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1.
Bioscientia Medicina ; 5(10):949-952, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1836513

ABSTRACT

Background: Delirium is a common condition in geriatric patients. One of the trigger factors for this condition is an infection, such as COVID-19 infection. Elderly with COVID-19 show atypical symptoms such as delirium. Elderly patients with COVID-19 who present with delirium, either as a primary symptom or showing symptoms or signs, have a poor prognosis. This study were aimed to presents covid-19 elderly patient with comorbid delirium. Case presentation: A 77-year-old woman with disorientation for one day came to Emergency Department with her family. She had no history of headaches, blurred vision, or seizures. However, she had a fever, did not want to eat for three days, and had a purulent decubitus ulcer. The patient was diagnosed with acute delirium syndrome, confirmed COVID-19 with sepsis, malnutrition, hypercoagulation, grade III decubitus ulcer, suspected dementia, immobilization, total dependence. The patient admitted to the isolation ward. The patient had meropenem 500 mg every 12 hours, anticoagulants and favipiravir according to the dose and parenteral nutrition.

2.
Geodetski Vestnik ; 66(1):33-48, 2022.
Article in Slovenian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1836042

ABSTRACT

We analysed data on the weekly mortality of seniors aged 65 and older in the member states of the EU27. We aimed to model normal mortality in the time before covid-19 and use this model to analyse the deviations of true values from model predictions in the time after the emergence of covid-19. We used linear regression with autocorrelated errors to model normal mortality, which shows seasonality with increased mortality during the winter months. In the time before covid-19 deviations above three sigma occurred regularly, but deviations above five sigma were rare. In contrast, we detected deviations above five sigma in all but three member states after the emergence of covid-19. The member state with the most extreme deviation was Spain (32 sigma), the member state with the longest continuous deviation above five sigma was Czechia (25 weeks), and the member state with the highest excess mortality was Slovakia (12.8 deaths per 1000 seniors). We attempted to explain differences in extreme deviations with multivariate linear regression analysis. Extreme deviations were lower in member states with higher health care expenditure in euros per inhabitant. © 2022, Zveza Geodetov Slovenije. All rights reserved.

3.
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea ; 37(8):19-29, 2021.
Article in Korean | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1835531

ABSTRACT

Since the 2020 coronavirus pandemic, many elderly people have been infected in elderly care facilities, so there is a very high demand for preventing the spread of infectious diseases in elderly care facilities. In this study, as one of the measures to suppress mass cross-infection in the elderly care facility, it was attempted to derive appropriate area standards for the residents' living space. The study targets the living units of nursing homes for the elderly with 30 or more people, and the study was conducted through domestic and international standards review, infectious disease management guidelines, facility visits, and interviews with related staffs working in elderly care facilities. As a result of the study, it was found that the optimized size of the living unit is 16 people or less, and it is necessary to install an isolation room for each living unit and a special bedroom for each nursing unit. The floor area of the bedroom is 35.4㎡ (8.9㎡/person) for a 4-bed room, 27.7㎡ (9.2㎡/person) for a 3-bed room, 22.2㎡ (11.1㎡/person) for a 2-bed room, and 13.0㎡ for a single bedroom. The common living room is used by all members of the living unit in normal, but when infectious diseases are spread, it is necessary to secure at least 2.3㎡/person on the premise that half of the elderly people in a unit uses this living area simultaneously in consideration of social distancing and density. These area standards were calculated in consideration of the elderly life, provision of nursing care services, and infection control, and can be used to improve the building standards of elderly care facilities. © 2021 Architectural Institute of Korea.

4.
Public Administration and Policy ; 25(1):13-24, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1831709

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The aim of this paper is to argue for the values of familial caring and relationships in addition to the provision of social media technology during the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong.Design/methodology/approach>The discussion of this paper has adopted an inter-disciplinary approach by integrating health care system and psychological analysis, based on cultural philosophical argument through the hermeneutic approach of classical texts and critical analysis.Findings>The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the dilemma between the public health measures for COVID-19 and sustaining elderly social psychological health through familial connection. From a Confucian perspective, the practice of filial piety (xiao, 孝), which demands taking care of parents, is essential for one’s moral formation, and for one’s becoming a virtuous (ren, 仁) person. The necessity of taking care of elderly parents by adult children is not something that can be explained in terms of consequentialism. Indeed, the rising trend of instrumental rationality seems to weaken rather than strengthen the sense of filial obligation. In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic which tends to separate connections between family members, the author argues that we should emphasize the values of familial caring and relationship because it enhances the elderly’s characteristic of resilience.Originality/value>This paper shows that while social media technology has mitigated the negative effect of social distancing, such online relationships should never replace the bodily connections between the elderly and their family members from a Confucian perspective.

5.
Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society ; 22(3):618-630, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1831604

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This study aims to analyze the well-being experience of home care workers regardless of the service management model. It also aims to analyze their emotional experiences of their activity and working conditions.Design/methodology/approach>This study, using a mixed qualitative and quantitative analysis, allows a combined analysis for a better understanding of the well-being experience of home care workers.Findings>Home care workers experience intrinsic job satisfaction and demonstrate this with positive emotions regardless of their work situation.Practical implications>Caring for the carer should be a business value. Measures oriented toward workers’ comfort generate greater happiness and commitment, which is automatically transferred to the quality of the care provided and reduces the psychosocial risks of their professional activity.Social implications>Visualizing the social reality of an essential profession through research generates verifiable evidence that will help to improve the working conditions of home care workers in Spain.Originality/value>To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this pioneering study in Spain introduces a greater understanding of how home care workers in Spain experience their work reality.

6.
Access Microbiology ; 4(3), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1831588

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emerged as a global health crisis in 2020. The first case in India was reported on 30 January 2020 and the disease spread throughout the country within months. Old persons, immunocompromised patients and persons with co-morbidities, especially of the respiratory system, have a more severe and often fatal outcome to the disease. In this study we have analysed the socio-demographic trend of the COVID-19 outbreak in Nagpur and adjoining districts.

7.
Tehran University Medical Journal ; 79(9), 2021.
Article in Persian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1824225

ABSTRACT

Background: Age is a strong risk factor for increasing the risk of severity and death from Covid-19. The risk of hospitalization for Covid-19 disease increases with age. Since the elderly constitute a large proportion of Covid-19 patients, the present study was performed to evaluate the severity of the disease in the hospitalized elderly due to Covid-19 and the delay in hospitalization and death resulting from it, for better disease management .

8.
Journal of Organizational and End User Computing ; 34(6):22, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1822481

ABSTRACT

This study focuses on the restorative effects of immersive virtual reality (VR) forest experiences on elderly people during the COVID-19 lockdown. A field experiment with 63 elderly participants was conducted in an elderly care institution in China. The results showed that a five-minute VR forest experience with three minutes of subsequent reliving can bring immediate psychological improvements (i.e., increased positive affect, decreased negative affect, and enhanced stress recovery) to elderly individuals. The negative affect decrease and stress recovery enhancement were more obvious among introverted individuals. Furthermore, participating in three VR forest experiences over three consecutive days can bring continuous psychological improvements. Moreover, short VR forest experiences were unable to significantly decrease the blood pressure of participants. The effects of three VR experiences over three days on blood pressure improvement were also nonsignificant. Additionally, VR forest experiences can increase elderly participants' intentions to undertake real forest therapy.

9.
Vaccines ; 10(4), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822466

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to be a worldwide health issue. Among hemodialysis (HD) patients, two-dose immunization schemes with mRNA vaccines have contributed to preventing severe COVID-19 cases;however, some have not produced a sufficient humoral response, and most have developed a rapid decline in antibody levels over the months following vaccination. This observational, prospective, multi-center study evaluated the humoral response in terms of presence and levels of IgG antibodies to the receptor-binding domain of the S1 spike antigen of SARS-CoV-2 (anti-S1-RBD IgG) to the third dose of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines, either the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) or BNT162b2 (Pfizer), in 153 patients from three dialysis units affiliated to Hospital Clínic of Barcelona (Spain). Most hemodialysis patients responded intensely to this third vaccine dose, achieving the seroconversion in three out of four non-or weak responders to two doses. Moreover, 96.1% maintained the upper limit or generated higher titers than after the second. BNT162b2 vaccine, active cancer, and immunosuppressive treatment were related to a worse humoral response. Every hemodialysis patient should be administered a third vaccine dose six months after receiving the second one. Despite the lack of data, immunosuppressed patients and those with active cancer may benefit from more frequent vaccine boosters.

10.
NeuroImage: Clinical ; 34, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1821425

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common neuropathological finding and clinical entity that occurs independently and with co-existent Alzheimer's disease (AD) and small vessel disease. We compared diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics of the fornix, the primary efferent tract of the hippocampus between CAA, AD and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and healthy controls. Methods: Sixty-eight healthy controls, 32 CAA, 21 AD, and 26 MCI patients were recruited at two centers. Diffusion tensor images were acquired at 3 T with high spatial resolution and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) to suppress cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and minimize partial volume effects on the fornix. The fornix was delineated with deterministic tractography to yield mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AXD), radial diffusivity (RD), fractional anisotropy (FA) and tract volume. Volumetric measurements of the hippocampus, thalamus, and lateral ventricles were obtained using T1-weighted MRI. Results: Diffusivity (MD, AXD, and RD) of the fornix was highest in AD followed by CAA compared to controls;the MCI group was not significantly different from controls. FA was similar between groups. Fornix tract volume was ∼ 30% lower for all three patient groups compared to controls, but not significantly different between the patient groups. Thalamic and hippocampal volumes were preserved in CAA, but lower in AD and MCI compared to controls. Lateral ventricular volumes were increased in CAA, AD and MCI. Global cognition, memory, and executive function all correlated negatively with fornix diffusivity across the combined clinical group. Conclusion: There were significant diffusion changes of the fornix in CAA, AD and MCI compared to controls, despite relatively intact thalamic and hippocampal volumes in CAA, suggesting the mechanisms for fornix diffusion abnormalities may differ in CAA compared to AD and MCI.

12.
Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1821089

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Following the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, a complete analysis of the characteristics of the deceased hospitalized patients was performed, to identify factors related to premature mortality and to compare patient profiles according to the epidemic periods. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 1104 deceased patients in two University Hospitals in South-eastern France, between March 1, 2020 and March 12, 2021 from Hospital’s electronic medical records was performed. Results: Mean age was 80 years (± 11.1) and 10% of the deceased were younger than 65 years with specific comorbidities, e.g., genetic conditions, metastatic cancer, or massive obesity. Among the three clusters identified, two clusters (75% of deceased patients) include very elderly patients with numerous comorbidities, and differ by their proportion of dependent institutionalized patients. The third cluster is made up of younger patients with fewer but severe comorbidities. Deceased patients’ profiles varied according to the epidemic periods: during the first period (March–June 2020), more patients were institutionalized. The second period (September–December2020) coincided with a higher mortality rate. Conclusions: This study confirmed that most patients hospitalized and dying from COVID-19 were frail, i.e., elderly and/or highly comorbid and that the small proportion of young patients had severe comorbidities.

13.
Nutricion Clinica Y Dietetica Hospitalaria ; 42(1):134-145, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820503

ABSTRACT

Background: The current COVID-19 pandemic has led to serious changes in the daily routine of people including the elderly. One of the most feared impacts is the increasing malnutrition among the elderly, which contributes to exacerbating public health problems. Objective: To evaluate the differences in nutritional status, the risk of malnutrition, and nutritional intake between the elderly receiving home nursing and community-dwelling elderly during the COVID 19 pandemic. Method: Cross-sectional study with 60 home-nursed elderly residents and 52 community-dwelling elderly in South Jakarta. Nutritional status was determined through BMI, the risk for malnutrition was assessed by MNA, and nutritional intake was calculated using the interview method with a 24-hour food recall. Results: The study found, based on MNA, that there is a high risk of malnutrition (63.5%) among community-dwelling elderly compared to the elderly receiving home nursing (71.7%). A good prevalence of nutrition status was found in community-dwelling elderly (36.5%) better than home-nursed elderly (28.3%). Based on MNA, the elderly at risk of malnutrition who live with a home nursing are mostly male (76.5%), at 60 - 65 years (44.1%), last education is high school (38.2%), do not have disease comorbidities (70.6%), and had inadequate intake (55.9% energy, 41.2% protein, 61.8% fat, and 76.5% carbohydrate) while the elderly who live in the community are mostly female (69.4%), at 60 - 65 years (50%), the last education in elementary school (33.3%), have comorbidities (52.8%) and have inadequate intake (72.2% energy, 100% protein, 50% fat, 80.6% carbohydrate). There were significant differences in protein and fiber intake (p<0.05) between both groups. Implication: In this COVID-19 pandemic, health care workers need to be more active in conducting malnutrition risk screening particularly for community-dwelling elderly. More effort is required to advocate and ensure improved nutritional intake in this vulnerable group.

14.
Saúde Soc ; 30(3): e200885, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1817567

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este trabalho discute os efeitos da covid-19 na saúde de idosos, considerados principal grupo de risco nesta pandemia. Para tanto, partiremos de uma breve exposição demográfica do envelhecimento no Brasil para, então, discutir sobre como este período tem produzido e reforçado discursos que revelam estereótipos sobre envelhecimento. Esses discursos se relacionam com as dificuldades no enfrentamento dos efeitos deste período de distanciamento social e de suas possiblidades, tanto no contexto do cuidado residencial quanto nas instituições de longa permanência na Bahia, onde centralizamos esta discussão. Para finalizar, ressaltamos a urgência de ações organizadas e coordenadas que compreendam a complexidade do processo de envelhecimento para o enfrentamento, tanto dos discursos preconceituosos sobre os idosos quanto para os efeitos do isolamento. Também apontamos para a necessidade de nos reconhecermos e nos implicarmos nas demais gerações de que fazemos parte, seja em memória ou projeção.


Abstract Our work discusses the effects of Covid-19 on older adults' health, which is considered the leading risk group in this pandemic. We start with a brief ag(e)ing demographic discussion in Brazil and then address how this period has produced and reinforced discourses that show ag(e)ing stereotypes. These discourses are related to the difficulties in facing the social distancing effects and its possibilities in the context of residential care and in long-term institutions in the state of Bahia, Brazil, where we centralize this discussion. To conclude, we emphasize the urgency of organized and coordinated actions that understand the ag(e)ing process complexity to face both the prejudiced discourses about older adults and the effects of isolation. We also point to the need to recognize and involve ourselves in the other generations of which we are a part, whether in memory or projection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Socioeconomic Factors , Aging , Health of Institutionalized Elderly , Ageism , Physical Distancing , COVID-19
15.
Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology ; 9(sp):2458-2465, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1819027

ABSTRACT

Covid-19, which affects the whole world and is accepted as a pandemic by the world health organization, caused millions of people to die. The elderly are in the group with the highest risk of losing their lives due to the Covid-19 virus. Stricter restrictive / protective measures have been taken for the elderly in Turkey, as in the whole world. With this research, it is aimed to evaluate the sociological and psychological effects of the "elderly", who are one of the health risk groups of the society, in terms of landscape architecture, during the pandemic days when they had to experience various problems after the outbreak. In the study, face-to-face and online questionnaires were applied to individuals aged 50 and over on a voluntary basis. As a result of the study, it was determined that the implementation of curfews and restrictions for the elderly and the formation of an isolated lifestyle from other age groups caused an increase in loneliness and anxiety levels and negative psychological effects. It has been revealed that the activities that individuals will carry out in the green area, their conversations and socializing with their peers, and walks in the open area have a positive psychological and sociological effect for the elderly. It has been determined that the elderly who become lonely and depressed at home with the restrictions imposed under pandemic conditions want to be in green areas. The sociological and psychological positive effects of being in green areas and spending time, and the changes in the behaviour and emotions of the elderly who have pandemic restrictions paralleled the response of the participants to the questionnaire.

16.
Anatolia: Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi ; 32(1):100-105, 2021.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1818839

ABSTRACT

This article discusses the role of active and social recreational activities in the lives of the elderly during the COVID-19 pandemic period.

17.
Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ; 53(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1817311

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on 11 March 2020 has been reported in most countries around the world since its origins in Wuhan, China. As of September 2021, there have been over 229 million cases of COVID-19 reported worldwide, with over 4.7 million COVID-19–associated deaths. Body: The devastating second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in India has seen a rise in various extrapulmonary manifestations. One of key components in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is downregulation of ACE-2, which is expressed on many organs and counterbalances the pro-inflammatory effects of ACE/angiotensin-II axis. This leads to influx of inflammatory cells into alveoli, increased vascular permeability and activation of prothrombotic mediators. Imaging findings such as ground glass opacities, interlobular septal thickening, vascular dilatation and pulmonary thrombosis correlate well with the pathogenesis. Conclusion: We hypothesize that the systemic complications of COVID-19 are caused by either direct viral invasion or effect of cytokine storm leading to inflammation and thrombosis or a combination of both. Gaining insights into pathobiology of SARS-CoV-2 will help understanding the various multisystemic manifestations of COVID-19. To date, only a few articles have been published that comprehensively describe the pathophysiology of COVID-19 along with its various multisystemic imaging manifestations.

18.
Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation ; 12:42-43, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1817125

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic in March 2020. In Ireland, public health restrictions were implemented with specific measures for older adults who were advised to 'cocoon' or remain at home as much as possible. While this has a positive effect on disease spread, a reduction in physical activity in older individuals even for short periods has been shown to increase the risk of falls and fractures as well as all-cause mortality. The New Mobility Score (NMS) stratifies patients with fractures according to pre-fracture mobility based on the ability to perform three activities;indoor walking, outdoor walking and shopping. The NMS is an independent predictor of in-hospital outcome and a cutoff score of 5 has been found to be a valid predictor of 6-month functional level and 1-year mortality. Using the NMS score, we evaluated patient mobility pre and post implementation of restrictions. We also obtained basic data, information on the frequency of patient falls pre and post restrictions together with Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). Methods: We prospectively studied 50 patients admitted following a fracture and reviewed by our Orthogeriatric team at our hospital from August-October 2020. Results: The mean age was 80 years [range 53-99], over 80% (41) were over 70 years and 43 (86%) were female. A hip fracture (78%) was the most common reason for admission and the mean CFS was 4 [Range 1-7] classifying our cohort as living with very mild frailty. There was a statistically significant difference in mean NMS with a lower mean NMS post implementation of COVID-19 restrictions compared to pre restrictions;[5 [SD 2.19] vs 6.5 [SD 2.15] [P = 0.0074]]. There was no difference in the mean number of falls pre and post restrictions [pre COVID-19;1.1 [S.D 2.3] and post COVID-19 1.9 [S.D 1.9] [P = 0.0609]. Conclusion: Our study has shown that in a vulnerable cohort of patients, COVID-19 restrictions have significantly impacted patient mobility over a short period of time. Our results show that as result of the reduction in mobility following implementation of COVID-19 restrictions, our patients are less likely to regain pre-fracture functional level and are at a higher risk of all-cause mortality. As further public health restrictions are implemented across the world to control the spread of COVID-19, public health strategies and advice for older people should be prioritised to maintain mobility and physical activity and prevent adverse outcomes.

19.
Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation ; 12:14-15, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1817121

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In January 2021, Ireland was undergoing the 'Third Wave' of COVID-19, with almost 2,000 persons hospitalised with COVID-19. Over 50% of all COVID-19-related deaths in the EU have occurred in those aged 80 years and older. The same patient cohort is also at high risk sustaining a fragility fracture, leading to an admission to the orthopaedic rehabilitation ward. This study examines a patient group in whom these two scenarios coincided, describing a patient cohort who having sustained a fragility fracture, later contracted COVID-19. This study aims to describe the characteristics and outcomes of orthopaedic rehabilitation patients with COVID-19 and to examine the response of an orthopaedic rehabilitation ward to an outbreak of COVID-19. Methods: This is a retrospective observational study. Data from 26 hospitalised patients aged over 65 years with COVID-19 at an Irish orthopaedic rehabilitation ward was collected. Symptom profile, degree of COVID-19 severity, Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), Charleston co-morbidity scores, laboratory and radiological data were reviewed. Individual treatment pathways were recorded for each patient. Infection control records were reviewed to examine the response of the ward to an outbreak of COVID-19. Results: Patient mortality rate was 7.7% (n = 2). Median survivor age was 79.5 years (IQR 70-85.5). Mean CFS and Charleston Co-morbidity scores were 4.15;(SD1.6) and 5.08, respectively. The majority of patients (n = 25, 96%) were categorised as mild COVID-19 cases. Delirium was noted in more than 10% of patients (n = 3, 11.6%). One patient (n = 1, 3.8%) required non-invasive ventilation. In those whose disease was classifies as severe (n = 2, 7.7%), intubation/resuscitation were not deemed appropriate and when they deteriorated, comfort measures were taken. The majority of patients (n = 21, 81%) were able to return home upon discharge. Three patients (11.5%) had increased care needs and required long term care to be arranged. Conclusion: An outbreak of COVID-19 requires a multidisciplinary approach with a focus on not only medical management but also clinical workforce management, patient flow, management of access to the wards and information and communications management. The overall outcomes in this group, including mortality and proportion discharged to long term care, were positive when compared to similar cohorts of elderly hospitalised patients with COVID-19. These outcomes support a multidisciplinary model of care.

20.
Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation ; 12:22, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1817114

ABSTRACT

Introduction: hip fractures in elderly patients have been associated with high morbidity and mortality rate and are dependent on the presence of associated comorbidities. SARS-CoV-2 disease (Covid-19) is nowadays considered to be an independent risk factor increasing mortality rates. The aim of our report was to analyse the management of a vaccinated versus a non-vaccinated elderly patient that were both diagnosed positive to SARS-CoV-2 after having sustained an intracapsular neck of femur fracture. Methods: Two patients (Patient A 91 and Patient B 88 years old, both female) were referred to our hospital after sustaining an intracapsular neck of femur hip fracture as a result of low energy trauma. Both patients tested positive for Covid-19 during their preoperative screening tests. Patient A had not been vaccinated against Covid-19 in contrast to patient B who had completed the 2 dose regimen of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. Patient A presented on arrival Leukopenia (WBC: 1.2 μc/l, Neutrophils 0.4 mcL) and Thrombocytopenia (PLT 70.000). The Procalcitonin, C-Reactive Protein and Ferritin levels long as Arterial blood Gases were measured in both patients on arrival. Patient A required administration of Granulocyte colony stimulating factor and platelet transfusion prior to surgery. Results: Both patients underwent uncemented hip hemiarthroplasty. Patient A was operated 5 days after hospital admission as optimization of the patient's Covid-19 related Leukopenia and Thrombocytopenia was required and Patient B was operated within 24 hours after hospital admission. Patient A required transfusion of 4 blood Units (bleeding related to Thrombocytopenia) compared to 2 blood units that were administered in Patient B. Patient A developed Covid 19 related Pneumonia and Lung disease on the 6th post-operative day (PO2 SO2) and required high flow nasal cannula therapy for 7 days followed by oxygen therapy for 8 days delaying her mobilization and hospital discharge. Patient A was discharged on the 29th post-operative day and Patient B was discharged on the 6th post-operative day. Conclusion: Covid 19 related complications in elderly hip fracture patients are challenging and require multidisciplinary approach and hospital resources. However, Vaccination against covid-19 seems to prevent Covid related complications and can improve the outcome. Large series studies and further research is required to support our thesis.

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