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1.
Nano Res ; : 1-8, 2022 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239241

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has necessitated rapid, easy-to-use, and accurate diagnostic methods to monitor the virus infection. Herein, a ratiometric fluorescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using Si-fluorescein isothiocyanate nanoparticles (FITC NPs) for detecting SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein. Si-FITC NPs were prepared by a one-pot hydrothermal method using 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES)-FITC as the Si source. This method did not need post-modification and avoided the reduction in quantum yield and stability. The p-nitrophenyl (pNP) produced by the alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-mediated hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) could quench Si fluorescence in Si-FITC NPs via the inner filter effect. In ELISA, an immunocomplex was formed by the recognition of capture antibody/N protein/reporter antibody. ALP-linked secondary antibody bound to the reporter antibody and induced pNPP hydrolysis to specifically quench Si fluorescence in Si-FITC NPs. The change in fluorescence intensity ratio could be used for detecting N protein, with a wide linearity range (0.01-10.0 and 50-300 ng/mL) and low detection limit (0.002 ng/mL). The concentration of spiked SARS-CoV-2 N protein could be determined accurately in human serum. Moreover, this proposed method can accurately distinguish coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and non-COVID-19 patient samples. Therefore, this simple, sensitive, and accurate method can be applied for the early diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. Electronic Supplementary Material: Supplementary material (characterization of Si-FITC NPs (FTIR spectrum, XRD spectra, and synchronous fluorescence spectra); condition optimization of ALP response (fluorescence intensity ratio change); mechanism investigation of ALP response (fluorescence lifetime decay curves and UV-vis absorption spectra); detection of N protein using commercial ELISA Kit; analytical performance of assays for ALP detection or SARS-CoV-2 N protein detection; and determination results of SARS-CoV-2 N protein in human serum) is available in the online version of this article at 10.1007/s12274-022-4740-5.

2.
Journal of Biological Chemistry ; 299(3 Supplement):S396-S397, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243840

ABSTRACT

Objective: Immunohistochemistry of post-mortem lung tissue from Covid-19 patients with diffuse alveolar damage demonstrated marked increases in chondroitin sulfate and CHST15 and decline in N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase. Studies were undertaken to identify the mechanisms involved in these effects. Method(s): Human primary small airway epithelial cells (PCS 301-010;ATCC) were cultured and exposed to the SARSCoV- 2 spike protein receptor binding domain (SPRBD;AA: Lys310-Leu560;Amsbio). Expression of the spike protein receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), was enhanced by treatment with Interferon-beta. Promoter activation, DNA-binding, RNA silencing, QPCR, Western blots, ELISAs, and specific enzyme inhibitors were used to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Result(s): Treatment of the cultured cells by the SPRBD led to increased CHST15 and CHST11 expression and decline in ARSB expression. Sulfotransferase activity, total chondroitin sulfate, and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content were increased. Phospho-T180/T182-p38-MAPK and phospho- S423/S425-Smad3 were required for the activation of the CHST15 and CHST11 promoters. Inhibition by SB203580, a phospho-p38 MAPK inhibitor, and by SIS3, a Smad3 inhibitor, blocked the CHST15 and CHST11 promoter activation. SB203580 reversed the SPRBD-induced decline in ARSB expression, but SIS3 had no effect on ARSB expression or promoter activation. Phospho-p38 MAPK was shown to reduce retinoblastoma protein (RB) S807/S811 phosphorylation and increase RB S249/T252 phosphorylation. E2F-DNA binding declined following exposure to SPRBD, and SB203580 reversed this effect. This indicates a mechanism by which SPRBD, phospho-p38 MAPK, E2F, and RB can regulate ARSB expression and thereby impact on chondroitin 4-sulfate and dermatan sulfate and molecules that bind to these sulfated GAGs, including Interleukin-8, bone morphogenetic protein-4, galectin-3 and SHP-2 (Src homology region 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2). Conclusion(s): The enzyme ARSB is required for the degradation of chondroitin 4-sulfate and dermatan sulfate, and accumulation of these sulfated GAGs can contribute to lung pathophysiology, as evident in Covid-19. Some effects of the SPRBD may be attributable to unopposed Angiotensin II, when Ang1-7 counter effects are diminished due to binding of ACE2 with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and reduced production of Ang1-7. Aberrant cell signaling and activation of the phospho-p38 MAPK and Smad3 pathways increase CHST15 and CHST11 production, which can contribute to increased chondroitin sulfate in infected cells. Decline in ARSB may occur as a consequence of effects of phospho-p38 MAPK on RB phosphorylation and E2F1 availability. Decline in ARSB and the resulting impaired degradation of sulfated GAGs have profound consequences on cellular metabolic, signaling, and transcriptional events. Funding is VA Merit Award.Copyright © 2023 The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

3.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 82(Suppl 1):1897-1898, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20242556

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAcetaminophen (APAP = paracetamol) may potentially impact vaccine-associated immune responses as the intake of APAP has been associated with a worse outcome in tumor patients receiving checkpoint inhibitors.[1]Different DMARD regimen have been shown to impair the humoral immune response to mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with rheumatoid arthritis but the effect of paracetamol has not been explored thus far.ObjectivesTo analyse whether the intake of APAP may interfere with antiviral humoral immune responses following two doses of an anti-SARS-CoV-2 mRNA based vaccine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on DMARD therapy.MethodsThe RECOVER trial (Rheumatoid Covid-19 Vaccine Immune Response) was a non-randomised, prospective observational control group trial and enrolled 77 RA patients on DMARD therapy and 21 healthy controls (HC). We performed a posthoc analysis of blood samples taken before the first vaccine dose (T0), two (T1) and three (T2) weeks after the first and second vaccine dose, and at 12 (T3) weeks. APAP intake was measured using ELISA. The antibody response (anti-S) to the receptor binding domain (RBD) within the SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein was measured with the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2-S (Roche Diagnostics GmbH) test. The neutralizing activity NT50 at week 12 was assessed using an HIV-based pseudovirus neutralization assay against Wuhan-Hu-1.ResultsBaseline characteristics of participants are detailed in Table 1. The immunogenicity analyses were based on 73 RA patients after exclusion of 4 patients with previously unnoticed SARS-CoV-2 infection (positive for anti-nucleoprotein at baseline). APAP was detected in serum samples from 34/73 (25%) RA patients and in 7/21 (33%) HC (least at one timepoint T0, T1 and/or T2). APAP intake in HC did not affect levels of anti-S at any timepoint and all HC developed potent neutralizing activity (NT50 ≥ 250) at week 12. RA patients, who tested positive for APAP at T1, showed comparable anti-S levels at T1, T2 and T3 compared to RA patients not exposed to APAP. The detection of APAP at T2 corresponded to lower anti-S levels at T2 (Figure 1 A, B). The detection of APAP at T2 was associated with a significantly lower SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing activity at week 12 compared to patients without perivaccination APAP exposure (p =0.04) (Figure 1 C).ConclusionA decrease of antiviral humoral immune responses was observed in RA patients (but not in HC) who were exposed to APAP at the time of the second mRNA vaccine dose compared to patients in whom APAP was not detected. Our data suggest that the use of paracetamol within the time period around vaccination may impair vaccine-induced immune responses in patients with an already higher risk for blunted immune responses.Reference[1]Bessede A et al. Ann Oncol 2022;33: 909-915Table 1.Baseline characteristics: RA patients and HC with/without APAP exposureRA APAP – n = 37RA APAP + n = 36p-valueHC APAP – n = 8HC APAP + n = 13p-valueAge (yrs), mean (± SD)62 (13)67 (10)0.07 (NS)45 (12)44 (14)0.90 (NS)Female sex, n (%)24 (65)19 (53)0.29 (NS)2 (25)5 (38)0.53 (NS)Vaccination type/schedulemRNA-1273, n (%)4 (11)8 (22.2)0.19 (NS)0 (0)0 (0)BNT162b2, n (%)33 (89)28 (77.8)0.19 (NS)8 (100)13 (100)RA disease characteristicsACPA ± RF, n (%)17/37 (46)19/36 (53)0.56 (NS)NANANARA disease duration (yrs ± SD)9.2 (9.8)10.2 (8.1)0.67 (NS)NANANADMARD therapycsDMARD-mono, n (%)13/37 (35)9/36 (25)0.35 (NS)NANANAbDMARD-mono/combo, n (%)16/37 (43)16/36 (44)0.92 (NS)NANANAtsDMARDs-mono/combo, n (%)8/37 (22)11/36 (31)0.38 (NS)NANANAPrednisone, n (%)15/37 (41)12/36 (33.3)0.52 (NS)NANANAMean daily dose prednisone (mg ± SD)4.6 ± 1.13.9 ± 2.30.39 (NS)NANANA* APAP = acetaminophenFigure 1.Acknowledgements:NIL.Disclosure of InterestsNone Declared.

4.
Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242119

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies have shown an impaired humoral immune response to COVID-19 vaccination. It is therefore of paramount importance to investigate anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels in plasma pools and in immunoglobulin (IgG) products used to treat these patients. AIM: To assess the evolution of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (S protein) in plasma pools and IgG products and its neutralizing activity to original-type virus (Wuhan) and the variants of concern (VOC), including Omicron. Method(s): Healthy donors plasma pools collected in the US and Europe, and the subsequent intravenous (Flebogamma DIFand Gamunex-C, Grifols) and subcutaneous (Xembify, Grifols) IgG manufactured batches were followed from March 2020. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S protein IgG titers were determined in plasma pools and in IgG batches by ELISA. Neutralization assays analyzed the capacity of IgG products to neutralize original-type virus and VOC (Alpha, Beta, Delta, Omicron BA.1 and BA.5), using pseudo viruses expressing S protein. Results were expressed as the dilution producing 50% neutralization (ID50). Result(s): In plasma pools, anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies continuously increased throughout the study period regardless of the geographic origin. In the US, the first positive plasma pools were collected at the end of 2020. Since July 2021, an exponential increase over 30-fold of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies was reported. This trend continued increasing until the end of study period. Similarly, IgG products showed a similar evolution of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies. As expected, IgG batches released at the end of 2020 presented low SARS-CoV-2 neutralization activity. However, IgG products manufactured since August 2021 showed high neutralization activity against original-type virus and the rest of VOC. Regarding Omicron BA.5, a 5 to 10-fold increase was observed over time. Conclusion(s): This study reported the onset of elevated anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers in plasma pools and IgG products since mid-2021, reflecting the evolution of the pandemic and vaccine campaigns. Intravenous and subcutaneous IgG products efficiently neutralized the current circulating VOC, Omicron BA.5. Further research is warranted to assess whether a clinical protective titer against SARS-CoV-2 and passive immunization is achieved in patients with immunodeficiencies treated with IgG products.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

5.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 82(Suppl 1):1622-1623, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20241909

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAnti-synthetase syndrome (ASS) is a rare auto-immune condition that combines autoantibodies and specifics clinical manifestations, including myositis, interstitial lung disease (ILD), polyarthritis, mechanic's hands, Raynaud's phenomenon, and unexplained fever. The hallmark of this syndrome is the presence of anti-aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase (ARS) antibodies. Several anti-ARS antibodies have been described, anti-Jo1 being the most common, followed by anti-PL7, anti-PL12, anti-OJ, anti-EJ, anti-KS, anti-YRS, and anti-Zo. According to a recent epidemiological survey, the rising number of patients with autoimmune diseases, including idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) coincides with the COVID-19 pandemic.ObjectivesTo evaluate the clinical characteristics of ASS patients with different anti-ARS antibodies from a tertiary rheumatology center.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective, single-centered study on consecutive patients diagnosed with ASS from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2022. Clinical and serologic data were obtained by medical records review from hospital database. Myositis-specific antibodies (MSA) and myositis-associated antibodies (MAA) were tested using commercial ELISA kits. We included all patients fulfilling Connor's criteria for ASS.ResultsSixty-one patients (44 females) with mean age 54.4 (13.8) years were included. The most frequently reported clinical manifestation was arthralgia (68.8%), followed by Raynaud's phenomenon (67.2%), ILD (65.6%), myositis (46%), mechanic's hands (44.3%), arthritis (39.3%), and fever (18.0%). The typical triad for ASS, including myositis, arthritis and ILD was present in 17 patients. Twenty-eight (45.9%) patients were PL7+, 21 (34.4%) were Jo1+, 3 (4.9%) were PL12+, and 2 (3.2%) were OJ+. Seven patients were positive for more than two anti-ARS antibodies. The most frequently found MAA was anti-Ro52 (n=23, 37.7%). Of the 61 patients included, 41 (67.2%) patients were diagnosed in the last 3 years (COVID-19 pandemic). The most frequently detected MSA in ASS patients diagnosed during COVID-19 pandemic was anti-PL7 (25/28), while anti-Jo1 was the most common MSA in ASS patients diagnosed before 2020 (p<0.05) (Fig 1).The anti-Jo1+ patients were younger, have significantly more frequent muscle involvement and significantly higher levels of CK than anti-PL7+ patients (p<0.05). The co-occurance of anti-Ro52 antibodies was more frequently observed in anti-Jo1+ patients (n=11, 52.4%) than in anti-PL7+ patients (n=6, 21.4%) (p<0.05). We did not find statistically significant differences between ASS groups regarding sex, disease duration, clinical manifestations including dermatologic lesions, Raynaud's phenomenon, arthralgia/arthritis, ILD, fever, and cancers (all p>0.05).ConclusionASS patients have heterogenous manifestations, and different types of anti-ARS antibodies are associated to distinct clinical and immunological features. The COVID-19 pandemic led to increase prevalence of ASS cases and to a remarkable shift in the anti-ARS antibodies profile, with increased frequency of anti-PL7 antibodies. Further studies are needed to investigate the link between SARS-CoV-2 infections and myositis.References[1]Witt LJ, et al. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Antisynthetase Syndrome. Clin Pulm Med. 2016 Sep;23(5):218-226.[2]Gracia-Ramos AE, et al. New Onset of Autoimmune Diseases Following COVID-19 Diagnosis. Cells. 2021 Dec 20;10(12):3592.[3]Connors GR, et al. Interstitial lung disease associated with the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: what progress has been made in the past 35 years? Chest. 2010 Dec;138(6):1464-74.[4]García-Bravo Let al. Association of anti-SARS-COV-2 vaccine with increased incidence of myositis-related anti-RNA-synthetases auto-antibodies. J Transl Autoimmun. 2022 Jun 30;5:100160.Figure 1.ASS patients with positive anti-ARS antibodies per year (from 2015 to 2022). The green line shows the PL7+ patients;and the orange line shows the Jo1+ cases.[Figure omitted. See PDF]AcknowledgementsI have no acknowledgements to declare.Disclosure of Inter stsNone Declared.

6.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 82(Suppl 1):547, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20240086

ABSTRACT

BackgroundA 3rd COVID-19 vaccination is currently recommended for patients under immunosuppression. However, a fast decline of antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein has been observed.ObjectivesIt remains unclear whether immunosuppressive therapy affects kinetics of humoral and cellular immune responses.Methods50 patients under immunosuppression and 42 healthy controls (HCs) received a 3rd dose of an mRNA-based vaccine and were monitored over a 12-weeks period. Humoral immune response was assessed 4 and 12 weeks after 3rd dose. Antibodies were quantified using the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike immunoassay against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses were quantified by IFN-γ ELISpot assays. Adverse events, including SARS-CoV-2 infections, were monitored over a 12-week period.ResultsAt week 12, reduced anti-RBD antibody levels were observed in IMID patients as compared to HCs (median antibody level 5345 BAU/ml [1781 – 10208] versus 9650 BAU/ml [6633 - 16050], p < 0.001). Reduction in relative antibody levels was significantly higher in IMID patients as compared to HCs at week 12 (p < 0.001). Lowest anti-RBD antibody levels were detected in IMID patients who received biological diseases modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) or a combination therapy with conventional synthetic and biological DMARDs. Number of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells against wildtype and Omicron variants remained stable over 12 weeks in IMID patients. No serious adverse events were reported.ConclusionDue to a fast decline in anti-RBD antibodies in IMID patients an early 4th vaccination should be considered in this vulnerable group of patients.REFERENCES:NIL.Acknowledgements:NIL.Disclosure of InterestsDaniel Mrak Consultant of: AstraZeneca, Felix Kartnig: None declared, Daniela Sieghart: None declared, Elisabeth Simader Speakers bureau: Lilly, Helga Radner Speakers bureau: Gilead, Merck Sharp and Pfizer, Peter Mandl: None declared, Lisa Göschl: None declared, Philipp Hofer: None declared, Thomas Deimel: None declared, Irina Gessl: None declared, Renate Kain Speakers bureau: Otsuka, Consultant of: AstraZeneca, Takeda Pharma, MEDahead and Janssen Cilag, Stefan Winkler: None declared, Josef S. Smolen Consultant of: AbbVie, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Astro, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Celltrion, Gilead-Galapagos, Janssen, Lilly, Pfizer, R-Pharma, Samsung, Sanofi, Chugai, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Novartis-Sandoz Roche, Samsung and UCB, Grant/research support from: Abbvie, AstraZeneca, Lilly, Novartis, and Roche, Thomas Perkmann: None declared, Helmuth Haslacher Grant/research support from: Glock Health, BlueSky Immunotherapies and Neutrolis, Daniel Aletaha Speakers bureau: Abbvie, Amgen, Galapagos, Lilly, Janssen, Merck, Novartis, Pfizer, Sandoz, and Sanofi, Consultant of: Abbvie, Amgen, Galapagos, Lilly, Janssen, Merck, Novartis, Pfizer, Sandoz, and Sanofi, Grant/research support from: Abbvie, Amgen, Galapagos, Lilly, Janssen, Merck, Novartis, Pfizer, Sandoz, and Sanofi, Leonhard Heinz: None declared, Michael Bonelli Consultant of: EliLilly.

7.
Cancer Research Conference: American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, ACCR ; 83(7 Supplement), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20238091

ABSTRACT

Introduction Patients with hematological malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM), experience suboptimal responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) and Smoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM) are precursors to MM and exhibit altered immune cell composition and function. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the subsequent population-wide vaccination represent an opportunity to study the real-life immune response to a common antigen. Here, we present updated results from the IMPACT study, a study we launched in November 2020 to characterize the effect of plasma cell premalignancy on response to SARS-CoV2 vaccination (vx). Methods We performed: (i) ELISA for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies on 1,887 peripheral blood (PB) samples (237 healthy donors (HD), and 550 MGUS, 947 SMM, and 153 MM patients) drawn preand post-vx;(ii) single-cell RNA, T cell receptor (TCR), and B cell receptor (BCR) sequencing (10x Genomics) on 224 PB samples (26 HD, and 20 MGUS, 48 SMM, and 24 MM patients) drawn preand post-vx;(iii) plasma cytokine profiling (Olink) on 106 PB samples (32 HD, and 38 MGUS and 36 SMM patients) drawn pre- and post-vx;and (iv) bulk TCR sequencing (Adaptive Biotechnologies) on 8 PB samples from 4 patients (2 MGUS, 2 SMM) drawn pre- and post-vx. Results Patients with MGUS and SMM achieved comparable antibody titers to HD two months post-vx. However, patient titers waned significantly faster, and 4 months post-vx we observed significantly lower titers in both MGUS (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p=0.030) and SMM (p=0.010). These results indicate impaired humoral immune response in patients with MGUS and SMM.At baseline, the TCR repertoire was significantly less diverse in patients with SMM compared to HD (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p=0.039), while no significant difference was observed in the BCR repertoire (p=0.095). Interestingly, a significant increase in TCR repertoire diversity was observed post-vx in patients with SMM (paired t-test, p=0.014), indicating rare T cell clone recruitment in response to vaccination. In both HD and patients, recruited clones showed upregulation of genes associated with CD4+ naive and memory T cells, suggesting preservation of the T cell response in SMM, which was confirmed by bulk TCR-sequencing in 4 patients.Lastly, by cytokine profiling, we observed a defect in IL-1beta and IL-18 induction post-vx in patients with SMM compared to HD (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p=0.047 and p=0.015, respectively), two key monocyte-derived mediators of acute inflammation, suggesting an altered innate immune response as well. Conclusion Taken together, our findings highlight that despite the absence of clinical manifestations, plasma cell premalignancy is associated with defects in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Therefore, patients with plasma cell premalignancy may require adjusted vaccination strategies for optimal immunization.

8.
Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20236174

ABSTRACT

Introduction: With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was increased attention on anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies and its correlation with severe clinical outcomes in a large group of patients. However, this correlation has not been extensively investigated in patients with partial Recombinase Activating Gene Deficiency (pRD) who are known to have increased prevalence of anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies. Therefore, there is a need to assess the presence of anti- IFN-alpha antibodies in pRD patients before and after the COVID-19 pandemic and explore the relationship between anti- IFN-alpha antibody presence and clinical outcomes. Method(s): Sera was collected from the whole blood after informed consent and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay was conducted to confirm the presence of IgG-specific anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies. Positive samples were determined as OD values above 3 standard deviations of the healthy donor OD mean. Result(s): Our cohort included both adult (n = 13) and pediatric (n = 9) patients with variants in RAG1 and RAG2. Eleven patients (50%) out of the 22 showed elevated anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies levels. Five patients (23%) were defined as low positive for anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies, and 6 patients had no autoantibody titers. Of the 22 patients, 16 were symptomatic with infectious and non-infectious complications including recurrent viral and/or bacterial infections, autoimmune cytopenias, and lymphoproliferation. Ten (63%) of the symptomatic patients demonstrated high anti-IFN-alpha autoantibodies titers. Of the 11 patients with no or low neutralizing anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies levels, 5 were asymptomatic. In temporal comparison, 16 samples were collected pre-COVID-19 pandemic;8 samples were collected during the pandemic, 2 of which belonged to patients with samples collected before and during the pandemic. In the pre-pandemic cohort, 66% had anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies. Conversely, during the COVID-19 pandemic, 89% had anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies. Of note, one patient who had neutralizing anti- IFN-alpha autoantibodies remained positive both before and during the pandemic despite HSCT. Patient also had a SARS-CoV-2 infection in summer of 2022 with a mild clinical course. Conclusions & Next Steps: We observed persistence of anti-IFN-alpha autoantibodies in our cohort post-pandemic and even post-HSCT. It is unclear whether the presence of anti-cytokine antibodies are risk factor for severe COVID-19.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

9.
Cancer Research Conference: American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, ACCR ; 83(7 Supplement), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20235541

ABSTRACT

Background: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are composed of processed chromatin bound to granular and selected cytoplasmic proteins and released by neutrophils. NETs consist of smooth filaments composed of stacked nucleosomes. Fully hydrated NETs have a cloud-like appearance and occupy a space 10-15-fold larger than the volume of the cells they originate from. DNases are the enzymes that cleave extracellular DNA including NETs. Together with their protective role in microbial infections, NETs are involved in multiple pathological processes and represent key events in a variety of pathologies including cancer, autoimmunity, and cardiovascular disease. Sites of NETs concentration are dangerous for the host if the process of NETs formation becomes chronic or the mechanism of NETs removal does not work. NETosis has been linked to the development of periodontitis, cystic fibrosis, type 2 diabetes, COVID-19 or rheumatoid arthritis as well as cancer progression. Purpose(s): Thus, the destruction of NETs is of primary significance in many pathologies. In our approach, we are focusing on mimicking one of the natural mechanisms of destroying excessive NETs by delivering deoxyribonuclease I to the specific site of pathological NETs accumulation by modifying the nanoparticles using an anti-nucleosome monoclonal antibody (2C5). The antibody is specific to nucleosomes and can recognize histones in NETs. DNase I is U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved active component and is commonly used in therapeutic methods of modern medicine for cystic fibrosis to clear extracellular DNA fibers in the lungs and systemic lupus erythematosus. Recent findings have also shown the effectiveness of DNase I in the digestion of NETs. However, the low serum stability and fast deactivation by environmental stimuli have been considered as the limiting factors for clinical applications of DNase I, which can be overcome by its targeted specific delivery in pharmaceutical nanocarriers. Method(s): In this study, we generate NETs in vitro using human neutrophils and HL-60 cells differentiated into granulocyte-like cells. We used interleukin-8, lipopolysaccharide from E.Coli (LPS), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and calcium ionophore A23187 (CI) to generate the NETs. We confirmed the specificity of 2C5 toward NETs by ELISA, which showed that it binds to NETs with the specificity like that for purified nucleohistone substrate. We further utilized that feature to create two delivery systems (liposomes and micelles) for DNAse I enzyme to destroy NETs, which was confirmed by staining NETs with SYTOX Green dye and followed by flow cytometric measurements and microscopic images. Conclusion(s): Our results suggest that 2C5 could be used to identify and visualize NETs and serve as a ligand for NET-targeted diagnostics and therapies. Also, we proved that our carrier can successfully deliver DNase to NETs to provide their degradation.

10.
BIOpreparations ; Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment. 23(1):76-89, 2023.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20234832

ABSTRACT

Monitoring of the proportion of immune individuals and the effectiveness of vaccination in a population involves evaluation of several important parameters, including the level of virus-neutralising antibodies. In order to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, it is essential to develop approaches to detecting SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies by safe, simple and rapid methods that do not require live viruses. To develop a test system for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects potential neutralising antibodies, it is necessary to obtain a highly purified recombinant receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein with high avidity for specific antibodies. The aim of the study was to obtain and characterise a SARSCoV-2 S-protein RBD homodimer and a recombinant RBD-expressing cell line, as well as to create an ELISA system for detecting potential neutralising antibodies. Material(s) and Method(s): the genetic construct was designed in silico. To generate a stable producer cell line, the authors transfected CHO-S cells, subjected them to antibiotic pressure, and selected the optimal clone. To isolate monomeric and homodimeric RBD forms, the authors purified the recombinant RBD by chromatographic methods. Further, they analysed the activity of the RBD forms by Western blotting, bio-layer interferometry, and indirect ELISA. The analysis involved monoclonal antibodies GamXRH19, GamP2C5, and h6g3, as well as serum samples from volunteers vaccinated with Gam-COVID-Vac (Sputnik V) and unvaccinated ones. Result(s): the authors produced the CHO-S cell line for stable expression of the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 S-protein RBD. The study demonstrated the recombinant RBD's ability to homodimerise after fed-batch cultivation of the cell line for more than 7 days due to the presence of unpaired cysteines. The purified recombinant RBD yield from culture broth was 30-50 mg/L. Monomeric and homodimeric RBD forms were separated using gel-filtration chromatography and characterised by their ability to interact with specific monoclonal antibodies, as well as with serum samples from vaccinated volunteers. The homodimeric recombinant RBD showed increased avidity for both monoclonal and immune sera antibodies. Conclusion(s): the homodimeric recombinant RBD may be more preferable for the analysis of levels of antibodies to the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein.Copyright © 2023 Authors. All rights reserved.

11.
Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20234616

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Type 1 interferon (IFN) autoantibodies, such as anti-IFNalpha, have pathogenic significance in life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. Ten to twenty percent of severe COVID cases are associated with type I IFN autoantibodies. These autoantibodies likely pre-exist while others arise de novo relative to SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is unclear to what extent type I anti-IFN autoantibodies are induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection and contribute to COVID-19 severity. We investigated these phenomena in those with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) and rheumatic disease (RHE). Aim(s): We aim to compare the prevalence and neutralization ability of anti-IFNalpha autoantibodies in IEI and RHE patients using archived blood samples before and after the COVID-19 pandemic began. Method(s): We determined the presence of autoantibodies against IFNalpha in plasma samples by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in 453 patients with IEI or RHE who were testing either before or after the COVID-19 pandemic began in March 2020. Using flow cytometry, we determined the function of IFNalpha autoantibodies in plasma to block CD4T cell activation by inhibiting STAT-1 phosphorylation. Result(s): We found that 25 patients with IEI or RHE were positive for anti-IFNalpha autoantibodies. 10 out of 229 patient samples collected before the pandemic (4.2%) tested positive whereas 15 out of 224 patient samples collected after the pandemic began (7.0%) were positive. Seven of the 25 patients (28%) who tested positive had neutralizing antibodies in plasma, which prevented STAT-1 phosphorylation in CD4T cells;all of these patients had partial recombination activating gene deficiency (pRD) except for one patient with autoimmunity, leukemia and selective IgA deficiency. One pRD patient had anti-IFNalpha autoantibodies with neutralization capacity before the pandemic, which persisted after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with full immune reconstitution. The patient was immunized for SARS-CoV-2 before and after HSCT and acquired COVID-19 infection a year after HSCT. The patient was symptomatic but never hospitalized and fully recovered despite having anti-IFNalpha autoantibodies. Conclusion(s): Anti-IFNalpha autoantibody levels were comparable before and after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in IEI and RHE patients but only 28% of cases were neutralizing. The clinical implications of these autoantibodies are yet to be determined.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

12.
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology ; 89(Supplement 1):55-56, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20233187

ABSTRACT

Problem: Environmental stress during pregnancy has known impacts on both maternal and fetal health. In terms of theCOVID-19 pandemic, the majority of published work has focused on the impact of the infection itself, without considering the potential immune impact of pandemic related-stress.We, therefore, assessed the impact of pandemic stress, independently of SARS-CoV-2 infection, on the circulating and placental immune profiles of pregnant individuals. Method(s): Placentas from 239 patients were collected at the Sainte- Justine Hospital, Montreal, Canada. Of these, 199 patients delivered during the pandemic and were exposed to pandemic stress with (+: 79) or without (-: 120) SARS-CoV-2 infection, the latter exposed to pandemic stress only. Pre-pandemic historic controls (uncomplicated pregnancies, Ctrl: 40), were also included. Placental biopsies were collected to assess cytokine levels by ELISAs and histopathological lesions. A sub-study with 35 pre-pandemic pregnancies (unexposed) and 20 who delivered during the pandemic (exposed) was also conducted. The latter (exposed/unexposed) were all uncomplicated pregnancies. We collected maternal blood prior to delivery for immunophenotyping, and plasma/peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated. Inflammatory mediators in the plasma were quantified by ELISAs. Co-culture assays with PBMCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were performed to assess endothelial activation. Demographical/obstetrical data were obtained through chart review. Result(s): SARS-CoV-2+ patients were multiethnic (63.4%), had higher pre-pregnancyBMI (28.9 vs. 24.8 inCtrl, P<.05), and elevated preterm birth rate (16.5% vs. 5.8% in SARS-CoV-2-, P < .05 and 0.0% in Ctrl, P < .01). In the placentas, we observed an increase in the levels of IL- 1Ra (P < .05) and CRP (P < .05) in both SARS-CoV-2 groups, while IL-6 (P = .0790) and MCP-1 (P < .001) were elevated solely in SARS-CoV- 2-. These changes were predominant in placentas with inflammatory lesions on histopathological analysis. Moreover, we observed elevated CD45+ cells (P < .001) in the placentas from both SARS-CoV-2 groups versus Ctrl. Considering that the differences we observed were important in the SARS-CoV-2- group, we performed a study solely on uncomplicated pregnancies, either exposed or unexposed to pandemic stress. At the systemic level, we observed a decrease in the percentage of Th2 cells (P < .001), leading to a pro-inflammatory Th1/Th2 imbalance in exposed individuals. Decreased Treg (P < .05) and Th17 (P < .05) versus unexposed was also observed. Surprisingly, decreased levels of circulating IL-6 (P < .05), MCP-1 (P < .01), and CRP (P<.05) were seen in exposed versus unexposed individuals. Finally,we observed increased secretion of ICAM, a marker of endothelial activation, solely in endothelial cells co-cultured with PBMCs from exposed individuals. Conclusion(s): Overall, placental inflammatory profiles differed between pregnant individuals exposed to pandemic stress with or without SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, we observed that the pandemic stress exposed group presented a systemic pro-inflammatory bias. This highlights the need to understand the differences between the effects of pandemic-related stress and the added burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection itself on maternal and fetal health. Our work also supports an association between an increased risk of hypertension/ preeclampsia and SARS-CoV-2 infection that might be driven in part by pandemic-related stress.

13.
British Journal of Haematology ; 201(Supplement 1):179, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232561

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Earlier estimates of SARS-CoV- 2 do not accurately account for the extent of undiagnosed infections in children, who typically experience mild or asymptomatic disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV- 2 antibodies in children from District Swabi, one of the populous districts of Pakistan, and to identify symptoms most frequently associated with seropositivity. Methodology: We used ELISA to test for the presence of antibodies, IgM and IgG, in blood samples collected from 246 children of school-going age (5-16 years old) selected randomly from the district of Swabi, Pakistan. This study was approved by Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Ethical Board, and Advanced Studies Review Board. Data were collected on a purposefully built questionnaire. Result(s): Overall, 2.0% of our participants were seropositive for IgM, whereas 23.1% were seropositive for IgG. Older age, female gender, and contact history were significantly associated with higher seropositivity. Symptoms associated with seropositivity were: fever (98.0%), cough (90.0%), sore throat (79.0%), coryza (68.0%), myalgia (61.0%), loss of sense of smell and taste (49.0%), and vomiting or diarrhoea (8.0%). Although 77.6% of our IgG seropositive participants recalled experiencing flu-like symptoms, none of the participants in this study had visited the doctor or were tested for SARS-COV- 2. We found IgG titres to be significantly higher in symptomatic children. Conclusion(s): The number of undiagnosed infections in children may be substantially larger than the official accounts. Sparse data are available regarding coronavirus disease in children, particularly in low middle-income countries (LMIC). The most frequently symptoms were fever, cough, sore throat, coreza, myalgia, loss of sense of smell and taste and lastly vomiting and diarrhoea. Serological studies provide valuable insight into the immunological status of a population, and can prove vital when considering future strategies.

14.
Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology ; 30(9):e26-e31, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232168

ABSTRACT

Background: Parvovirus B19 is an icosahedral, single-strand DNA, non-enveloped virus. Its DNA genome has 5596 bases and is from the Parvoviridae family. Beta thalassemia, a hereditary illness, causes ruptured red blood cells and acute anemia due to aberrant haemoglobin synthesis. Aim(s): Detect parvovirus (B19) in beta-thalassemia major and study its association with demographic factors like sex, age, place of residence, etc. in specific patient groups. Method(s): From August 2022 to the end of February 2023. This study included the collection of serum samples for the detection of human parvovirus antigen in 60 patients with beta-thalassemia major. The control group consisted of 30 individuals of different ages who did not have beta-thalassemia. All these serum samples are detected for parvovirus antigen by the ELISA method. Result(s): The results of this study showed that the rate of detection of the presence of human parvovirus B19 in the group of patients with beta-thalassemia major was not affected by most of the demographic factors. As there were no statistically significant differences between the study groups in terms of gender, age, in addition to COVID-19 infection, and vaccination against COVID-19. However, the rate of beta-thalassemia major was significantly higher in rural areas than in urban areas (p = 0.040).Copyright © 2021 Muslim OT et al.

15.
Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology ; 30(9):e366-e375, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20231993

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus illness (COVID-19) is caused by serious acute respiratory disorder coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), moreover known as the COVID-19 virus. After the first-ever reports of COVID-19 in December 2019, the malady spread quickly. In January 2020, the WHO announced the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of Worldwide Concern, and by March 2020, the WHO characterized the episode as a global widespread . The current study aimed to detect the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection in heart patients and study their immune response by detecting the levels of some cytokines, which may end in a cytokine storm and may lead to death. In this study, one hundred-eight subjects were enrolled on two comparison case-control groups, the case group included 54 patients suffering from SARS-COV2, all were selected from those who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and were diagnosed by a specialist physician with severe acute respiratory syndrome due to SARS-COV2 documented by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction( RT-PCR ) besides other clinical and laboratory criteria in Marjan Medical City in Babylon province, AL-Amal Hospital for Communicable Diseases and AL-Hakeem Hospital, Najaf/Iraq, for a period from March 2022 to October 2022 to evaluate the role of some selected serological among patients with SARA-COV2 . The control group in this study included 54 subjects, divided into three groups (Apparent Healthy, patients suffered from SARS-COV2, patients suffered from CVD). Blood samples were examined through immunological methods, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was adopted for the detection of the concentration of TNF-alpha, IL6, IL-10,1L-12 and CCL2 .The immunological evaluation to clarify the theory of cytokines storm carried in the present study revealed that (TNF-alpha, IL6, IL-10,1L-12, and CCL2) for patients with COVID-19 and CVD was significantly higher than all the comparison group. The study reported that interleukin (6, 10, 12) and TNF-a are significantly increased in patients with covid19, CVD, and COVID-19 patients only, compared to healthy people. furthermore, IL-6 and IL-12 levels increased in patients with CVD only when compared to healthy people. There is a significant increase in CCL2 in all study groups compared to healthy people who have lower levels and this study indicated that the infection with Covid disease was severe and critical in most patients with CVD. This increased the number of deaths among them.Copyright © 2021 Muslim OT et al.

16.
Infection, Epidemiology and Microbiology ; 9(1):35-42, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20231975

ABSTRACT

Backgrounds: Immune-inflammatory responses appear to play a key role in severe SARS-CoV-2 infections. Interleukin-35 (IL-35) and presepsin (PSN) are inhibitory cytokine and pro-inflammatory interleukin, which play a crucial role in the immune system modulation, respectively. Therefore, the study of IL-35 and PSN interaction with other parameters may be critical for managing patients with COVID-19. Material(s) and Method(s): A total of 125 severe/critical COVID-19 patients and 60 healthy persons as a control group were enrolled in this work. These patients were admitted to Marjan medical city and Al-Sadeq hospital in Iraq during February to August 2022 and diagnosed as severe cases depending on the SpO2 percentage according to the guidelines released by the National Health World. Anti-and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-35 and PSN) were detected by ELISA technique. Finding(s): Presepsin showed a positive correlation with admission to the respiratory care unit (RCU) (r=.022, p=.011). A negative correlation was found between presepsin and C-reactive protein (CRP) (r=.21, p=.018). Both PSN and IL-35 in biochemical tests showed a positive strong effect on glucose levels in COVID-19 patients (r=.234, p=.008 and r=.241, p=.007, respectively). IL-35 had a positive impact on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (r=.28, p=.002). Hemoglobin (Hb) level showed a positive correlation with presepsin (r=.2, p=.02). Conclusion(s): This study confirms the growing evidence showing the direct role of regulatory pro-inflammatory cytokines in the development and control of COVID-19 through the interaction with other parameters.Copyright © 2023, TMU Press.

17.
Archives of Razi Institute ; 78(2):675-680, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20231872

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 is a viral disease that affects humans caused by a type of virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae called the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The parasitic infection associated with this disease affects the host's immune response regulation. The levels of IgG and IgM of Toxoplasma gondii in the serum of patients with COVID-19 were measured by immunoassay of the patient's sera by ELISA. Also, the level of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in a covid-19 patient with or without Toxoplasmosis was evaluated. 120 samples were collected, 60 were positive for COVID-19, confirmed by clinically and radiographic examination, and 30 were in the control group. The results showed a significant difference between the infection with Covid-19 and T. gondii during the chronic phase of Toxoplasmosis compared to the negative relationship in the acute phase. The results of INF-gamma levels among Covid-19 patients were positive for all samples included in the test (30 Covid-19 patients and 30 patients COVID-19(+)/T. gondii IgG) compared to the control group. The chronic form of Toxoplasma disease, due to change in the production of this interferon, the COVID-19 infection has changed.Copyright © 2023 by Razi Vaccine & Serum Research Institute.

18.
Rev Recent Clin Trials ; 18(2): 123-128, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPS) play a key role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Recent research showed the involvement of some MMPs in COVID-19, but the results are limited and contradictory. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the levels of MMPs (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-10) and TIMP-1 in the plasma of patients with OA after recovery from COVID- 19. METHODS: The experiment involved patients aged 39 to 80 diagnosed with knee OA. All study participants were divided into three research groups: the control group included healthy individuals, the group OA included patients with enrolled cases of OA, and the third group of OA and COVID-19 included patients with OA who recovered from COVID-19 6-9 months ago. The levels of MMPs and TIMP-1 were measured in plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The study showed a change in the levels of MMPs in patients with OA who had COVID- 19 and those who did not have a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Particularly, patients with OA who were infected with coronavirus established an increase in MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, and MMP-9, compared to healthy controls. Compared to normal subjects, a significant decrease in MMP-10 and TIMP-1 was established in both groups of patients with OA and convalescent COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Thus, the results suggest that COVID-19 can affect the proteolysis-antiproteolysis system even after a long postinfectious state and may cause complications of existing musculoskeletal pathologies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Osteoarthritis , Humans , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases , Matrix Metalloproteinase 10 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 8 , SARS-CoV-2 , Osteoarthritis/etiology
19.
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 85:51-56, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2327618

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 mass vaccination has led to drastic reduction in hospitalizations and mortality. A number of case reports have emerged reporting coronavirus disease 2019 infection within days following vaccination. There is a need to understand development of immune antibodies in the early post-vaccination period. A prospective analysis of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G kinetics was conducted during the first 28 d following vaccination with either CanSino or Sinovac vaccines in a cohort of 40 healthy volunteers. Serial blood samples were collected from the volunteers right before the first dose of vaccine (d 0) and then on d 4, d 7, d 14, d 21, d 24 and d 28 post-vaccination. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, circulating anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 receptor binding domain immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies were analyzed. Most vaccine recipients (31/40) did not develop any circulating immunoglobulin M. The remaining 9 recipients showed a typical immunoglobulin M curve with antibodies appearing on d 4, peaking on d 7 and declining on d 21 and beyond. Immunoglobulin G response was more typical within 38/40 recipients showing the appearance of immunoglobulin G on d 4, which continued till the end of the study period. This study demonstrates that vaccine-induced immunoglobulin M-based immunity cannot be relied during the first few days following vaccination and more time is needed to have a better picture of the real situation.

20.
Infectious Diseases: News, Opinions, Training ; 11(1):21-27, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2323742

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, poses major challenges for global public health. The detection of antibodies in blood serum is one of the important methods for diagnostics of COVID-19 patients. The main aim was to study the dynamics of the appearance of neutralizing antibodies and antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 proteins in COVID-19 patients sera. Material and methods. The blood sera of four groups of people were studied: "intact" donors (blood sera were collected in 2016-2019);patients with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of acute respiratory viral infection;patients with influenza (antibodies to the influenza virus have been identified) and patients with a PCR confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. Blood sera were analyzed in ELISA with commercial kits for detection of IgG to SARS-CoV-2 (N, S) proteins and total antibodies to RBD of protein S and in neutralization test (NT). Results and discussion. Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were not detected in paired blood sera of people from groups 1-3 by ELISA and NT. At the time of hospitalization of patients with COVID-19 in the sera of 12 (19%) patients antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were absent when they were determined by NT and ELISA. In blood sera taken 4-9 days after hospitalization, neutralizing antibodies and antibodies to at least one viral protein were detected in ELISA. Conclusion. At the time of hospitalization, the overwhelming majority of patients had a humoral immune response to the SARS-CoV-2. In the dynamics of observation, the levels of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 proteins increased, to a greater extent to RBD.Copyright © 2022 Geotar Media Publishing Group

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