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1.
Borderline Personal Disord Emot Dysregul ; 9(1): 27, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098463

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Judging positive emotional states or the trustworthiness of others is important for forming and maintaining social affiliations. Past studies have described alterations in these appraisal processes in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), which might have been exacerbated during the Covid-19 pandemic by the requirement to wear face masks. In the present study, we investigated in an online-survey a) whether social judgments are particularly strongly affected in individuals with BPD when they have to judge happiness and trustworthiness in facial stimuli covered by a mask, b) whether appraising a positive emotional state affects trustworthiness appraisals differentially in BPD and healthy individuals and c) whether social judgments are related to how individuals with BPD experience wearing masks during the pandemic. METHODS: Participants (67 HC, 75 BPD) judged happiness and trustworthiness of faces with calm expression with and without masks. Additionally, data on participants' confidence in their judgments, the experience of the burden induced by wearing masks, the protective benefits of masks, and compliance to wearing masks were collected. RESULTS: Happiness and trustworthiness were evaluated less confidently and less intense in the BPD group compared to HC. Masks reduced happiness and trustworthiness ratings in both groups. Lower happiness appraisals contributed to lower trustworthiness appraisals except for those with BPD and low levels of symptom severity. Lower trustworthiness ratings were associated with a higher burden, attributing a lower benefit to masks and lower compliance with wearing masks in BPD. CONCLUSIONS: Masks do not exacerbate deficits in social judgments. However, lower trustworthiness appraisals in general were linked with more negative evaluations of wearing masks in the BPD group. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The aims and hypotheses were preregistered together with the design and planned analyses ( https://aspredicted.org/f5du7.pdf ). For findings of an additionally preregistered research question on the impact of adverse childhood experiences see supplementary material.

2.
Risk Anal ; 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097867

ABSTRACT

Relationships between risk perceptions, emotions, and stress are well-documented, as are interconnections between stress, emotion, and media use. During the early COVID-19 pandemic, the public responded psychologically to the threat posed by the pandemic, and frequently utilized media for information and entertainment. However, we lack a comprehensive picture of how perceived risk, emotion, stress, and media affected each other longitudinally during this time. Further, although response to the pandemic was highly politicized, research has yet to address how partisan affiliation moderated relationships between risk, emotion, stress, and media use over time. This three-wave (N = 1021) panel study assessed the interplay of risk, emotion, stress, and media use for Americans with different political affiliations between March and May of 2020. Findings indicate that perceived risk, emotion, and stress at Time 1 predicted media use at Time 2, with predictors varying by type of media. Use of entertainment media and social/mobile media predicted later stress (Time 3), but news consumption did not. Later risk perceptions (Time 3) were not influenced by media use at Time 2. The predictors and consequences of different types of media use were notably different for Republicans and Democrats. In particular, risk perceptions predicted greater news use among Democrats but greater entertainment media use among Republicans. Moreover, social/mobile media use resulted in perceiving the risks of COVID-19 as less serious for Republicans while increasing stress over time for Democrats.

3.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 8(2): e26043, 2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As COVID-19 poses different levels of threat to people of different ages, health communication regarding prevention measures such as social distancing and isolation may be strengthened by understanding the unique experiences of various age groups. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine how people of different ages (1) experienced the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) their respective rates and reasons for compliance or noncompliance with social distancing and isolation health guidance. METHODS: We fielded a survey on social media early in the pandemic to examine the emotional impact of COVID-19 and individuals' rates and reasons for noncompliance with public health guidance, using computational and content analytic methods of linguistic analysis. RESULTS: A total of 17,287 participants were surveyed. The majority (n=13,183, 76.3%) were from the United States. Younger (18-31 years), middle-aged (32-44 years and 45-64 years), and older (≥65 years) individuals significantly varied in how they described the impact of COVID-19 on their lives, including their emotional experience, self-focused attention, and topical concerns. Younger individuals were more emotionally negative and self-focused, while middle-aged people were other-focused and concerned with family. The oldest and most at-risk group was most concerned with health-related terms but were lower in anxiety (use of fewer anxiety-related terms) and higher in the use of emotionally positive terms than the other less at-risk age groups. While all groups discussed topics such as acquiring essential supplies, they differentially experienced the impact of school closures and limited social interactions. We also found relatively high rates of noncompliance with COVID-19 prevention measures, such as social distancing and self-isolation, with younger people being more likely to be noncompliant than older people (P<.001). Among the 43.1% (n=7456) of respondents who did not fully comply with health orders, people differed substantially in the reasons they gave for noncompliance. The most common reason for noncompliance was not being able to afford to miss work (n=4273, 57.3%). While work obligations proved challenging for participants across ages, younger people struggled more to find adequate space to self-isolate and manage their mental and physical health; middle-aged people had more concerns regarding childcare; and older people perceived themselves as being able to take sufficient precautions. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of natural language can provide insight into rapidly developing public health challenges like the COVID-19 pandemic, uncovering individual differences in emotional experiences and health-related behaviors. In this case, our analyses revealed significant differences between different age groups in feelings about and responses to public health orders aimed to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. To improve public compliance with health orders as the pandemic continues, health communication strategies could be made more effective by being tailored to these age-related differences.

4.
J Rural Stud ; 96: 180-189, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095697

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 caused severe disruptions to global supply chains in March 2020, local and regional food producers were widely heralded for their flexibility in adapting and 'pivoting' to meet changing market demand amidst public health protocols in ways their behemothic agri-food counterparts could not. While "resilient food systems" have become both an academic buzzword and a practical goal for urban and municipal planners, there is an emergent critical literature that calls for greater attention to questions of power within discourses on resilience. This article contributes to a more critical geography of food system resilience through analyzing the experiences of local food producers and meat processors in the state of Iowa, U.S. during the early pandemic period using a moral economy framework. We argue that while the small-scale, producers who market direct-to-consumer may show resilience in their ability to cope with and adapt to system shocks due to short supply chains and social relations, their uneven experience with socio-emotional and economic 'costs' of resilience merits increased attention from both academics and policymakers. The ethic of 'hustle' within farming, along with the greater social 'embeddedness' of market transactions in local food, invites a certain self-exploitation that is differentially enacted and experienced based on factors such as age, gender, health status, and their level of dependence on farm income. Our conclusions suggest that any policies focused on strengthening local and regional food system resilience need to also focus on the wellbeing of local food producers and promote policies towards dignified and remunerative work.

5.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105580, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095613

ABSTRACT

Face mask wearing was an important preventative strategy for the transmission of the COVID-19 virus. However, the effects that occluding the mouth and nose area with surgical masks could have on young children's language processing and emotion recognition skills have received little investigation. To evaluate the possible effects, the current study recruited a sample of 74 children from the North West of England (aged 4-8 years). They completed two computer-based tasks with adults wearing or not wearing surgical face masks to assess (a) language processing skills and (b) emotion recognition ability. To control for individual differences, age, sex, receptive vocabulary, early reading skills, and parent-reported social-emotional competence were included in analyses. The findings from the study highlighted that although younger children were less accurate than older children, face masks did not significantly impair basic language processing ability. However, they had a significant effect on the children's emotion recognition accuracy-with masked angry faces more easily recognized and masked happy and sad faces less easily recognized. Children's age and social-emotional skills also played a role. The findings suggest that the effects of face masks should continue to be evaluated.

6.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; JOUR(12-B):No Pagination Specified, 83.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2083350

ABSTRACT

Emotional eating is a commonly described phenomenon reported by individuals across the weight spectrum. Not only does existing evidence suggest it is not an effective emotion regulation strategy, but emotional eating is also associated with difficulty losing weight during weight loss interventions and other negative health outcomes. The majority of existing work in the area of emotional eating has focused on the broad dimensions of negative and positive affect. Yet, there are data suggesting that different emotions appear to produce different changes in eating behaviors, suggesting the importance of investigating the influence of discrete emotions on eating. The lack of understanding regarding eating in response to boredom in particular, is a major gap in the current literature. Moreover, little is known about individual characteristics that could make some individuals more vulnerable to "bored eating." Given data suggesting interoception as central to other forms of dysregulated eating, as well as its theoretical relevance, the current study focused on interoceptive ability as a vulnerability factor for bored eating. Utilizing an experimental design, Study 1 examined boredom as a trigger of snacking behaviors in a laboratory setting. Due to COVID-19, data collection was terminated early, but preliminary results provided tentative support for a causal role of boredom in food consumption. Study 2 was a cross-sectional, correlational extension of Study 1. Consistent with predictions, Study 2 found that boredom proneness was a significant predictor of emotional eating, even when accounting for the broad dimensions of negative and positive affect. Inconsistent with hypotheses, the association between boredom proneness and emotional eating was not moderated by interoception. Findings have implications for the prevention and treatment of emotional eating. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(20)2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082200

ABSTRACT

Human ideas and sentiments are mirrored in facial expressions. They give the spectator a plethora of social cues, such as the viewer's focus of attention, intention, motivation, and mood, which can help develop better interactive solutions in online platforms. This could be helpful for children while teaching them, which could help in cultivating a better interactive connect between teachers and students, since there is an increasing trend toward the online education platform due to the COVID-19 pandemic. To solve this, the authors proposed kids' emotion recognition based on visual cues in this research with a justified reasoning model of explainable AI. The authors used two datasets to work on this problem; the first is the LIRIS Children Spontaneous Facial Expression Video Database, and the second is an author-created novel dataset of emotions displayed by children aged 7 to 10. The authors identified that the LIRIS dataset has achieved only 75% accuracy, and no study has worked further on this dataset in which the authors have achieved the highest accuracy of 89.31% and, in the authors' dataset, an accuracy of 90.98%. The authors also realized that the face construction of children and adults is different, and the way children show emotions is very different and does not always follow the same way of facial expression for a specific emotion as compared with adults. Hence, the authors used 3D 468 landmark points and created two separate versions of the dataset from the original selected datasets, which are LIRIS-Mesh and Authors-Mesh. In total, all four types of datasets were used, namely LIRIS, the authors' dataset, LIRIS-Mesh, and Authors-Mesh, and a comparative analysis was performed by using seven different CNN models. The authors not only compared all dataset types used on different CNN models but also explained for every type of CNN used on every specific dataset type how test images are perceived by the deep-learning models by using explainable artificial intelligence (XAI), which helps in localizing features contributing to particular emotions. The authors used three methods of XAI, namely Grad-CAM, Grad-CAM++, and SoftGrad, which help users further establish the appropriate reason for emotion detection by knowing the contribution of its features in it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Adult , Child , Animals , Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Pandemics , Emotions
8.
Behav Res Methods ; 54(5): 2445-2456, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080556

ABSTRACT

The topic of affective development over the lifespan is at the forefront of psychological science. One of the intriguing findings in this area is superior emotion regulation and increased positivity in older rather than younger adults. This paper aims to contribute to the empirical base of studies on the role of affect in cognition. We report a new dataset of valence (positivity) ratings to 3,600 English words collected from North American and British English-speaking younger (below 65 years of age) and older adults (65 years of age and older) during the COVID-19 pandemic. This dataset represents a broad range of valence and a rich selection of semantic categories. Our analyses of the new data pitted against comparable pre-pandemic (2013) data from younger counterparts reveal differences in the overall distribution of valence related both to age and the psychological fallout of the pandemic. Thus, we found at the group level that older participants produced higher valence ratings overall than their younger counterparts before and especially during the pandemic. Moreover, valence ratings saw a super-linear increase after the age of 65. Together, these findings provide new evidence for emotion regulation throughout adulthood, including a novel demonstration of greater emotional resilience in older adults to the stressors of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Aged , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emotions/physiology , Semantics , Cognition
9.
Cogn Process ; 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075452

ABSTRACT

Faces are fundamental stimuli for social interactions since they provide significant information about people's identity and emotional states. With the outburst of the COVID-19 pandemic, global use of preventive measures, such as disposable surgical face masks (DSFMs), has been imposed. The massive use of DSFMs covering a large part of the face could interfere with identity and emotion recognition. Thus, the main aim of the current study was (i) to assess how DSFMs affect identity recognition (Experiment 1), (ii) how DSFMs affect emotion recognition (Experiment 2), and (iii) whether individual empathy levels correlate with emotion recognition with DSFMs. The potential relation between identity and emotion recognition with and without DSFMs was also investigated. Two tasks were administered to 101 healthy participants: (i) the Old-new face memory task aimed to assess whether the learning context (i.e., DSFMs on/off) affects recognition performance, whereas (ii) the Facial affect task explored DSFMs' effect on emotion recognition. Results from the former showed that the stimuli's features in the learning stage affect recognition performances; that is, faces wearing DSFMs were better recognized if wearing DSFMs at first exposure and vice versa. Results from the Facial affect task showed that DSFMs lead to reduced disgust, happiness, and sadness recognition. No significant correlation emerged between identity and emotion recognition. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) was administered to assess affective and cognitive empathy; however, IRI scores did not correlate with either face memory recognition or facial affect recognition. Overall, our results demonstrate (a) a "context effect" for face memory with and without DSFMs; (b) a disruptive effect of DSFMs depending on the expressed emotion; and (c) no correlation between empathy and emotion recognition with DSFMs.

10.
Stress Health ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075168

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic elicited a lot of concerns among citizens, thereby potentially compromising their well-being. This study sought to examine the role of individuals' emotion regulation styles (i.e., emotional dysregulation, emotional suppression, and emotional integration) in handling these concerns and their experiences of well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life and sleep quality) and ill-being (i.e., anxiety and depressive symptoms). The study had a unique 10-wave longitudinal design (N = 986; Mage  = 41.28; 76% female) and was conducted during the outbreak of the pandemic in March-May 2020. Multilevel analyses showed, first, that weekly variation in COVID-19 related concerns related negatively to weekly variation in well-being and positively to weekly variation in ill-being. Second, at the between-person level, emotional dysregulation and suppression related positively to between-person vulnerability in ill-being and lower well-being (across all waves). Third, between-person differences in emotional dysregulation amplified the strength of the within-person association between concerns and depressive complaints and lowered life satisfaction. Unexpectedly, integrative emotion regulation amplified the strength of the within-person association between concerns and anxiety. The discussion focuses on the critical role of emotion regulation in handling the uncertainty elicited by the pandemic and provides directions for further research.

11.
Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences ; 83(12-A):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2073431

ABSTRACT

There has been a significant rise in mental health needs in adolescents, and the COVID-19 pandemic has severely disturbed everyday life, causing an increase in anxiety and social isolation amongst adolescents throughout the world (CDC, 2017;Yale Child Study Center, 2020). Effective Tier 1 social-emotional universal interventions to foster social-emotion well-being are crucial in that ensuring school districts have the tools to better support high school aged students and their social-emotional needs. The Learning to BREATHE (L2B) program is a preventative Tier 1 program that has been proven to promote social-emotional well-being in students at the secondary level (Broderick, 2014). However, it is not known if the program is effective when administered through remote learning. The aim of this study was to examine whether the L2B program administered as a Tier 1 intervention at the high school age-level through remote learning was effective in (1) fostering emotion regulation and (2) increasing mindfulness skills. Additionally, the researcher gathered treatment acceptability data to determine whether participants viewed the L2B program as a helpful social-emotional intervention when delivered through remote learning. Thirty-six high school student participants received the L2B program through remote learning. Participants completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) and the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-15) at pre-intervention and post-intervention. Paired t-tests found that participants reported a statistically significant mean difference in (ERQ) cognitive reappraisal (p <= .001) and expressive suppression (p < .002) skills with a small effect size (d = .25, d = .24). A second paired t-test also found that participants reported a statistically significant mean difference in (FFMQ-15) mindfulness (p < .001) skills with a large effect size (d = 1.05). Eighty-eight percent of participants reported that the L2B program was beneficial to their social-emotional well-being through remote learning. Eleven percent of participants reported that the L2B program was not beneficial to their social/emotional well-being through remote learning. These results suggest that the L2B program fosters both emotion regulation and mindfulness skills through remote learning. L2B also had a very high satisfaction rate amongst participants with implementation through remote learning. Implications of the study and suggestions for further research are offered. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071471

ABSTRACT

This study focused on COVID-19 perceived risk and Internet addiction among Chinese college students during the lockdown. On the basis of the Social Cognitive Theory, this study proposed a mediating model to evaluate the mediating role of difficulties in regulating emotion between the COVID-19 perceived risk and Internet addiction. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 690 college students during the COVID-19 lockdown in China. The results showed that the COVID-19 perceived risk was significantly positively associated with Internet addiction (r = 0.236, p < 0.001) and difficulties in emotion regulation (r = 0.220, p < 0.001), difficulties in emotion regulation was significantly positively associated with Internet addiction (r = 0.368, p < 0.001). The COVID-19 perceived risk had a significant and positive predictive effect on Internet addiction (ß = 0.233, p < 0.001) among Chinese college students. The analysis of the mediation model showed that difficulties in emotion regulation partially mediated the relationship between COVID-19 perceived risk and Internet addiction (indirect effect value was 0.051 with 95% Confidence Interval ranging from 0.027 to 0.085). The findings not only enhanced our understanding of the internal influence mechanism of COVID-19 perceived risk on Internet addiction but also provided a practical basis for college education works. Finally, discussions and suggestions were provided on the basis of the results.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Humans , Internet Addiction Disorder , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Students/psychology , China/epidemiology , Internet
13.
Klinik Psikiyatri Dergisi-Turkish Journal of Clinical Psychiatry ; 25(3):260-269, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072092

ABSTRACT

Objective: The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are remarkable on individuals' mental health. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there is an increase in mental health problems and psychological distress in uninfected healthy people. The present study aimed to examine the mediator role of maladaptive cognitive emotion regula-tion strategies in the relationship between cognitive fle-xibility and COVID-19 related psychological distress experienced during the current pandemic. Method: The sample consisted of 351 young adults (86% female and 14% male) who were not infected with COVID-19 aged between 18 to 25 years old. Participants completed the self-report questionnaires, including the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory, Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and COVID-19 Related Psychological Distress Scale. Mediation analysis estimated total, indi-rect, and direct effects between cognitive flexibility and COVID-19 related psychological distress. Results: The correlation analyses showed that cognitive flexibility -control dimension was negatively associated with both COVID-19 related psychological distress and maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Also, maladap-tive cognitive emotion regulation strategies and COVID-19 related psychological distress was found to be posi-tively correlated. In the study sample, the results of the bootstrap mediation indicated that maladaptive cogni-tive emotion regulation strategies, including self-blame, acceptance, rumination, catastrophizing, and blaming others, fully mediated the relationship between cogni-tive flexibility -control and COVID-19 related psycholog-ical distress. Discussion: Our findings would help psy-chological interventions designed for COVID-19 unin-fected healthy people who have lower-level cognitive flexibility -control dimension by highlighting the promi-nence that the fewer people use maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies, the less they feel COVID-19 related psychological distress.

14.
Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences ; 12(3):106-113, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072089

ABSTRACT

Objective: The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), spread all over the world in a short time and turned into a pandemic. During COVID-19, individuals' anxiety levels have increased. For this reason, determining the factors that affect anxiety during COVID-19 is crucial for the psychological health of individuals. This study aims to investigate the mediating role of non-adaptive emotion regulation in the relationship between perceived social support and anxiety in the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The sample of the study consisted of 327 university students with an average age of 24.27. The data were collected from the participants between May and June 2020. Demographic Information Form, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale-Brief Form (DERS-16) were used. The independent-sample t-test, One-way ANOVA, Pearson moment product correlation test, and Mediation analysis were all used for statistical analysis. Results: During the COVID-19 pandemic, participants stated that they were mostly concerned about the health status of their families. There was a negative correlation between anxiety level, age and perceived social support. Anxiety level had a positive relationship with non -adaptive emotion regulation strategies. In addition, non-adaptive emotion regulation had a full mediating role in the relationship between anxiety and perceived social support. Conclusion: Our study found that the anxiety-reducing effect of perceived social support disappears when individuals use non-adaptive emotion regulation strategies. For this reason, the studies to develop adaptive emotion regulation strategies may be useful in reducing the COVID-19 anxiety.

15.
Educational Forum ; 86(4):338-354, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2069947

ABSTRACT

This paper features the emotional experiences of a Vietnamese doctoral student mother in New Zealand named Hoa who was stranded when COVID-19 hit the globe. As a temporary migrant and a mother who was separated from her children, she experienced displacement, nostalgia, mother guilt, and a diasporic feeling. When she managed to return to Vietnam, these feelings did not vanish but transformed into different forms of in-betweenness and juggling roles.

16.
Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition ; 11(3):338-345, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2069864

ABSTRACT

The diffusion of accurate knowledge about diseases in the population is of critical concern to public health officials. This is because an informed public should be in a position to make better decisions, especially when these decisions impact other individuals, as is the case during pandemics. This article is aimed at presenting current research on the acquisition and propagation of medical knowledge in social networks under conditions of high perceived risk of viral infection. I will review recent psychological findings to show how anxiety associated with high perceived risk of infection could (a) negatively impact information processing, (b) activate motivational frames of processing, and (c) exacerbate the adoption of misinformation. Finally, I make specific recommendations for how to maximize accurate information dissemination and minimize the spread of misinformation.

17.
Nurs Rep ; 12(4): 758-774, 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068519

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The perception of others' emotions based on non-verbal cues, such as facial expressions, is fundamental for interpersonal communication and mutual support. Using personal protection equipment (PPE) in a work environment during the SAR-CoV-2 pandemic challenged health professionals' ability to recognise emotions and expressions while wearing PPE. The working hypothesis of this study was that the increased limitation of facial visibility, due to the use of a personal protective device, would interfere with the perception of basic emotions in the participants. (2) Methods: Through a cross-sectional descriptive study, the present research aimed to analyse the identification of four basic emotions (happiness; sadness; fear/surprise; and disgust/anger) through three types of PPE (FFP2 respirator, protective overall and powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR)), by using 32 photographs. The study was conducted using volunteer participants who met the inclusion criteria (individuals older than 13 without cognitive limitations). Participants had to recognise the emotions of actors in photographs that were randomly displayed in an online form. (3) Results: In general, the 690 participants better recognised happiness and fear, independently of the PPE utilised. Women could better identify different emotions, along with university graduates and young and middle-aged adults. Emotional identification was at its worst when the participants wore protective overalls (5.42 ± 1.22), followed by the PAPR (5.83 ± 1.38); the best scores were obtained using the FFP2 masks (6.57 ± 1.20). Sadness was the least recognised emotion, regardless of age. (4) Conclusions: The personal protective devices interfere in the recognition of emotions, with the protective overalls having the greatest impact, and the FFP2 mask the least. The emotions that were best recognised were happiness and fear/surprise, while the least recognised emotion was sadness. Women were better at identifying emotions, as well as participants with higher education, and young and middle-aged adults.

18.
Applied Soft Computing ; : 109701, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2068706

ABSTRACT

Partial face coverings such as sunglasses and face masks unintentionally obscure facial expressions, causing a loss of accuracy when humans and computer systems attempt to categorise emotion. With the rise of soft computing techniques interacting with humans, it is important to know not just their accuracy, but also the confusion errors being made—do humans make less random/damaging errors than soft computing? We analyzed the impact of sunglasses and different face masks on the ability to categorize emotional facial expressions in humans and computer systems. Computer systems, represented by VGG19, ResNet50, and InceptionV3 deep learning algorithms, and humans assessed images of people with varying emotional facial expressions and with four different types of coverings, i.e. unmasked, with a mask covering the lower face, a partial mask with transparent mouth window, and with sunglasses. The first contribution of this work is that computer systems were found to be better classifiers (98.48%) than humans (82.72%) for faces without covering (>15% difference). This difference is due to the significantly lower accuracy in categorizing anger, disgust, and fear expressions by humans (p′s<.001). However, the most novel aspect of the work is identifying how soft computing systems make different mistakes to humans on the same data. Humans mainly confuse unclear expressions as neutral emotion, which minimizes affective effects. Conversely, soft techniques often confuse unclear expressions as other emotion categories, which could lead to opposing decisions being made, e.g. a robot categorizing a fearful user as happy. Importantly, the variation in the misclassification can be adjusted by variations in the balance of categories in the training set.

19.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 75(9-10): 307-315, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067419

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose: The problems caused by the COVID-19 epidemic have the worst impact on chronic patient populations. People with chronic pain are one of the most vulnerable groups due to stress, disruption of daily routine, family problems, illness and difficulty in hospital care. It is therefore essential to assess the situation and mental well-being of this group. The aim of this survey was to assess chronic pain patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, addressing psychological background factors that might affect pain symptoms, such as depression, emotion regulation, alexithymia, well-being, health literacy and social support. Methods: 158 people participated in the survey, reporting pain for at least 3 months but had not received medical treatment. Data was collected at two dates: February and December 2021. Participants completed an online questionnaire due to the pandemic situation. The following six psychological questionnaires were used in the survey: Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Beck Depression Inventory 9-item version, Difficulty in Emotion Regulation Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Chew-questions measuring health literacy, WHO Well-being Index. Results: The participants ranged from 20 to 80 years in age, of whom 140 (88%) were female. 42 participants (27%) achieved severe alexithymia. 118 people (75%) had depression, of which 72 people (46%) had mild depression, 26 (16%) had moderate depression, and 20 (13%) had severe depression. The degree of pain and alexithy-mia (r(158) = 0.16, p = 0.004), depression (r(158) = 0.41, p < 0.001), difficulties in emotion regulation (r(158) = 0.26, p = 0.004), and health literacy, and difficulties in emotion regulation (r(158) = 0.25, p = 0.001) were positively and significantly related. Conclusion: In addition to the characteristic comorbidities of people living with pain (e.g. anxiety, emotion disorder, sleep disorder), the epidemic-induced prolonged social isolation, stress and fear of illness may explain the proportion of high depression, emotion regulation difficulties or health literacy problems in the study sample which exacerbate alexithymia and the degree of pain. Based on these results it is important to draw the attention of professionals to the appropriate health care and educational needs of those affected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Pain , Affective Symptoms/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Pain/epidemiology , Chronic Pain/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine ; 29(3):424-432, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067566

ABSTRACT

Introduction and Objective. Lifestyle and its related health behaviour are significant factors affecting health. The aim of this study was to define a selection of factors influencing the health behaviour of paramedics from the Masovian Province, the biggest in Poland. Materials and method. The study group consisted of paramedics employed in Emergency Response Teams (ERT) on the territory of Masovian Province. The study involved 238 participants: 223 men and 15 women. The mean age of the participants was 39.03±9.27 years for males, and 31.93±7.76 years for females. The research was carried out between May 2019 – September 2019 using the diagnostic survey method, including Jurczyński’s Health Behaviour Inventory (HBI), Courtauld’s Emotional Control Scale (CECS) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results. The health behaviours of the participants were defined as average. The probability of exhibiting proper health behaviours increases with age (OR=2.178, 95% Cl: 1.030–4.604;p 0,042), the ability to control emotions, especially on the depressive mood scale, (OR=0.901, 95% Cl: 0.827–0.981;p 0.017) and the general health condition, i.e., the less anxiety or insomnia the participating paramedics experience, the higher the chance of them exhibiting proper health behaviours (OR =0.809, 95% Cl: 0.725–0.903;p 0.000) or not experiencing social dysfunction (OR=0.760, 95% Cl: 0.628–0.920;p 0.005). Conclusions. As an occupational group, paramedics require help from their employers and other specialists in the fostering of proper health behaviour in order to experience a good quality of life in the workplace and beyond. Educative measures have to be undertaken in the paramedic population, especially with regard to ameliorating eating habits, handling stress, burnout prophylaxis, and counteracting musculo-skeletal disorders.

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