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1.
Journal of International Women's Studies ; 23(3):41-55, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1812588

ABSTRACT

Using a qualitative methodology of personal interviews and participant observation, this research investigates the role of Emirati women in the fight against the Covid-19 pandemic and the subsequent impact/challenges. Research participants included female Emirati health care workers and educationists. We observed Emirati families to help better understand the challenges women went through during the pandemic. Contrary to existing narratives about the invisibility, docility, marginalization, victimhood, and dependency of Arab women, this research reveals that Emirati women were able to exercise agency in the fight against the pandemic due to the following factors: longstanding government empowerment of women, a sense of patriotism, supportive male relatives, and female dominance in the health and educational sectors. During the pandemic, Emirati women have contributed in the following ways as: volunteers;international aid workers;care givers;health information agents;and virtual teachers. Despite this, challenges abound because of the following: increased family conflict;domestic violence;the psychological toll of Covid-related deaths;economic challenges;and increased domestic responsibilities. The Emirati women's case provides lessons for policy makers and societies desirous of women's empowerment.

2.
Journal of Injury and Violence Research ; 14(1):21-32, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1811091

ABSTRACT

Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the co-occurrence of adult and child abuse based on the reports collected from the Polish police and social welfare institutions. Methods: The study involved data concerning 468 households in Szczecin (Poland) inhabited by children where acts of violence between adults took place. The presented data refer to the years 2012-2103. The data came from so called Blue Card files, i.e. documents issued by the police and social workers in cases of domestic abuse, providing information about its forms, perpetrators, and victims. Results: Domestic violence usually occurs between spouses and cohabitees (78%). The perpetrator was usually a man (88%). Violence usually lasted from 1 up to 3 years (30.0%). The most common forms of physical abuse against adults and children included pushing (79.5% of adults, 22.4% of children) and hitting (64.7% of adults, 16.6% of children), and psychologically abusive behaviors were mostly insults (91.9% of adults, 27.5% of children) and criticism (79.1% of adults, 21.5% of children). This work has shown that the longer the psychological abuse between adults lasts, the greater probability is that it will also be used against children. Child abuse is also associated with putting up resistance to the police by perpetrators. Conclusions: Summing up, in households where violence between adults is observed, actions should be taken to prevent violence against children.

3.
Gender & Behaviour ; 19(2):17945-17949, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1787347

ABSTRACT

It is generally accepted that Gender-based Violence (GBV) is chronically endemic in SouthAfrica. GBV m anifests in various forms but are m ostly perpetrated by men against women.Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is one ofthe forms of GBVwhich has surged exponentiallyduring the COVID-19pandemic because victims are forced by the government lockdownsand restrictions to stay at home and live with their abusive partners. This paper looks at theIPV surge in South Africa in the era of COVID-19 and interventions and measures beingused to tackle, curb and combat the surge. Methodologically, this paper adopts literaturereview approach to address the problem of the surge of IPV and the consequences thereof.To this end, relevant literature was searched and generated from google search platform and the literature generated were retrieved and used to address the problem. The paperfound that there was exponential increase in IPV in South Africa amid COVID-19 pandemicwhich forced lockdowns and restrictions. The paper accentuates the need to combat IPV byimplementing and straitening ant-IPVstrategies and interventions. The paper concludes thatIPV should be tackled head on and that assistance and support should be given to victims inorder to be released from the shackle of the abuser perpetrator.

4.
Sleep Medicine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1768546

ABSTRACT

Background Survivors of childhood abuse are prone to adult insomnia, but the mechanisms for this development are poorly understood. Abuse that occurs during sensitive developmental periods might affect risk for insomnia by impacting emerging stress regulatory processes. Sleep reactivity refers to the sensitivity of the sleep system to stress and is a robust risk factor for insomnia. Recent evidence shows stress exposure itself worsens sleep reactivity, thereby increasing insomnia vulnerability. In this preliminary study, we hypothesized the association between childhood abuse experiences and adult insomnia would be mediated through greater sleep reactivity. Methods Community adults were recruited from the U.S. during the COVID-19 pandemic between June 2020 – June 2021 (N = 241, 88% female, Mage = 39, SD = 13.40). Participants completed a cross-sectional survey that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test, Insomnia Severity Index, and a measure of general COVID-19 stress. Results Reporting more frequent childhood emotional, physical, or sexual abuse was associated with more severe insomnia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Only childhood emotional and physical (but not sexual) abuse histories were associated with greater sleep reactivity, which exerted an indirect effect on the relationships between these two abuse types and insomnia symptoms. These findings were robust to the effects of gender, age, and stress about the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests recurrent emotional and physical abuse in childhood might promote later insomnia through heightened sleep reactivity. Stress management interventions could be important to prevent insomnia for abuse survivors by bolstering resilience of the sleep system.

5.
Journal of Family Strengths ; 21(2):2, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1766506

ABSTRACT

Surviving COVID19 (Increased Domestic Violence, Marginalized Communities, and Innovative Solutions) Domestic violence generally refers to violence occurring between residences within one single location. Intimate partner violence is domestic violence by a current or former spouse or partner in an intimate relationship against the other spouse or partner. IPV can take several forms, including physical, verbal, emotional, economic, and sexual abuse. According to the Center for Disease Control, 1 in 4 women and 1 in 9 men experience severe intimate partner physical violence, intimate partner contact sexual violence, and/or intimate partner stalking with impacts such as injury, fearfulness, post-traumatic stress disorder, use of victim services, contraction of sexually transmitted diseases, etc.2 DV/IPV disproportionate affect communities of color and other marginalized groups. According to a report from the Violence Policy Center (Langley & Sugarmann, 2014:1), in 2011, the homicide rate for Black female victims (4.54 per 100,000) was more than three times higher than the homicide rate for White female victims. (1.45 per 100,000). Additionally, a study revealed high rates of intimate partner violence among the LGBTQ community. Bisexual women in particular reported experiencing sexual violence at rates twice that of their heterosexual counterparts. Lesbians and gay men also reported starkly higher incidents of violence than straight people (CDC, 2013). This is important because as COVID19 cases begin to rise the government put in to stay-at-home orders leaving victims of domestic violence vulnerable and trapped with their preparators. This limited their access to technology, medical care, family, and friends. Marginalized communities face higher forms of oppression and experience greater difficulties gaining access to resources in comparison to their white counterparts when reporting IPV. Black women’s mistrust of the police causes them to turn to sisterhood, family, and often the Black church when reporting IPV. Whereas, the LGBTQA populations are less likely to report abuse because of fear of discrimination or being outed to their friends (CDC, 2013). The purpose of this article is to explore: In what ways have COVID19 impacted victims of DV/IPV due to the stay-at-home orders? How does intersectional oppression further exacerbated victims of IPV receiving access to social services during COVID19? What innovative practices and solutions should family members, community leaders, and stakeholders implement for victims of IPV during the COVID19 pandemic? This study uses a systematic review of articles and is based on the conventional scientific standards of preferred reporting procedures for systematic reviews. Findings indicate that DV/IPV victims have experienced increased rates of violence since the onset of the stay-at-home orders. Also, marginalized groups have been more negatively impacted by COVID19 when compared to their counterparts. The data also reveals that other countries have successfully identified solutions for DV/IPV victims to help these vulnerable populations gain access to victims' services that can be replicated here in America. This article clearly identifies barriers that exist for DV/IPV victims of color and provides innovative solutions for these populations to be able to better access social services. The COVID19 pandemic has shown the world that it’s imperative to adapt and implement innovative practices and policies that are designed to save lives and decrease the overall rates of DV/IPV globally.

6.
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal ; 23(12), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1727387

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has made the grief process more complicated and brought about loads of unexpressed grief. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the severity of grief reactions following the death of first-degree relatives (FDRs) due to COVID-19.

7.
Safety and Health at Work ; 13:S61, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1676965

ABSTRACT

Quarantines implemented to face COVID-19 has affected workers in very different ways, and especially women, who make up the majority of the workforce in health facilities in the world, and their role as health personnel adds a triple burden: longer shifts at work, assistance in the education of children and domestic work in the home;But they are also part of the informal sector of the economy, which has turned out to be one of the most affected by the imposed social quarantine, which has had very negative consequences at the socio-economic level, especially affecting those workers who do not enjoy protection mechanisms. Social. Those women who were able to continue working, in many cases had to improvise a teleworking station at home, which is an unplanned situation, without preparation and for which many countries lack specific regulations. These new teleworkers had not been prepared for this, they had not agreed on this condition with their employers and they do not have optimal working conditions for this modality and although teleworking is considered suitable for women insofar as it could help to reconcile life. The truth is that many women are reluctant to adopt it. Another angle of the problem is constituted by the indirect effects of quarantine on family life, which presents an unusual increase in domestic violence, with a particular impact on violence against women. gender, finding that 243 million women and girls between 15-49 years of age have been subjected to sexual or psychological violence in the last 12 months.

8.
IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior ; 20(4):474-481, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1651929

ABSTRACT

The case study discusses the initiatives taken by India's largest Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) company, Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL), to enable its employees to strike the right work-life balance. The case delves into details of HUL's various Human Resource (HR) policies and explains how each of the policies made the company's employees execute both work and personal responsibilities better. HUL's initiatives to cater to the varied needs of its women employees are explained in detail. The measures being taken by the company to keep itself abreast of the changing needs of new-age employees are also mentioned. So, will HUL continue to remain an 'Employer of Choice' and a 'CEO Factory' in India?

9.
Cogent Medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1617061

ABSTRACT

Background: Known risk factors for child maltreatment, including parental unemployment and domestic violence (1, 2), were compounded by social isolation from school closures and restriction of home visitors during the COVID-19 lockdown. Data on the incidence of child maltreatment during the pandemic is limited. Aim: Our study aimed to compare the incidence of and characterize the types of child protection concerns among inpatients during the 2020 lockdown versus the same period in 2019. Methods: We carried out a retrospective chart review of inpatients at Children's Health Ireland (CHI) at Crumlin and CHI at Tallaght assessed for child protection concerns during the lockdown from March 13 to August 31, 2020, and the same timeframe in 2019. Results: Fewer patients with child protection concern were admitted in 2020 (n=86) compared to 2019 (n=163). Total admissions were also less in 2020 (n=4609) compared to 2019 (n=7728). Patients assessed for child protection concerns accounted for a smaller percentage of inpatients in 2020 (1.8% versus 2.1% in 2019 (p=0.35)). In 2020, there was a greater percentage of physical (52.3% versus 11% in 2019 (p<.001)) and emotional (6.9% versus 1.2% in 2019 (p=0.014)) abuse concern cases. There was also a greater percentage of neglect and sexual abuse concern cases and a lower percentage of welfare concern cases in 2020, but these differences were not statistically significant. The cases in 2020 were more complex, with 48.8% involving more than one concern type per case versus 13.4% in 2019 (p<.001). Child protection concerns increased steadily during the lockdown, peaking in July. In 2020, there were more unwitnessed injuries (34.8% versus 17.7% in 2019 (p=.002)) and parental use of physical discipline (6.9% versus 0.6% in 2019 (p=.003)). No statistically significant differences in delayed presentation and domestic violence were observed. Conclusions: While fewer inpatients were assessed for child protection concerns during the 2020 lockdown versus 2019, the 2020 cases were more complex. An increase in physical and emotional abuse concerns, unwitnessed injuries and physical disciplining highlights child protection issues specific to the pandemic.

10.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 215, 2020 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A growing body of research highlights the pervasive harms of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on health throughout the life-course. However, findings from prior reviews and recent longitudinal studies investigating the association between types of ACEs and persistent pain have yielded inconsistent findings in the strength and direction of associations. The purpose of this review is to appraise and summarize evidence on the relationship between ACEs and persistent pain and disability outcomes in adulthood. The specific aims are (1) to determine whether there is a relationship between exposure to ACE and persistent pain and disability in adults and (2) to determine whether unique and cumulative ACEs exposures (number and type) increase the risk of developing persistent pain and disability in adulthood. METHOD: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies will be conducted. Our eligibility criteria are defined following a PECOS approach: population, adults with persistent (≥ 3 months) musculoskeletal and somatoform painful disorders exposed to single or cumulative direct ACEs alone (i.e., physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect) or in combination to indirect types of ACE (e.g., parental death, exposure to domestic violence) in the first 18 years of life; comparators, unexposed individuals; outcomes, measurements for persistent pain (≥ 3 months) and disability using discrete and/or continuous measures; and settings, general population, primary care. A comprehensive search of MEDLINE (Ovid) and nine other pertinent databases was conducted from inception to 29 August 2019 using a combination of key words and MeSh terms (the search will be updated prior to conducting the analyses). Pairs of reviewers will independently screen records and full text articles, and a third reviewer will be consulted in cases of disagreement. Data will be extracted using Endnote and Covidence and a meta-analysis will be conducted using Review Manager (RevMan) Version 5.3. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) and the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) checklists will be used to assess the quality of the included studies. If heterogeneity is high, the findings will be presented in narrative form. DISCUSSION: The present review will help consolidate knowledge on persistent pain and disability by evaluating whether frequency and type of adverse childhood experiences produces the most harm. Findings may help inform practitioners and policy-makers who endeavor to prevent and/or mitigate the consequences of ACEs and promote healthy development and well-being of children, youth, and families. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020150230.


Subject(s)
Adverse Childhood Experiences , Disabled Persons , Pain , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Retrospective Studies , Systematic Reviews as Topic
11.
Child Abuse Negl ; 122: 105297, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392188

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic represents a global and nationwide public health crisis. Although protective, socially restrictive measures may cause social isolation, which amounts to an increased ecological risk for mental health disturbance in vulnerable populations. Previous reports have suggested a significant association between the occurrence of public health crises and increased rates of multiple risk factors related to child mental health disturbances, domestic violence, and child-maltreatment. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a retrospective data review of reported child maltreatment cases from the National Family Safety Program during the period of September 2019 to September 2020. A descriptive analysis approach was used to compare rates before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: During COVID-19, abuse was significantly more reported by a family member than by the victims themselves or by a healthcare worker. However, before COVID-19, the offender was less often reported to be known to the victim; was both parents or the mother but was more often described as male, older, single, less educated; and currently unemployed with no significant change observed in their health status (p < 0.001). Interestingly, the predicted type of abuse also significantly differed and was more emotional or sexual than other types (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The types of abuse and the characteristics of both abused children and offenders saw significant changes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sexual and emotional abuses were reported more frequently, and the male gender is considered to feature more commonly in reports prior to the pandemic era than during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia
12.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 2021 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340454

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Threatening or obscene messaging is repeated, unwanted texts, emails, letters or cards experienced by the recipient as threatening or obscene, and causing fear, alarm or distress. It is rarely examined as an aspect of intimate partner violence. We describe the prevalence of exposure to threatening/obscene messaging from a current or ex-partner; characteristics of victims; and associations with other forms of violence and abuse, mental disorder, self-harm, and suicidality. METHODS: Cross-sectional probability-sample survey of the general population in England aged 16 + . Multivariable regression modelling tested associations between receipt of threatening/obscene messaging and current common mental disorder, past-year self-harm and suicidality. RESULTS: Threatening/obscene messages were received from a current/ex-partner by 6.6% (95%CI: 5.9-7.3) of adults who had been in a relationship; 1.7% received these in the past year. Victims were more likely to be female, under 35, single or divorced, socioeconomically disadvantaged, and to have experienced other forms of sexual and partner violence and abuse. Those who received threatening/obscene messages in the past year were more likely to experience common mental disorder (adjusted odds ratio 1.89; 1.01-3.55), self-harm (2.31; 1.00-5.33), and suicidal thoughts (2.00; 1.06-3.78). CONCLUSION: Threatening/obscene messaging commonly occurs in the context of intimate partner violence. While often occurring alongside sexual and physical violence, messaging has an additional association with mental disorder and suicidality. Routine enquiry in service settings concerning safety, including those working with people who have escaped domestic violence, should ask about ongoing contact from previous as well as current partners. This should include asking about messaging, as well as other forms of potentially technology-enabled abuse which may become increasingly common.

13.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 20, 2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is little information on care-seeking patterns for sexual assault and domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this study was to examine the changes in emergency department (ED) admissions for sexual assault and domestic violence since the COVID-19 pandemic was declared. METHODS: Observational ED admissions data from The Ottawa Hospital were analyzed from March 4 to May 5 (62 days) in 2020 (COVID-19 period) and compared to the same period in 2018 (pre-COVID-19). Total and mean weekly admissions were calculated for all-cause ED admissions and for sexual and domestic violence cases. A Poisson regression (without offset term) was used to calculate the weekly case count ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between the two time periods. Case characteristics were compared using chi-square tests, and percent differences were calculated. RESULTS: Compared to pre-COVID-19, total ED admissions dropped by 1111.22 cases per week (32.9% reduction), and the Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence Program cases dropped 4.66 cases per week. The weekly case count ratio for sexual assault cases was 0.47 (95% CI 0.79-0.27), equivalent of 53.49% reduction in cases, and 0.52 (95% CI 0.93-0.29), equivalent to a 48.45% reduction in physical assault cases. The characteristics of presenting cases were similar by age (median 25 years), sex (88.57% female), assault type (57.14% sexual assault, 48.57% physical assault), and location (31.43% patient's home, 40.00% assailant's home). There was a significant increase in psychological abuse (11.69% vs 28.57%) and assaults occurring outdoors (5.19% vs 22.86%). CONCLUSION: This study found a decrease in ED admissions for sexual assault and domestic violence during COVID-19, despite societal conditions that elevate risk of violence. Trends in care-seeking and assault patterns will require ongoing monitoring to inform the provision of optimal support for individuals experiencing violence, particularly as countries begin to re-open or lock-down again.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Domestic Violence/trends , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Sex Offenses/trends , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Domestic Violence/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Sex Offenses/psychology , Young Adult
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