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1.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research ; 75(2):62-69, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010617

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder emerging as a global burden. Diabetes serves as a risk factor for many complications inclusive of COVID-19. The SARS – 2 pathogens have led to Coronavirus disease. Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome recognized to cause respiratory infections in human beings. Diabetes patients being affected by coronavirus become more critical due to worsening hyperglycemia induces aggravation, endothelial dysfunction, and occlusion of blood vessels through the era of oxidative stress riding the down-regulation of glucose metabolism and hyperglycemia. Increased glucose level causes inflammation and tissue damage serves as a supportive factor for higher tissue damage in COVID patients. Sufferers with extreme COVID-19 have an exceptionally impaired interferon type 1 response with low IFN alpha activity in the blood, indicating excessive blood viral load, and an impaired inflammatory response. This can be alleviated by regular screening and appropriate therapy as like as metformin, camostat mesylate, chloroquine, and adjunctive therapy. Metformin is the desired preliminary drug to deal with T2DM. Camostat mesylate drug accelerated glycemia and insulin resistance and reduced fat buildup in mammalian models. Adjunctive treatment can be used to obviate the evolution of COVID-19.

2.
Antibiotiki i Khimioterapiya ; 67(3-4):36-41, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010615

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of including remaxol in the medical rehabilitation of elderly and senior patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia and changes in liver enzyme activity. Material and methods: 116 patients (56 men and 60 women) were examined. All patients underwent a complex of medical rehabilitation on an outpatient basis on the 10–12th day after discharge from the hospital and in the presence of 2 negative results of PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2, which included, in addition to the recommended measures (drug therapy and exercise therapy), vacuum labile massage according to the author's methodology and a course of hepatoprotective drugs. Depending on the latter, the patients were divided into two groups: I — the main group (n=60) — received remaxol in the drug treatment regimen: 400 ml, intravenously, drip, in a course of 10 days, II – comparison (n=56) — ademetionine: 400 ml, intravenously, drip, in 0.9% saline, in a course 10 days. Before rehabilitation and at its end, the following tests were carried out: Stange and Genchi tests;quality of life was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire. Laboratory studies included determination of the following indicators levels: ALT, AST, their ratio, alkaline phosphatase, GGT, total and direct bilirubin, LDH, albumin and total protein levels. Results. The inclusion of hepatoprotectors in the medical rehabilitation of the patients of this group contributes to a decrease in cytolytic and cholestatic syndromes, which is more pronounced in patients who received remaxol: (a decrease in AST by 1.5 times (from 35.4±1.4 to 23.5±l), and ALT — by 1.8 times (from 38.7±1.3 to 21.5±0.4 IU/l), as well as normalization of bilirubin metabolism: a decrease of total bilirubin by 2.1 times (from 32.1± 0.6 to 14.8±0.9 µmol/l) and of direct — by 2.5 times (from 7.1±0.6 to 2.8±0.1 µmol/l). A pronounced increase in resistance to hypoxia was noted during the therapy with the drug (according to Stange and Genche), which contributed to an improvement in psychophysiological indicators of patients’ quality of life (according to the SF-36 questionnaire). The obtained results, along with the safety of the drug, allow us to recommend its use in patients with this pathology.

3.
Vnitrni Lekarstvi ; 68(5):290-294, 2022.
Article in Czech | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010607

ABSTRACT

A case report of a patient with newly diagnosed granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) after undergoing COVID-19 (Coro-navirus Disease 2019) is discussed. GPA is one of the ANCA-associated vasculitis, which is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies against cytoplasmic enzymes neutrophils (Anti Neutrophil Cytoplasmatic Antibodies). It is a vasculitis that mainly affects small blood vessels, leading to damage to the kidneys, lungs, and upper respiratory tract, including the paranasal sinuses and orbits. This disease can result in an acute life-threatening condition. Such complications include diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH), a condition characterized by blood leakage from the pulmonary vessels into the alveoli, often leading to acute vital signs and even respiratory failure. DAH can have many causes – autoimmune diseases including vasculitides as well as non-immunological causes. Early and adequate comprehensive therapy including immunosuppressive treatment (cyclophosphamide/rituximab and glucocorticoids) can be life-saving.

4.
Children Infections ; 21(2):67-72, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010580

ABSTRACT

Kidney disease and chronic renal failure are among the main comorbidities of the complicated course of COVID-19. Objective: to identify the clinical features of the course of a new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2-infection in a child aged 2 years 2 months with chronic kidney disease and dialysis-dependent renal failure. A new coronavirus infection typically began with a moderate intoxication syndrome and catarrhal symptoms, confirmed by the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Computed tomography of the chest revealed signs of bilateral pneumonia, 30% damage to the lung tissue. Progression occurred by the 4th day of hospitalization with the development of a multisystem inflammatory syndrome, including damage to the cardiovascular system of the digestive system against the background of the existing end-stage renal failure. Laboratory criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome were an increase procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and ferritin. As a result of the developed multiple organ failure, a fatal outcome occurred.

5.
Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences ; 29(4):368-377, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010569

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is a red alarm for global health, so researchers around the world are working on it to design an effective vaccine against it. Protein is one of the candidates for vaccine development which plays an important role in virus pathogenesis. Accordingly, this study was done to evaluate the critical characteristic of this protein as a vaccine candidate using in-silico analysis. Methods: The sequence of SARS-CoV-2-associated E protein was recruited from NCBI and subjected to the IEDB software to evaluate the most potent epitopes. The capacity of the interactions of HLA-I and HLA-II molecules with selective peptides was studied using IEBD tool kit. The E protein sequence was subjected to B cell and T cell tests to realize the most promising peptides that could act as COVID-19 vaccine. Results: Among the tested peptides for the T cell-test, this study found two interesting epitopes: VSEETGTLI and LTALRLCAY that exhibit high binding affinity as a strong indicator to HLA-I and HLA-II alleles together. The results of the analysis demonstrated that some epitopes in the E protein have a relatively higher immunogenicity score based on interaction with HLA-II, such as SEETGTLIVNSVLLF, TLIVNSVLLFLAFVV, LAFVVFLLVTLAILT, LAILTALRLCAYCCN, and SVLLFLAFVVFLLVT. Furthermore, two sequences (FVSEET and PSFYVYSRVKNLNSSRVP) were reported as the selective linear epitopes for B cell, on the surface of SARS-CoV-2 E protein and being Immunogenic. Conclusion: Since E protein can stimulate favorable immune responses, T and B-cell responses, its evaluation in patients with COVID-19 is of a great importance.

6.
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology ; 29(3):284-290, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010558

ABSTRACT

Transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) is an androgen-dependent serine protease, and it had previously been reported that it had important pathological functions in tumor metastasis and invasion and virus infection. The entry of coronavirus into host cells is the prerequisite for its transmission and pathogenicity. TMPRSS2 can mediate the invasion of coronavirus into host cells by activating the spike glycoprotein of coronavirus, so it was considered as a potential target for the intervention of coronavirus infection.Current reported effective inhibitors of TMPRSS2 are broad-spectrum drugs targeting the serine protease family, suggesting urgency for exploring and developing novel TMPRSS2-specific inhibitory molecules. The biological characteristics and pathological functions of TMPRSS2 were summarized, with emphasis on the universal function of TMPRSS2 in human pathogenic coronavirus infection and the latest research trends of TMPRSS2 inhibitors in this paper, to highlight the potential of targeting TMPRSS2 as a novel strategy to prevent and limit early infection and transmission of novel coronavirus.

7.
Obshchaya Reanimatologiya ; 18(4):11-19, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010542

ABSTRACT

One of the main problems facing intensivists when treating patients with COVID-19 is severe and critical acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with the underlying viral pneumonia. The current guidelines of the Russian Ministry of Health (Version 15 of 22.02.22) do not include drugs with a lung protective effect. This issue could be solved by administration of a synthetic analogue of leu-enkephalin. Aim. Study the efficacy of a synthetic analogue of leu-enkephalin in ARDS in patients with COVID-19. Materials and methods. The study included 35 patients divided into 2 groups. Group 1 (main) patients (n=15) in addition to standard therapy received a continuous infusion of synthetic analogue of leu-enkephalin at a rate of 5 µg/kg/hour for 5 days. Patients from group 2 (control, n=20) were treated according to the Temporary Guidelines of the Ministry of Health (V.15), but without the synthetic analogue of leu-enkephalin. The radiological data, frequency, severity and evolution of respiratory complications, changes in P/F (PaO2/FiO2) ratio, as well as changes in the scores of prognostic APACHE II, SOFA, and NEWS scales were evaluated. Results. In patients taking the studied drug, the percentage of lung damage did not change with the median (IQR) of 0 [–8;0], while in the control group it increased by approximately 10% with the median (IQR) of +10,0 [+2;+20] (P=0.001). The proportion of patients in group 1 with positive disease evolution within 5–9 days after treatment initiation was significantly higher and reached 46.7 [24.8;69.9]%, whereas in group 2 it was 15.0 [5.2;36.0]% (P=0.04). Also, in group 1, starting from day 4, the median P/F ratio was significantly higher than in group 2 reaching 220 [185;245] versus 127 [111;158], respectively (P=0.014). The need for non-invasive lung ventilation in group 1 on day 7 averaged 6.7%, while in group 2 it was as high as 45.0%, which was significantly higher than in the main group (P=0.013). Conclusions. The use of synthetic analogue of leu-enkephalin according to the specified regimen had a significant impact on the main parameters of the viral pneumonia severity. The results serve as a rationale for the development of a novel effective treatment strategy to supplement the current standard COVID-19 management.

8.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(8):7678-7684, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010533

ABSTRACT

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and health authorities have devoted significant attention to understanding risk factors for coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and their role in disease outcomes including tumer necrosis factor. In addition, diabetes may lead to lung dysfunction, such as decreased forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity. Therefore, diabetes could possibly be a risk factor for covid-19. Our study aims to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with severe covid-19 with diabetes mellitus, and the association of diabetes with the outcome in patients with severe covid-19. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in a period between November 2021 and March 2022, blood was taken from patients (80) with covid-19. Samples were taken from patients who were present in Al-Zahraa teaching hospital in Iraq. A total of samples were subjected to laboratory examinations including Tumor necrosis factor α using specific ELISA Kit. Result: The result of this observational study was depending on the analysis of data from 80 COVID-19 patients. All selected sociodemographic features, disease indicators, and history of chronic disease were listed as frequencies and percentages. The mean age was 52 years old. The SPO2 for those patients was ranged from 79 to 95% with a mean equal to 90.10 ±3.48. All patients showed elevated CRP value with a mean = 83.52. More than half of the sample (52.5%) were females and near half of the (48.8%) were overweighted when calculate their BMI. The majority (92.5%) mentioned having no family history of diabetes mellitus and 95% of them have no any other diagnosed chronic disease. Near two thirds (67.5%) were prescribed steroid in the treatment regime for their COVID-19 infection. Mean difference of TNF was tested among positive Covid-19 having diabetic status, results showed that.

9.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(8):7591-7595, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010532

ABSTRACT

The current research aimedto demonstrate the extent such as increase in the rate of immune response to antibodies (IgG, IgM) for people who received the first dose of the Pfizer mRNA vaccine at (1-3) weeks times period and to compare them with people who were not taken for the first dose of the same vaccine and none infected with COVID-19.Also the results appearedsignificant variations in immunoglobulin (IgG) levels (P≤ 0.05) between case (Recipients mRNA vaccination) and control patients, there were. In terms of age and gender, however, there were no significant changes (P≥ 0.05) in immunoglobulin (IgM) levels between case (Recipients mRNA vaccination) and control patients.

10.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(8):7365-7385, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010527

ABSTRACT

Rationale and Objectives-At present, sinonasal mucormycosis is most worrisome COVID-19 related complication in India while western countries have relatively stayed aloof. But given the pervasive nature of fungi and presence of all predisposing conditions even in western countries, it is imperative to have knowledge about the imaging patterns and staging of the disease. In this study, we try to single out factors responsible for the sudden increment in the incidence of sinonasal mucormycosis among covid-19 patients and discuss their imaging features. Patients and Methods-The case records of 30 patients, between January to May, 2021, with positive RT-PCR for COVID-19 and biopsy proven sinonasal mucormycosis were retrospectively evaluated. Results – Out of 30 patients, 28 had raised random blood glucose level and 24 had raised ferritin level. On imaging, nasal cavity involvement was seen in 18 patients. Paranasal sinuses were involved in 28 patients. The disease process also showed involvement of orbit, neck spaces and intracranial extension. We divided sinonasal mucormycosis into four groups and mortality was seen in patients of stage 3 and 4 (total mortality was 26.7%). Conclusion-MRI played an important role in diagnosis and staging of sinonasal mucormycosis as well as determining the extrasinus extent of disease. Mortality was seen in patients presenting in advanced stage of the disease, with orbital or intracranial extension. Thus, it is imperative that high index of suspicion, early imaging with diagnosis and aggressive management protocol needed to reduce morbidity and mortality.

11.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(8):6203-6209, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010516

ABSTRACT

The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 is extremely variable. Thus, it is likely that the heterogeneity in the genetic make-up of the host may contribute to disease severity. Toll-like receptor (TLR)8 plays a vital role in the innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We genotyped 60 adult COVID-19 samples taken from 20 patients, 20 recovery persons and 20 healthy people for TLR8 (rs3764880 A/G) polymorphisms usingTetra-ARMS Technique. The frequency of alleles of TLR8 gene polymorphism of A allele is 57.5% in patients and 60.0% in control group, while frequency of G allele is 42.5% in patients and 40.0% in control group. While, the frequency of alleles of TLR8 gene polymorphism of A allele is 55.0% in recovery and 60.0% in control group, while frequency of G allele is 45.0% in recovery and 40.0% in control group.

12.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(8):6196-6202, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010515

ABSTRACT

Infection by the Covid-19 produces in people an illness of profoundly factor and erratic seriousness. The presence of continuous hereditary single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the population could prompt a more prominent weakness to infections or an overstated provocative reaction. We concentrated on the relationship between SNP from AGTR1 gene and the seriousness of the infection created by the SARS-Cov-2 infection. Methods: 30 (18 of male and 12 of Female) Covid-19 patients with age range from 55-60 years were assembled in light of the seriousness of side effects. Results: one SNP rs5186 in AGTR1 gene were related with the seriousness of illness. Our results were showed that the rs5186 (C) allele in AGTR1 gene is associated with increased risk for Covid 19 based on OR value: homozygous allele CC has 2.5(0.7-8.5), allele C with allele frequency 20 more than control group, and with OR=2.5(1.5-5.9) with significant P values (P=0.03).

13.
Medical Journal of Indonesia ; 31(2):96-101, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Coagulopathy is a serious COVID-19 complication that requires rapid diagnosis and anticoagulation. This study aimed to determine the role of coagulation examination using thromboelastography (TEG) on the decision-making time of anticoagulant therapy in COVID-19 patients and its clinical outcomes. METHODS A prospective observational study was conducted in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Indonesia, from October 2020 to March 2021. We consecutively recruited moderate and severe COVID-19 patients in the high and intensive care units. Turnaround time, time to anticoagulant therapy decision, and clinical outcomes (length of stay and 30-day mortality) were compared between those who had a TEG examination in addition to the standard coagulation profile examination (thrombocyte count, PT, APTT, D-dimer, and fibrinogen) and those who had only a standard coagulation profile laboratory examination. RESULTS Among 100 moderate to severe COVID-19 patients recruited, 50 patients had a TEG examination. The turnaround time of TEG was 45 (15–102) min versus 82 (19– 164) min in the standard examination (p<0.001). The time to decision was significantly faster in the TEG group than the standard group (75 [42–133] min versus 184 [92–353] min, p<0.001). The turnaround time was positively correlated with time to decision (r = 0.760, p<0.001). However, TEG did not improve clinical outcomes such as length of stay (10.5 [3–20] versus 9 [2–39] days) and 30-day mortality (66% versus 64%). CONCLUSIONS The TEG method significantly enables quicker decision-making time for moderate to severe coagulation disorder in COVID-19 patients.

14.
International journal of occupational medicine and environmental health ; 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010503

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to analyze the effect of BNT162b2 vaccination among Polish healthcare workers in terms of serologic response and adverse events. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire survey covered data in the period January 1-March 31, 2021 gathered in 2 hospitals in Wielkopolska, Poland. Additionally, serological analysis (SARS-CoV-2 anti-S protein IgG) was performed. RESULTS: A total of 617 medical workers were vaccinated with BNT162b2 (Comirnaty, Pfizer). Data from the questionnaires were received from all of the staff after the first and the second dose. No severe side effects were observed. The most common side effect following the first and second doses of vaccination was pain at the injection site. After the first dose, 3 (1.4 %) women aged 18-55 years, 5 women (3.9 %), and 3 men (8.3 %) aged >55 years had negative SARS-CoV-2 anti-S protein IgG result. After the second dose, all those who agreed to have antibodies tested responded to vaccination with positive SARS-CoV-2 anti-S protein IgG results. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination tolerance was good in the studied population;no severe side effects were observed. After the second dose, all tested healthcare workers responded to vaccination with antibody production.

15.
Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Medical Sciences) ; 43(5):797-801, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010485

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the clinical features of Omicron and Delta cases, so as to provide scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Methods: The case-control study method was used to retrospectively analyze the clinical data of the Omicron cases admitted to the designated hospital for the treatment of COVID-19 in Xi'an from December 2021 to January 2022. and the Delta cases admitted during the same period were used as the control group. The demographic data, epidemiological history, vaccination status, clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, nucleic acid and antibody levels, and outcomes of patients in the two groups were collected and compared. Results: A total of 21 patients were included in the study, 5 were Omicron patients and 16 were Delta cases. The mean age of the patients in the two groups were (38.20±15.07) and (37.69±10.39) years, respectively.The time interval between the last vaccination and the diagnosis was (145.40±77.92) days and (159.00±99.74) days, respectively. For the initial symptoms, the patients with Omicron were mainly characterized by throat discomfort (3, 60%), cough and sputum (2, 40%), and the patients with Delta were mainly characterized by throat discomfort (5, 31.25%), fatigue (5, 31.25%), cough and sputum (4, 25%). On admission, laboratory tests showed that 60% of Omicron patients had low lymphocytes and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and 50% of patients in the delta group had elevated hemoglobin. The Ct values of ORFlab gene, N gene and E gene with Omicron were lower than those with Delta. And the difference of E gene between the two groups was statistically significant (t=-2.711, P=0.024). IgG antibody levels increased in both groups.The time for nucleic acid to turn negative with Omicron was (28.20±5.89) days, and it was (18.50±7.73) days with Delta, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (t=2.565, P=0.019). The length of hospitalization with Omicron was (30.60±4.88) days, and that with Delta was (22.13±7.81) days, and the difference was statistically significant (t=2.270, P =0.035). Conclusions: The initial symptoms of Omicron patients are mainly throat discomfort, cough and sputum. The clinical manifestations are generally mild. The nucleic acid test Ct value is lower. The time for nucleic acid to turn negative and the time for hospitalization are longer, and the potential infectiousness is stronger. Those eligible for vaccination should complete the full course of vaccination and booster vaccination as soon as possible. At the same time, the management of "early detection, early reporting, early isolation, and early treatment" should be implemented.

16.
Cocuk Enfeksiyon Dergisi ; 16(2):77-86, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010458

ABSTRACT

Objective: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) in children is a newly defined and serious health problem that develops after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our aim is to report epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and radiological features of children with MIS-C. Material and Methods: Forty patients who applied to our hospital from October 2020 to February 2021 and met the MIS-C criteria were included in the study. Patients with gastrointestinal involvement (GIS), cardiac involvement and Kawasaki Disease (KD)-like MIS-C were examined clini-cally and laboratory. Results: The mean age of the patients was 8.2 ± 4.2 years and male patients were in the majority (70%). The most common symptoms were fe-ver (100%) and fatigue (90%). Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 71%, cardiac involvement in %40, Kawasaki-like patients in %52.5, shock symptoms in 59%. Elevated levels of C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and ferritin were found in 100%, 97.5%, and 67.5% of the patients, respec-tively. Patients with cardiac involvement had higher mean age and lower lymphocyte levels. Shock findings were higher in patients with KD-like MIS-C. Also, INR and ferritin levels were higher in KD-like MIS-C patients (p= 0.028). The mean platelet count (p= 0.004) and albumin levels were lower (p= 0.048) in shock group. Conclusion: MIS-C is a hyperinflammatory syndrome with cardiac, GIS, and lung involvement. Cardiac findings were not common in patients presenting with KD-like MIS-C, but a poor prognosis was observed in KD-like MIS-C patients. Patients with cardiac involvement were older and their lymphocyte count was lower.

17.
Journal of SAFOG ; 14(4):445-452, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010447

ABSTRACT

Background: Theoretically, pregnant women are more susceptible to infection of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe pneumonia due to presentation of physiological changes adaptation and immunosuppression during pregnancy. Based on the immune clock theory, if pregnant women had COVID-19 in the first and third it can appearance of cytokine storm due to hyperinflammation state, and lead to poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. Hyperinflammation state is characterized by an increase in inflammatory biomarkers in the serum, including the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin levels. This study aims to determine the characteristic of NLR, CRP, and procalcitonin in pregnancy with COVID-19 at Sanglah General Hospital, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional descriptive study using secondary data from patient’s medical records and is conducted in the delivery room and medical record department at Sanglah General Hospital, Denpasar from April 2020 to April 2021. Result: Pregnancy cases with COVID-19 in this study were in the 26–30-year age group, as much as 26 cases (37.14%) with most common comorbidities found were preeclampsia and electrolyte imbalance, as much as nine cases each (12.86%). Most of the neonates born at term, with birth weight 2,500 gm, and vigorous baby. The highest median NLR value was found in pregnant women with COVID-19 in comorbid with obesity, 6.79 (2.88–9.14). In this study, the cases with a length of stay more than or 10 days had a median NLR value of 6.93 (2.57–20.69), CRP 59.83 (1.60–151.56), and procalcitonin 0.145 (0.03–2.56), which are all higher than those whose length of stay was less than 10 days. Conclusion: NLR, CRP, and procalcitonin values are affected by the trimester of pregnancy, the maternal comorbidities, the commonly found chest X-ray features, the length of hospital stay, the prognostic value to be determined to find the disease severity, the needs of oxygen supplementation, and the intensive care treatment, and also they could be the predictors for neonatal outcome in pregnancy with COVID-19.

18.
Formosan Journal of Surgery ; 55(4):158-160, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010413

ABSTRACT

The authors reported the clinical course of a 58-year-old female suffering from cerebral venous sinus thrombosis associated with hemorrhage after the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination. Emergent decompressive craniectomy was performed, and aggressive blood transfusion was given. Nevertheless, progressive intracerebral hemorrhage and thrombocytopenia developed. A delayed diagnosis was made on a rare complication of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) with a positive result of anti-platelet factor 4 antibodies (PF4 Ab). The patient died 4 days postoperative due to brainstem failure.

19.
Pharmacia ; 69(3):791-800, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010396

ABSTRACT

The aim of current study was to determine, retrospectively, possible correlations between smoking and the incidence, course severity, intubation rate, and mortality (by gender and age) in patients treated for complicated coronavirus infection in the internal medicine clinic at UMHATEM ”N. I. Pirogov” Sofia for the period 01.03.2020–31.12.2020. In a prospective study, the recovery period and immunogenesis in smokers and non-smokers within a one-year period after hospital discharge was investigated. The applied methods were: 1) computed tomography and blood gas analysis 2) chemiluminescent immunoassay for the qualitative determination of total IgM, IgA and IgG anti-SARS-CoV2 AB. Results showed that the part of non-smokers with a positive PCR test is significantly higher compared to the group of former and current smokers. The data obtained from the study confirmed that Covid infection is much more severe among smokers and former smokers with a higher levels of inflammatory markers noticed among the smoking group.

20.
Frontiers in Pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009894

ABSTRACT

Preclinical pharmacokinetics (PK) and In Vitro ADME properties of GS-441524, a potential oral agent for the treatment of Covid-19, were studied. GS-441524 was stable in vitro in liver microsomes, cytosols, and hepatocytes of mice, rats, monkeys, dogs, and humans. The plasma free fractions of GS-441524 were 62–78% across all studied species. The in vitro transporter study results showed that GS-441524 was a substrate of MDR1, BCRP, CNT3, ENT1, and ENT2;but not a substrate of CNT1, CNT2, and ENT4. GS-441524 had a low to moderate plasma clearance (CLp), ranging from 4.1 mL/min/kg in dogs to 26 mL/min/kg in mice;the steady state volume distribution (Vdss) ranged from 0.9 L/kg in dogs to 2.4 L/kg in mice after IV administration. Urinary excretion appeared to be the major elimination process for GS-441524. Following oral administration, the oral bioavailability was 8.3% in monkeys, 33% in rats, 39% in mice, and 85% in dogs. The PK and ADME properties of GS-441524 support its further development as an oral drug candidate.

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