción para identificar gallinas ponedoras y no ponedoras en función de la presencia de un huevo en el tracto reproductivo, su funcionalidad fue limitada debido a que los oviductos atrésicos no fueron detectables.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Cysts/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/isolation & purification , Poultry Diseases/diagnosis , Ultrasonography/veterinary , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cysts/virology , Female , Oviducts/virology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Ultrasonography/statistics & numerical data
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