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1.
Medico-Biological and Socio-Psychological Issues of Safety in Emergency Situations ; - (4):103-114, 2021.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026331

ABSTRACT

Relevance. Risk factors of emotional distress in medical professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic should be identified for development of the effective system for prevention of mental disorders and emotional burnout. Intention. Investigation of factors related to the severity of distress and emotional burnout in medical professionals during the pandemic of new coronavirus infection. Methodology. The online cross-sectional study, conducted from August 2020 to April 2021 involved 359 medical workers (doctors of various specialties - 172, nurses - 134, medical psychologists - 40, nurses - 3, medical workers who did not indicate their profession - 10). The following methods were used: semi-structured interview;K. Maslach Professional Burnout Inventory adapted by N.E. Vodopyanova and E.S. Starchenkova;visual analogue scales specially designed for this study. Statistical processing of the data included dispersion analysis;the Kraskel-Wallis method;Mann-Whitney U-test;t-test;Spearman correlation coefficients. Results and Discussion. In the general sample of medical professionals, a high level of emotional burnout was identified. The most severe emotional distress, exhaustion and depersonalization were found in doctors compared to nurses and psychologists. The “Subjective feeling of high risk of COVID-19 infection” acts as a core characteristic associated with various manifestations of emotional distress and burnout in medical professionals and can be considered as a central indicator of distress severity. The characteristics of the professional activities, age, level of education and workload, as well as the nature of family relations are related to the severity of manifestations of emotional distress and burnout during the pandemic period and should be taken into account when creating programs to provide psychological assistance to medical personnel. Severe anxiety due to a possible COVID-19 infection in a loved one and worsening financial situation could be the potential sources of stress in health professionals. Conclusion. Targeting situations that potentially cause severe anxiety, as well as factors contributing to addictive forms of behavior in health workers during the pandemic could be beneficial in prevention programs for medical personnel. © Medico-Biological and Socio-Psychological Issues of Safety in Emergency Situations.All rights reserved.

2.
POSTMODERN OPENINGS ; 13(2):528-549, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1969897

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic context put to test all adaptive skills of human beings around the world. In this disruptive context, a sample of 401 respondents (173 male and 228 female), aged between 19 and 65 yens old, were assessed using the Unconditional Self -Acceptance Questionnaire (USAQ), the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ), the Emotional Distress Profile (PDE) and the Autonomy Questionnaire, from Cognitrom Assessment System. The main objectives of the study aimed at identifying the significant differences in emotional distress, coping mechanisms, autonomy and self-acceptance based on gender and age as grouping variables, and the significant relationships between all these variables. Statistics show differences in behavioural and emotional autonomy between male and female, differences related to catastrophizing and blaming others as resilience mechanisms between male and female, differences in self-acceptance and positive assessment (as coping mechanism) between young people and adults, and significant negative correlations between emotional distress and all types of autonomy (value, cognitive, behavioural and emotional), significant positive correlation with coping mechanisms like blaming others, catastrophizing, self-blame and acceptance, and significant negative correlation with positive assessment and refocusing on planning. All results are discussed in the context of the disruption caused by the pandemic context and in relationship with the necessity of supporting people to maintain their mental health and well-being, now more than ever, with the new turning back to the previous way of life caused by the lifting of the state of alert by the authorities.

3.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 149, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many people suffered from emotional distress especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to alleviate emotional distress, more accessible psychological intervention programs, such as online intervention programs, are needed. The study aimed to investigate the efficacy and the potential mechanism of a 4-week, online, self-help mindfulness-based intervention to manage emotional distress during the COVID-19 pandemic between February 3 and May 20, 2020. METHODS: A total of 302 individuals with high emotional distress completed a self-help mindfulness course, which lasted 30-60 min per day for 28 consecutive days. Participants who registered in the program later were included in the analyses as the control group (n = 315). Levels of mindfulness, perceived stress, emotional distress, anxiety and depression were assessed at baseline(T1), week 1(T2), week 2(T3), week 3(T4) and week 4(T5). RESULTS: Significant Group by Time interaction effects were found on mindfulness, perceived stress, emotional distress, anxiety and depression (p < 0.001). Compared to the control group, the intervention group had a greater increase in changes of all outcome variables (p < 0.001). Random intercept cross-lagged analyses showed that compared with control group, mindfulness at T2 and T4 negatively predicted stress at T3 and T5, and mindfulness at T2 and T4 negatively predicted depression at T3 and T5 while depression at T3 predicted mindfulness at T4 in the mindfulness group. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that a 4-week self-help online mindfulness intervention improved mindfulness and reduced stress, emotional distress, anxiety and depression symptoms. Compared to the control group, changes in mindfulness preceded changes in stress, and mindfulness and depression reciprocally influenced each other during the intervention. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000034539. Registered 9 July 2020-Retrospectively registered, http://www.chictr.org.cn/edit.aspx?pid=55721&htm=4 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internet-Based Intervention , Mindfulness , Psychological Distress , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/psychology , Depression/therapy , Humans , Mindfulness/methods , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Stress, Psychological/therapy
4.
J Psychosom Res ; 160: 110959, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on individuals' emotional wellbeing and mental health. However, little research has examined emotional resilience during the pandemic. This study investigated the changes in emotional distress among residents in Hubei, the epicenter of the pandemic in China during the early stage of the pandemic, and we examined the sociodemographic differences in their emotional recovery. METHODS: We undertook a two-wave panel survey of 3816 residents aged ≥18 in Hubei, China. The baseline survey was conducted during early February 2020, the peak of the outbreak. The follow-up survey was carried out when the pandemic was mainly under control. The data enabled us to investigate the within-person changes in COVID-19-related negative emotions. Mixed-effect regression models with a random effect for participants were used to accommodate repeated measures. RESULTS: Respondents reported high levels of emotional distress at the peak of the pandemic and experienced a decline in emotional distress when the pandemic was under control. Moreover, respondents aged 35-49, with a college education or above, were employed, and having better self-rated health experienced a more substantial decrease in negative emotions during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: This study identified vulnerable populations who may experience prolonged emotional distress during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. The results suggest that respondents who aged over 50, with no college education, were not employed, and with worse self-rated health were less resilient during the COVID-19 pandemic in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Emotions , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Medical-Surgical Journal-Revista Medico-Chirurgicala ; 126(1):104-110, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1887412

ABSTRACT

Humankind is currently facing a pandemic of unimaginable proportions generated by a new strain of coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which causes significant public health problems. Material and methods: We employed a cross-sectional survey of 252 healthcare professionals from a frontline University Hospital in the "battle" with the new coronavirus after one-year pandemic. We analyzed the prevalence and associated factors with work-related psychological distress among our study group. Results: The results show that gender, marital status, the workload of treating COVID-19 patients, fear of SARS-CoV-2 infection, depression, and anxiety predicted burnout syndrome. Conclusions: The medical field is one of the most vulnerable areas where the staff is predisposed to psychological distress. This increases the probability of suffering different consequences, including burnout syndrome, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

6.
Ansiedad Y Estres-Anxiety and Stress ; 28(2):100-107, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1869987

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to make a quick assessment of the psychological resources and emotional distress of the general population locked down during the COVID-19 pandemic (in Catalonia, Spain), and to observe their evolution over the course of two waves during lockdown: at two weeks and at one month (April 1th to 3th and April 17th to 19th). The longitudinal study collected data from 29,231 participants aged 18 or older through an online platform who answered questions which evaluated: optimism, uncertainty, perceived competence, self-efficacy, emotional distress, current job situation, sadness and anger in conjunction with sociodemographic variables. The main results indicated that general beliefs about the future, uncertainty, and optimism, together with beliefs about one's own conduct, such as perceived competence when facing the situation or self-efficacy to maintain routines, could predict the emotional distress experienced by an individual. A clear gender pattern was found. Between the two waves, optimism, perceived competence to manage the situation and self-efficacy to maintain routines decrease, uncertainty grows, and emotional distress remains. Taking these results into account we can prevent possible emotional scars and offer coping strategies to overcome the pandemic and the future situations of confinement in a more efficient way.

7.
J Clin Psychol ; 78(11): 2281-2298, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858833

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Health service psychology (HSP) graduate students experienced adverse mental health outcomes during COVID-19. However, little is known about how mental health outcomes changed in this population after the onset of COVID-19. METHODS: N = 496 HSP graduate students reported onset or worsening of mental health outcomes, inability to access mental health care, worry about COVID-19, and stress at two different timepoints during the first year of the COVID-19 outbreak (timepoint 1: May 1 to June 25, 2020; timepoint 2: September 2 to October 17, 2020). This study tested whether mental health outcomes improved, worsened, or stayed stable during this timeframe. The study also examined whether rising COVID-19 case rates in the state where a participant lived moderated changes in mental health outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, HSP graduate students endorsed adverse mental health outcomes at a higher rate during the first survey relative to the second survey. Even still, 62.68% of students reported worsened mental health symptoms, 49.84% reported worsened sleep, and 23.92% reported increased alcohol and substance use in the 2 months leading up to the second survey. CONCLUSION: HSP programs should monitor graduate students' evolving mental health, provide wellness resources, and adopt flexible approaches to support graduate students navigating training during periods of immense disruption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Services , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Students/psychology
8.
Front Psychol ; 13: 840686, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847210

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has made it difficult to adopt traditional face-to-face psychological intervention under this situation because of the blocked down and social distancing, which brings big psychological crisis to the public among the global. To explore the emotional change of the public in China at the outburst of the pandemic at different phases, to establish an online working platform and create a new model of an online intervention to hold public emotions under pandemic, and test its effectiveness, so to give advisement for government emergency management system. We established an online organization to work for this program ad innovated a model of online group counseling with online emotional support accompany group (OESAG) right after the outburst of a pandemic. We analyzed 53 OESAGs from February 10 to April 9, including 555 application forms, 253 feedback from members, and 139 feedback from group leaders by using NVivo and SPSS to explore the evolution and characteristics of public emotion during COVID-19 and the effectiveness of OESAG. Our results showed that the emotional changes of members ranged from shock to depression to positive. The public's emotions swiftly changed from stress, anxiety, and isolation, to the hope of returning to work or finding a job during the pandemic with the help of OESAG. OESAG has effectively regulated the negative emotions of members by conducting psychological crisis intervention to provide members a space to communicate with each other, especially the female and frontline staff. Policy makers can set up an online systematic psychological crisis intervention system as soon as possible to make up for the lack of psychological assistance in the emergency management system.

9.
J Psychol ; 156(5): 381-394, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815707

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the emotional health of adolescents, especially those with low resilience and life satisfaction. The aim is to analyze the predictors of anxiety, depression, and stress among adolescents in Ecuador during the COVID-19 pandemic.Participants were 586 adolescents from Ecuador aged between 12-18 years (M = 15.30; SD = 1.28). Satisfaction, resilience, anxiety, depression, stress and worries about COVID-19 were assessed. Structural equation models (SEM) and models based on qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) were performed. The results indicate that worries are associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. However, higher physical health worries are associated with lower emotional distress. SEM models indicate that life satisfaction is negatively associated with emotional distress. In QCA models, emotional distress is explained by high worries, low resilience, and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction plays a mediating role in emotional distress.In conclusion, adolescents are one of the groups particularly vulnerable to this situation of restriction created by COVID-19. It is necessary to detect signs of risk and protection in emotional adjustment, especially life satisfaction, that appears like principal damper variable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Ecuador/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Behavioral Psychology ; 29(2):345-364, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1813087

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on emotional distress and disordered eating in a community sample of Spanish youngsters. A total of 2847 participants (95% women;aged 14-35) completed depression, anxiety, stress, self-esteem, and disordered eating measures. Given the small proportion of men and as significant differences were found between genders in several variables, most results were only reported for women. Severe levels of depression, anxiety and stress were found in 30.8%, 25.4% and 20.5% of the sample, respectively. Sleep quality, eating habits, appearance concerns, preoccupation about one's future, health concerns and other life domains were also affected by lockdown. Younger age, being single, being unemployed, not having contracted COVID-19 or not being sure about it, having a loved one infected or deceased due to coronavirus, and not having a place to relax at home were significantly associated with psychological distress and disordered eating. A structural equation model confirmed the direct influence of lockdown-related variables into psychopathology symptoms. The findings of this study suggest that COVID-19 and its associated lockdown might have a significant effect on psychological wellbeing and eating disturbances. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved) (Spanish) El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el impacto psicologico del confinamiento por COVID-19 en una muestra comunitaria espanola. 2847 participantes de entre 14 y 35 anos (95% mujeres) completaron medidas de depresion, ansiedad, estres, autoestima y alteraciones alimentarias. Considerando la pequena proporcion de hombres y al hallar diferencias significativas entre sexos, la mayoria de resultados fueron informados solo para las mujeres. Un 30,8%, 25,4% y 20,5% de la muestra presento niveles graves o muy graves de depresion, ansiedad y estres respectivamente. La calidad del sueno, los habitos alimentarios, las preocupaciones por la apariencia fisica, por el futuro y por la salud habian empeorado a raiz del confinamiento. Una menor edad, no tener pareja, el desempleo, no haber contraido COVID-19 o no estar seguro de ello, el fallecimiento de un ser querido por COVID-19, y no tener un lugar donde relajarse fueron factores asociados al malestar psicologico y las alteraciones alimentarias. El analisis de ecuaciones estructurales confirmo la influencia directa de las variables relacionadas con el confinamiento en la psicopatologia. Esto sugiere que la pandemia puede haber tenido un impacto significativo en la salud mental y en la conducta alimentaria. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

11.
Early Child Res Q ; 60: 319-331, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783300

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and its resulting containment measures have forced many children and their caregivers around the world to spend unprecedented amounts of time at home. Based on a sample of 764 households with preschool-aged children in Wuhan, China, where the pandemic began, this study examined how primary caregivers perceived changes in the amount of time spent engaging with their children (i.e., engaged time) from the start of the pandemic and whether these changes were associated with children's learning behavior and emotional distress. The results showed that primary caregivers generally perceived increases in the amount of engaged time spent on indoor activities with their children but decreases in the amount of engaged time spent playing with their children outdoors. A bigger family size and greater loss of family income during the pandemic were associated with bigger perceived increases in caregivers' engaged time spent on indoor activities, whilst a higher level of parental education was associated with bigger perceived decreases in engaged time spent playing with children outdoors. The family's poorer physical health and higher levels of chaos during the pandemic were related to smaller perceived increases in caregivers' engaged time spent on educational activities. Finally, although bigger perceived increases in caregivers' indoor engaged time (e.g., time spent on educational activities) were associated with higher levels of positive learning behavior and fewer symptoms of anxiety and withdrawal in the children, bigger perceived decreases in outdoor play time were associated with fewer symptoms of anxiety and withdrawal. These findings offer valuable insights into caregivers' allocation of engaged time with their preschool-aged children during the COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
J Happiness Stud ; 23(4): 1683-1708, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782873

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic-related confinement may be a fruitful opportunity to use individual resources to deal with it or experience psychological functioning changes. This study aimed to analyze the evolution of different psychological variables during the first coronavirus wave to identify the different psychological response clusters, as well as to keep a follow-up on the changes among these clusters. The sample included 459 Spanish residents (77.8% female, Mage = 35.21 years, SDage = 13.00). Participants completed several online self-reported questionnaires to assess positive functioning variables (MLQ, Steger et al. in J Loss Trauma 13(6):511-527, 2006. 10.1080/15325020802173660; GQ-6, McCullough et al. in J Person Soc Psychol 82:112-127, 2002. 10.1037/0022-3514.82.1.112; CD-RISC, Campbell-Sills and Stein in J Traum Stress 20(6):1019-1028, 2007. 10.1002/jts.20271; CLS-H, Chiesi et al. in BMC Psychol 8(1):1-9, 2020. 10.1186/s40359-020-0386-9; SWLS; Diener et al. in J Person Assess, 49(1), 71-75, 1985), emotional distress (PHQ-2, Kroenke et al. in Med Care 41(11):1284-1292, 2003. 10.1097/01.MLR.0000093487.78664.3C; GAD-2, Kroenke et al. in Ann Internal Med 146(5):317-325, 2007. 10.7326/0003-4819-146-5-200703060-00004; PANAS, Watson et al. in J Person Soc Psychol 47:1063-1070, 1988; Perceived Stress, ad hoc), and post-traumatic growth (PTGI-SF; Cann et al. in Anxiety Stress Coping 23(2):127-137, 2010. 10.1080/10615800903094273), four times throughout the 3 months of the confinement. Linear mixed models showed that the scores on positive functioning variables worsened from the beginning of the confinement, while emotional distress and personal strength improved by the end of the state of alarm. Clustering analyses revealed four different patterns of psychological response: "Survival", "Resurgent", "Resilient", and "Thriving" individuals. Four different profiles were identified during mandatory confinement and most participants remained in the same cluster. The "Resilient" cluster gathered the largest number of individuals (30-37%). We conclude that both the heterogeneity of psychological profiles and analysis of positive functioning variables, emotional distress, and post-traumatic growth must be considered to better understand the response to prolonged adverse situations. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10902-021-00469-z.

13.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 184, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745476

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Researchers are exploring the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, vaccination and the challenges faced by healthcare authorities. However less focus is being paid towards the impact of COVID-19 on mental health of the patients. This study is a cross-sectional study, measuring the prevalence of emotional distress among patients with COVID-19 in the Maldivian population. METHODS: This study was conducted in Maldivian nations above 18 of age with COVID-19 who were admitted in isolation facilities. Patients who were on treatment for any other chronic medical conditions, severe and critical COVID-19 disease were excluded. This study was conducted over a period of 2 months by administering a local translated version of DASS21 questionnaire. RESULTS: The total of 195 patients were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 40 (CI at 95% 38-42) years. The respondents were 48.7% men and 51.3% women. Overall, 9% of patients with COVID-19 had depression while 23% of patients had anxiety and 12% of the patients had stress. There was a statistically significant relationship between gender and depression, anxiety and stress (p < 0.01). Symptomatic cases had a significantly higher level of stress than asymptomatic patients (p < 0.05), but no significant association was observed with symptomatic status and anxiety or depression. CONCLUSION: The management of patients with COVID-19 should be multi-disciplinary with special focus on the mental wellbeing of our patients. We should aim to establish proper communication with the patients in order to identify emotional distress and provide appropriate mental health care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
14.
Early Child Res Q ; 60: 250-261, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739680

ABSTRACT

State-level policies in Ohio during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S. involved physical school closures and work-from-home requirements when possible. Presumably, these policies and resulting impacts on homes with children would alter parent time investments in their children with respect to home-learning activities. In this study, we assessed parent time investments specific to home-learning activities with their children, and key predictors of these investments. Using data from a comprehensive survey completed by 559 caregivers of children (aged birth to 9 years) during a state-mandated stay-at-home order and widespread school closure, we assessed whether parent time investments in children's learning were associated with: (1) parents' mental health and social connectedness, (2) children's level of emotional distress, and (3) household characteristics including chaos, social needs, and structure. Results indicate significant negative associations between each of parent loneliness, children's emotional distress, and household chaos with parent time investments in children's learning, controlling for parents' socio-demographic and economic status. This suggests that parent time investments during the early stages of the pandemic were limited by a number of factors outside of socioeconomic resources. Further research is needed to understand the long-term effects of home environments, including parent time investments in children's learning, on child development during this unprecedented time in world history.

15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715333

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has dramatically affected the mental health and work environment of the educational sector. Our primary aim was to investigate preschool teachers' psychological distress and work engagement during the COVID-19 outbreak, while examining the possible protective role of participating in a mindfulness-based intervention geared to foster compassion (Call2Care-Israel for Teachers; C2C-IT) and emotion regulation. The prevalence of emotional distress, work engagement, and COVID-19 concerns were evaluated in 165 preschool teachers in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in Israel through questionnaires. The findings showed that preschool teachers experienced increased emotional distress. Teachers who had participated in the C2C-IT intervention six months before the pandemic outbreak (N = 41) reported lower emotional distress, higher use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies, and higher work engagement, compared to their counterparts that had not participated in the intervention (N = 124). Emotion regulation strategies mediated the link between participating in CTC-IT intervention and emotional distress and work engagement. Teaching is a highly demanding occupation, especially during a pandemic, thus making it important to invest resources in empowering this population. The findings here suggest that the implementation of a mindfulness-based intervention during the school year can enhance teachers' well-being, even during stressful events such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emotional Regulation , Mindfulness , Psychological Distress , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , School Teachers/psychology , Work Engagement
16.
Adv Respir Med ; 2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705404

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Health care workers (HCWs) are directly involved in processes linked with diagnosis, management, and assistance of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients which could have direct implications on their physical and emotional health. Emotional aspects of working in an infectious pandemic situation is often neglected in favour of the more obvious physical ramifications. This single point assessment study aimed to explore the factors related to stress, anxiety and depression among HCWs consequent to working in a pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving healthcare workers who were working in COVID-19 inpatient ward, COVID-19 screening area, suspect ward, suspect intensive care unit (ICU) and COVID-19 ICU across four hospitals in India. A web-based survey questionnaire was designed to elicit responses to daily challenges faced by HCWs. The questionnaire was regressed using machine-learning algorithm (Cat Boost) against the standardized Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale - 21 (DASS 21) which was used to quantify emotional distress experienced by them. RESULTS: A total of 156 participants were included in this study. As per DASS-21 scoring, severe stress was seen in ∼17% of respondents. We could achieve an R² of 0.28 using our machine-learning model. The major factors responsible for stress were decreased time available for personal needs, increasing age, being posted out of core area of expertise, setting of COVID-19 care, increasing duty hours, increasing duty days, marital status and being a resident physician. CONCLUSIONS: Factors elicited in this study that are associated with stress in HCWs need to be addressed to provide wholesome emotional support to HCWs battling the pandemic. Targeted interventions may result in increased emotional resilience of the health-care system.

17.
Fam Relat ; 71(2): 475-493, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685296

ABSTRACT

Objective: Our study investigates how changes in family contexts were associated with child behaviors during Ohio's COVID-19 shutdown of early 2020. Background: The COVID-19 pandemic caused major economic and social changes for families. Rapid research was conducted to assess these changes and their potential impacts on child behaviors. Method: Using a diverse sample of families with children aged birth to 9 years (N = 559), we describe key economic changes and parent-reported stressors experienced during Ohio's shutdown period. Then, we use regression models to examine how these family conditions were associated with child emotional distress and changes in sleep routines. Results: When parents experienced more total COVID-19 pandemic-related stressors, they also reported that their children exhibited more anxious and withdrawn, fearful, acting out, and COVID-19 pandemic-related behaviors (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Families and children living at home in Ohio experienced significant stress during the shutdown. These findings can be used to inform future studies of the social and economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for parents and children. Implications: Families and children have experienced multiple stressors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Researchers and practitioners should continue to monitor and support families and children to mitigate potential lasting consequences.

18.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2013651, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650963

ABSTRACT

Background: Does exposure to events that transgress accepted norms, such as killing innocent civilians, prompt the psychological and emotional consequences of moral injury among soldiers? Moral injury is associated with negative emotions such as guilt, shame and anger, and a sense of betrayal and is identified among veterans following exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIE). Objective: We experimentally investigate how PMIE characteristics affect the intensity of MI and related negative moral emotions in participants with varied military experience. Method: We conducted three controlled, randomized experiments. Each exposed male respondents with active combat experience (Study 1) and varied military experience (Study 2) to four textual vignettes describing PMIE (child/adult and innocent/non-innocent suspect) that transpire at an Israeli checkpoint in the West Bank. In study 3, we exposed participants to two scenarios, where descriptions of police officers enforcing COVID 19 restrictions confronted lockdown violators. Results: Participants assigned to vignettes describing killing an innocent civilian exhibited more intense levels of shame and guilt than those assigned to vignettes describing killing a person carrying a bomb. Religiosity and political ideology were strong predictors of guilt and shame in response to descriptions of checkpoint shootings. These effects disappeared in Study 3, suggesting that political ideology drives MI in intergroup conflict. Conclusions: Background and PMIE-related characteristics affect the development of moral injury. Additionally, lab experiments demonstrate the potential and limitations of controlled studies of moral injury and facilitate an understanding of the aetiology of moral injury in a way unavailable to clinicians. Finally, experimental findings and methodologies offer further insights into the genesis of moral injury and avenues for therapy and prophylaxis.


Antecedentes: ¿La exposición a eventos que transgreden las normas aceptadas, como matar a civiles inocentes, provocan las consecuencias psicológicas y emocionales del daño moral entre los soldados? El daño moral (DM) se asocia con emociones negativas como la culpa, la vergüenza y la ira, y un sentido de traición y es identificado entre los veteranos después de la exposición a eventos potencialmente dañinos moralmente (EPDM).Objetivo: Investigamos experimentalmente cómo las características de EPDM afectan la intensidad del DM y emociones moralmente negativas relacionadas en participantes con vasta experiencia militar.Método: Realizamos tres experimentos controlados y aleatorizados. Cada varón expuesto respondió con experiencia en combate activo (Estudio 1) y vasta experiencia militar (Estudio 2) a cuatro viñetas textuales que describen EPDM (niño/adulto y sospechoso inocente/no inocente) que suceden en un puesto de control israelí en Cisjordania. En el estudio 3, expusimos a los participantes a dos escenarios, donde las descripciones de los agentes de policía que aplicaban las restricciones de COVID-19 enfrentaron a los infractores del confinamiento.Resultados: Los participantes asignados a viñetas que describen el asesinato de un civil inocente exhibieron niveles más intensos de vergüenza y culpa que los asignados a las viñetas que describen el asesinato de una persona llevando una bomba. La religiosidad y la ideología política fueron fuertes predictores de culpa y vergüenza en respuesta a descripciones de tiroteos en puestos de control. Estos efectos desaparecieron en el Estudio 3, lo que sugiere que la ideología política impulsa al DM en los conflictos intergrupales.Conclusiones: Los antecedentes y las características relacionadas con el EPDM afectan el desarrollo del daño moral. Adicionalmente, los experimentos de laboratorio demuestran el potencial y las limitaciones de los estudios de daño moral y facilitan una comprensión de la etiología del daño moral de una manera no disponible para los clínicos. Por último, los hallazgos y las metodologías experimentales ofrecen perspectivas adicionales en la génesis del daño moral y las vías para la terapia y la profilaxis.


Subject(s)
Military Personnel/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Veterans/psychology , Adult , Anger , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Guilt , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics/legislation & jurisprudence , Shame , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-10, 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626623

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to identify psychological factors affected by the COVID-19 pandemic given the information we have about reactions during previous pandemics, which documented features of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. We investigated the relationship between health anxiety, symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, and coping mechanisms in the general population and among students. The study was conducted on Romanian population (n = 759), aged between 18-70 years old (M = 33.24), general population (n = 485), and students (n = 274). The results showed that the general population is more anxious when confronted with the new virus compared to students (t (757) = 1.902, p < .05, p = .029). Following the analysis of the hierarchical regression, the results revealed that when controlling the health anxiety variable, a high level of anxiety symptoms and stress, and a low level of depression symptoms could predict anxiety for COVID-19 (R 2 = .070, F change (3, 754) = 16.759, p ˂ .001). Also, we found that maladaptive strategies are the ones which explain the relationship between health anxiety and COVID-19-related anxiety (95% CI = .011 - .057). The results of this study bring extra knowledge and shed new light on the psychological aspects of the current sanitary crisis and contribute to the understanding of the way people relate to this disease.

20.
J Relig Health ; 61(1): 644-656, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611441

ABSTRACT

This study examined the association between spiritual quality of life (QoL), spiritual coping, emotional distress, and personality during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in a convenience sample of Croatian adults (n = 2,860, 80.6% women). Participants completed an online questionnaire that collected information on sociodemographic characteristics, distress (the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale 21), spiritual coping and spiritual QoL (the WHO Quality of Life-Spirituality, Religiousness, and Personal Beliefs), and personality (the International Personality Item Pool). The hierarchical regression analysis demonstrated that personality traits, especially emotional stability, were the most significant predictors of mental health outcomes. Spiritual coping styles were a predictor of worse, while spiritual QoL of better psychological outcomes. Results demonstrate the complex relations between different aspects of spirituality/religiosity with personality and emotional outcomes and suggest that distress motivates the engagement of spiritual coping in times of disaster.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Croatia , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Personality , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Spirituality , Surveys and Questionnaires
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