Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 2.863
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
Indian J Clin Biochem ; : 1-13, 2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242297

ABSTRACT

In 2019-2020, the novel "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)" had emerged as the biggest challenge for humanity, causing "coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19)". Scientists around the world have been putting continuous efforts to unfold potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2. We have performed computational studies that help us to identify cyanobacterial photoprotective compounds as potential inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 druggable target human angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2), which plays a vital role in the attachment and entry of the virus into the cell. Blocking the receptor-binding domain of ACE2 can prevent the access of the virus into the compartment. A molecular docking study was performed between photoprotective compounds mycosporine-like amino acids, scytonemins and ACE2 protein using AutoDock tools. Among sixteen molecularly docked metabolites, seven compounds were selected with binding energy < 6.8 kcal/mol. Afterwards, drug-likeness and toxicity of the top candidate were predicted using Swiss ADME and Pro Tox-II online servers. All top hits show desirable drug-likeness properties, but toxicity pattern analysis discloses the toxic effect of scytonemin and its derivatives, resulting in the elimination from the screening pipeline. Further molecular interaction study of the rest two ligands, mycosporine-glycine-valine and shinorine with ACE2 was performed using PyMol, Biovia Discovery studio and LigPlot+. Lastly biological activity of both the ligands was predicted by using the PASS online server. Combining the docking score and other studied properties, we believe that mycosporine-glycine-valine and shinorine have potential to be potent inhibitors of ACE2 and can be explored further to use against COVID-19.

2.
Ir J Med Sci ; 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contradictory opinions exist regarding the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in patients with hypertension, which is the most common comorbidity associated with COVID-19. Herein, the effects of ACEIs and ARBs on outcomes of COVID-19 patients were evaluated. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the outcomes of COVID-19 patients were compared between patients who received pretreatment ACEIs or ARBs and those who did not. RESULTS: The incidence of moderate and severe forms of COVID-19 was significantly higher in patients taking ACEI/ARB drugs (P-value = 0.012). Also, patients taking ACEI/ARB drugs (P-value = 0.034), patients with hypertension (P-value = 0.011), and patients with dyslipidemia (P-value = 0.011) experienced more severe forms of COVID-19. There was an association between increased length of hospital stay and dyslipidemia (P-value = 0.033) and the use of ACEI/ARB drugs (P-value = 0.041), while no correlation was found between other parameters in univariate linear regression analysis as well as multivariate linear regression. There was an association between increased mortality of patients with increasing age (P-value < 0.001), BMI greater than 30 kg/m2 (P-value = 0.02), asthma (P-value = 0.003), and dyslipidemia (P-value = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: ACEI/ARB drugs put COVID-19 patients at high risk for moderate to severe forms of COVID-19 and higher length of hospital stay. Although, it is notable that these drugs did not significantly affect specific adverse outcomes of COVID-19, such as the need for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), length of ICU stay, ventilation, and mortality.

3.
Nano Res ; : 1-8, 2022 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239241

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has necessitated rapid, easy-to-use, and accurate diagnostic methods to monitor the virus infection. Herein, a ratiometric fluorescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using Si-fluorescein isothiocyanate nanoparticles (FITC NPs) for detecting SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein. Si-FITC NPs were prepared by a one-pot hydrothermal method using 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES)-FITC as the Si source. This method did not need post-modification and avoided the reduction in quantum yield and stability. The p-nitrophenyl (pNP) produced by the alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-mediated hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) could quench Si fluorescence in Si-FITC NPs via the inner filter effect. In ELISA, an immunocomplex was formed by the recognition of capture antibody/N protein/reporter antibody. ALP-linked secondary antibody bound to the reporter antibody and induced pNPP hydrolysis to specifically quench Si fluorescence in Si-FITC NPs. The change in fluorescence intensity ratio could be used for detecting N protein, with a wide linearity range (0.01-10.0 and 50-300 ng/mL) and low detection limit (0.002 ng/mL). The concentration of spiked SARS-CoV-2 N protein could be determined accurately in human serum. Moreover, this proposed method can accurately distinguish coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and non-COVID-19 patient samples. Therefore, this simple, sensitive, and accurate method can be applied for the early diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. Electronic Supplementary Material: Supplementary material (characterization of Si-FITC NPs (FTIR spectrum, XRD spectra, and synchronous fluorescence spectra); condition optimization of ALP response (fluorescence intensity ratio change); mechanism investigation of ALP response (fluorescence lifetime decay curves and UV-vis absorption spectra); detection of N protein using commercial ELISA Kit; analytical performance of assays for ALP detection or SARS-CoV-2 N protein detection; and determination results of SARS-CoV-2 N protein in human serum) is available in the online version of this article at 10.1007/s12274-022-4740-5.

4.
Drug Repurposing for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Cancer ; : 543-568, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20244939

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic initiated by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has encouraged the repurposing of various drugs to treat the morbidity, mortality, and extent of the disease. Nowadays, the COVID-19 pandemic is a major health concern as it has already affected the whole world in all aspects. Drug repurposing is considered a new potential strategy as it is a cost-effective and less time-consuming process to establish a new indication for existing drugs. The present chapter has focused on the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and the reuse of the drugs based on pharmacological mechanisms. In the literature, various drugs like favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, arbidol, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, interferons, etc. have been reported for repurposing purposes against COVID-19. Most of them are effective in in vitro and clinical studies. Drugs act mainly on viral entry, viral replication, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), inflammatory mechanisms, etc. Based on viral pathogenesis and the mechanism of drugs using in silico, in vitro, and clinical studies, repurposing medicines might be considered an excellent opportunity to cure COVID-19. © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2023.

5.
Chinese Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ; 37(1):1-10, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244920

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV- 2.COVID-19 is now a pandemic, and is not yet fully under control.As the surface spike protein (S) mediates the recognition between the virus and cell membrane and the process of cell entry, it plays an important role in the course of disease transmission.The study on the S protein not only elucidates the structure and function of virus-related proteins and explains their cellular entry mechanism, but also provides valuable information for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of COVII)-19.Concentrated on the S protein of SARS-CoV-2, this review covers four aspects: (1 ) The structure of the S protein and its binding with angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2) , the specific receptor of SARS-CoV-2, is introduced in detail.Compared with SARS-CoV, the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV- 2 S protein has a higher affinity with ACE2, while the affinity of the entire S protein is on the contrary.(2) Currently, the cell entry mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 meditated by the S protein is proposed to include endosomal and non-endosomal pathways.With the recognition and binding between the S protein and ACE2 or after cell entry, transmembrane protease serine 2(TMPRSS2) , lysosomal cathepsin or the furin enzyme can cleave S protein at S1/S2 cleavage site, facilitating the fusion between the virus and target membrane.(3) For the progress in SARS-CoV-2 S protein antibodies, a collection of significant antibodies are introduced and compared in the fields of the target, source and type.(4) Mechanisms of therapeutic treatments for SARS-CoV-2 varied.Though the antibody and medicine treatments related to the SARS-CoV-2 S protein are of high specificity and great efficacy, the mechanism, safety, applicability and stability of some agents are still unclear and need further assessment.Therefore, to curb the pandemic, researchers in all fields need more cooperation in the development of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and medicines to face the great challenge.Copyright © Palaeogeography (Chinese Edition).All right reserved.

6.
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE ; 12383, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20244628

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is still a challenge because of its diversity and mutations. The binding interactions of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and the spike protein are relevant for the SARS-CoV-2 virus to enter the cell. Consequently, it is important and helpful to analyze binding activities and the changes in the structure of the ACE2 receptor and the spike protein. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy is able to analyze small concentrations of the proteins without contact, non-invasively and label-free. In this work, we present a SERS based approach in the visible wavelength range to analyze and study the binding interactions of the ACE2 receptor and the spike protein. SERS measurements of the ACE2 receptor, the spike protein and the ACE2-spike complex were performed. Additionally, an inhibitor was used to prevent the spike protein from binding to ACE2 and to compare the results. The analysis of the measured SERS spectra reveals structural differences and changes due to binding activities. Thus, we show that the performed SERS based approach can help for rapid and non-invasive analysis of binding interactions of the ACE2-spike complex and also of protein binding in general. © 2023 SPIE.

7.
Pulmonologiya ; 33(2):225-232, 2023.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244341

ABSTRACT

Severe pneumonia is a condition with a high risk of death and mandatory hospitalization in the intensive care unit. The incidence of severe pneumonia has increased dramatically during the pandemic of new coronavirus infection. Timely diagnosis and early initiation of adequate treatment of severe pneumonia are crucial for improving survival of critically ill patients. The aim of this review was to analyze published scientific research on molecular markers that allow to objectively assess the severity of pneumonia and to determine treatment tactics based on the predicted outcome upon admission to the hospital. A systematic search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, Medline, Web of Science for the period 2019 - 2022. Conclusion. The review focuses on the prognostic role of a number of markers of immune response, vascular transformation, as well as angiotensin II and angiotensin converting enzyme-2. Further prospective studies of potential predictors of severe pneumonia will enable using marker molecules in a comprehensive clinical and laboratory diagnosis for early prediction of the hospitalized patient's condition and expected outcome.Copyright © Volchkova E.V. et al., 2023.

8.
Journal of Biological Chemistry ; 299(3 Supplement):S396-S397, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243840

ABSTRACT

Objective: Immunohistochemistry of post-mortem lung tissue from Covid-19 patients with diffuse alveolar damage demonstrated marked increases in chondroitin sulfate and CHST15 and decline in N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase. Studies were undertaken to identify the mechanisms involved in these effects. Method(s): Human primary small airway epithelial cells (PCS 301-010;ATCC) were cultured and exposed to the SARSCoV- 2 spike protein receptor binding domain (SPRBD;AA: Lys310-Leu560;Amsbio). Expression of the spike protein receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), was enhanced by treatment with Interferon-beta. Promoter activation, DNA-binding, RNA silencing, QPCR, Western blots, ELISAs, and specific enzyme inhibitors were used to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Result(s): Treatment of the cultured cells by the SPRBD led to increased CHST15 and CHST11 expression and decline in ARSB expression. Sulfotransferase activity, total chondroitin sulfate, and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content were increased. Phospho-T180/T182-p38-MAPK and phospho- S423/S425-Smad3 were required for the activation of the CHST15 and CHST11 promoters. Inhibition by SB203580, a phospho-p38 MAPK inhibitor, and by SIS3, a Smad3 inhibitor, blocked the CHST15 and CHST11 promoter activation. SB203580 reversed the SPRBD-induced decline in ARSB expression, but SIS3 had no effect on ARSB expression or promoter activation. Phospho-p38 MAPK was shown to reduce retinoblastoma protein (RB) S807/S811 phosphorylation and increase RB S249/T252 phosphorylation. E2F-DNA binding declined following exposure to SPRBD, and SB203580 reversed this effect. This indicates a mechanism by which SPRBD, phospho-p38 MAPK, E2F, and RB can regulate ARSB expression and thereby impact on chondroitin 4-sulfate and dermatan sulfate and molecules that bind to these sulfated GAGs, including Interleukin-8, bone morphogenetic protein-4, galectin-3 and SHP-2 (Src homology region 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2). Conclusion(s): The enzyme ARSB is required for the degradation of chondroitin 4-sulfate and dermatan sulfate, and accumulation of these sulfated GAGs can contribute to lung pathophysiology, as evident in Covid-19. Some effects of the SPRBD may be attributable to unopposed Angiotensin II, when Ang1-7 counter effects are diminished due to binding of ACE2 with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and reduced production of Ang1-7. Aberrant cell signaling and activation of the phospho-p38 MAPK and Smad3 pathways increase CHST15 and CHST11 production, which can contribute to increased chondroitin sulfate in infected cells. Decline in ARSB may occur as a consequence of effects of phospho-p38 MAPK on RB phosphorylation and E2F1 availability. Decline in ARSB and the resulting impaired degradation of sulfated GAGs have profound consequences on cellular metabolic, signaling, and transcriptional events. Funding is VA Merit Award.Copyright © 2023 The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

9.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 82(Suppl 1):1764-1765, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20243710

ABSTRACT

BackgroundDeucravacitinib is a first-in-class, oral, selective, allosteric tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) inhibitor approved in multiple countries for the treatment of adults with plaque psoriasis. Deucravacitinib suppresses signaling of cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases including psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Deucravacitinib was efficacious compared with placebo in phase 2 trials in psoriatic arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.[1,2] In two phase 3 trials in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis (POETYK PSO-1 [NCT03624127], PSO-2 [NCT03611751]), deucravacitinib showed superior efficacy versus placebo and apremilast.[3,4] Upon completion of either psoriasis trial, patients could enroll in the POETYK long-term extension (LTE) trial (NCT04036435).ObjectivesTo evaluate the incidence rate and severity of adverse events (AEs) due to COVID-19 with deucravacitinib treatment in the POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2 trials and open-label POETYK LTE trial.MethodsIn PSO-1 (N=666) and PSO-2 (N=1020), adult patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis were randomized 2:1:1 to deucravacitinib 6 mg once daily, placebo, or apremilast 30 mg twice daily. At Week 16, placebo patients in both trials switched to deucravacitinib. Based on their Week 24 PASI response, apremilast patients continued with apremilast or switched to placebo or deucravacitinib. In PSO-1, patients randomized to deucravacitinib continued treatment for 52 weeks;in PSO-2, some patients randomized to deucravacitinib had a randomized treatment withdrawal period. At Week 52, patients could enroll in the open-label LTE and receive deucravacitinib. Incidence rates and severity of COVID-19–related AEs in the POETYK trials (n=1364;2076.7 person-years [PY] of follow-up) were compared with the Janssen/Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine trial placebo group (n=19,544;3096.1 PY of follow-up). This reference population was selected due to the study design and timing of the trial, which occurred when variants were in circulation.ResultsAs of October 1, 2021, 1519 patients received ≥1 dose of deucravacitinib over a 2-year follow-up period;1364 patients met criteria for this analysis, with deucravacitinib exposure since the pandemic onset (estimated to be January 1, 2020). In total, 153 deucravacitinib patients reported a COVID-19–related AE, for an overall exposure-adjusted incidence rate (EAIR) of 7.4/100 PY (95% CI, 6.2–8.6). Serious COVID-19–related AEs occurred in 43 patients (EAIR, 2.1/100 PY;95% CI, 1.5–2.8), including 30 with COVID-19 and 13 with COVID-19 pneumonia;this rate was within the margins of those for moderate to severe COVID-19 reported in the reference population (EAIR, 16.5/100 PY;95% CI, 15.0–17.9). Deaths due to COVID-19 occurred in 6 patients (EAIR, 0.3/100 PY;95% CI, 0.1–0.6), with the COVID-19–related mortality rate being consistent with the reference population (EAIR, 0.23/100 PY;95% CI, 0.1–0.5). Treatment was discontinued due to COVID-19 or COVID-19 pneumonia in 7 patients, including the 6 patients who died due to COVID-19.ConclusionCOVID-19 was among the most frequently reported AEs during the 2-year period of the pooled PSO-1, PSO-2, and LTE trials due to the temporal overlap of the pandemic with the trials. However, COVID-19 infection and death rates did not differ from the reference population;most infections were not serious and did not lead to treatment discontinuation. Based on this analysis, deucravacitinib did not appear to increase the risk of COVID-19 nor its progression to severe outcomes.References[1]Mease PJ, et al. Ann Rheum Dis. 2022;81:815-822.[2]Morand E, et al. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2022;Nov 11 (Epub ahead of print).[3]Armstrong A, et al. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022;S0190-9622(22)02256-3.[4]Strober B, et al. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022;S0190-9622(22)02643-3.AcknowledgementsThese clinical trials were sponsored by Bristol Myers Squibb.Disclosure of InterestsDiamant Thaçi Speakers bureau: AbbVie, Almirall, Amgen, Biogen Idec, Boeh inger Ingelheim, Bristol Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Galapagos, Galderma, Janssen-Cilag, Leo Pharma, Novartis, Pfizer, Regeneron, Roche, Sandoz-Hexal, Sanofi, Target Solution, and UCB, Consultant of: AbbVie, Almirall, Amgen, Biogen Idec, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Galapagos, Galderma, Janssen-Cilag, Leo Pharma, Novartis, Pfizer, Regeneron, Roche, Sandoz-Hexal, Sanofi, Target Solution, and UCB, Grant/research support from: AbbVie, Almirall, Amgen, Biogen Idec, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Galapagos, Galderma, Janssen-Cilag, Leo Pharma, Novartis, Pfizer, Regeneron, Roche, Sandoz-Hexal, Sanofi, Target Solution, and UCB, Kenneth B Gordon Consultant of: Amgen, Almirall, Dermira, Leo Pharma, Pfizer, and Sun Pharma, Grant/research support from: Amgen, Almirall, Dermira, Leo Pharma, Pfizer, and Sun Pharma, AbbVie, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol Myers Squibb, Celgene, Eli Lilly, Janssen, Novartis, and UCB, Melinda Gooderham Speakers bureau: Glenmark, Actelion, AbbVie, Galderma, Leo Pharma, Pfizer, and Regeneron, Amgen, Boehringer Ingelheim, Celgene, Eli Lilly, Janssen, Novartis, Sanofi Genzyme, and Valeant, Consultant of: Amgen, Boehringer Ingelheim, Celgene, Eli Lilly, Janssen, Novartis, Sanofi Genzyme, and Valeant, Andrew Alexis Speakers bureau: Pfizer, Regeneron, and Sanofi Genzyme, Consultant of: AbbVie, Allergan, Almirall, Amgen, Arcutis, AstraZeneca, Bausch Health, Beiersdorf, Bristol Myers Squibb, Dermavant, Galderma, Janssen, Leo Pharma, L'Oreal, Pfizer, Sanofi-Regeneron, Sol-Gel, UCB, Valeant, VisualDx, and Vyne, Grant/research support from: Almirall, Amgen, Arcutis, Bristol Myers Squibb, Cara, Galderma, Leo Pharma, Menlo, Novartis, and Valeant (Bausch Health), Varsha Lalchandani Shareholder of: Bristol Myers Squibb, Employee of: Bristol Myers Squibb, Julie Scotto Shareholder of: Bristol Myers Squibb, Employee of: Bristol Myers Squibb, Lauren Hippeli Shareholder of: Bristol Myers Squibb, Employee of: Bristol Myers Squibb, Matthew J Colombo Shareholder of: Bristol Myers Squibb, Employee of: Bristol Myers Squibb, Subhashis Banerjee Shareholder of: Bristol Myers Squibb, Employee of: Bristol Myers Squibb, Tamara Lezhava Shareholder of: Bristol Myers Squibb, Employee of: Bristol Myers Squibb, Mark Lebwohl Consultant of: Aditum Bio, Almirall, AltruBio, AnaptysBio, Arcutis, Arena, Aristea, Arrive Technologies, Avotres, BiomX, Boehringer Ingelheim, Brickell Biotech, Bristol Myers Squibb, Cara, Castle Biosciences, CorEvitas' (Corrona) Psoriasis Registry, Dermavant, Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, Evelo Biosciences, Evommune, Forte Biosciences, Helsinn Therapeutics, Hexima, Leo Pharma, Meiji Seika Pharma, Mindera, Pfizer, Seanergy, and Verrica, Grant/research support from: AbbVie, Amgen, Arcutis, Avotres, Boehringer Ingelheim, Dermavant, Eli Lilly, Incyte, Janssen, Ortho Dermatologics, Regeneron, and UCB.

10.
Kanzo/Acta Hepatologica Japonica ; 61(10):496-503, 2020.
Article in Japanese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243418

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which has become a global pandemic, produces elevated liver enzymes, especially in severe cases. The mechanism suggests involvement of an administrated drug, cytokine storm, or hypoxia, etc., as opposed to virus-induced direct damage. If liver enzymes are elevated in COVID-19, we should evaluate for the presence of other liver diseases, and strictly follow-up liver enzyme values. In patients with COVID-19 complicated by chronic liver disease, we will use telemedicine/visits by phone, so as not to interrupt the treatment of the underlying disease, avoid unnecessary outpatient visits, and strive to halt the spread of the infection. Metabolism-associated fatty liver disease, which is often related to obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, may be a risk factor for COVID-19 severity. International academic societies have recommended guidance outlining the evidence to date regarding the management of patients with COVID-19 and liver disorders, and chronic liver disease under the COVID-19 pandemic.Copyright 2020 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

11.
Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment ; 37(1), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20243309

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the most frequent Asn501 polar uncharged amino acid mutations upon important structural properties of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) Surface Glycoprotein RBD–hACE2 (human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) heterodimer. Mutations N501Y, N501T and N501S were considered and their impact upon complex solubility, secondary motifs formation and intermolecular hydrogen bonding interface was analyzed. Results and findings are reported based on 50 ns run in Gromacs molecular dynamics simulation software. Special attention is paid on the biomechanical shifts in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) [499-505]: ProThrAsn(Tyr)GlyValGlyTyr, having substituted Asparagine to Tyrosine at position 501. The main findings indicate that the N501S mutation increases SARS-CoV-2 S-protein RBD–hACE2 solubility over N501T, N501 (wild type): (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.). The N501Y mutation shifts (Formula presented.) -helix S-protein RBD [366-370]: SerValLeuTyrAsn into π-helix for t > 38.5 ns. An S-protein RBD [503-505]: ValGlyTyr shift from (Formula presented.) -helix into a turn is observed due to the N501Y mutation in t > 33 ns. An empirical proof for the presence of a Y501-binding pocket, based on RBD [499-505]: PTYGVGY (Formula presented.) 's RMSF peak formation is presented. There is enhanced electrostatic interaction between Tyr505 (RBD) phenolic -OH group and Glu37 (hACE2) side chain oxygen atoms due to the N501Y mutation. The N501Y mutation shifts the (Formula presented.) hydrogen bond into permanent polar contact;(Formula presented.);(Formula presented.). © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

12.
Cancer Research Conference: American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, ACCR ; 83(7 Supplement), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242819

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide, with a relatively low 5-year survival rate. Although there are some therapies against lung cancer, new effective treatment options are urgently required. Recently during the COVID-19 pandemic, we have seen that SARSCoV-2 binds to its receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) via spike S1 to enter the cells. This study underlines the importance of SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 in inducing death in human lung cancer cells. Interestingly, we have seen that recombinant spike S1 treatment at very low doses led to death of human A549 lung cancer cells. On the other hand, boiled recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 remained unable to induce death, suggesting that the induction of cell death in A549 cells was due to native SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 protein. SARS-CoV-2 spike S1-induced A549 cell death was also inhibited by neutralizing antibodies against spike S1 and ACE2. Moreover, our newly designed wild type ACE2-interacting domain of SARS-CoV-2 (wtAIDS), but not mAIDS, peptide also attenuated SARS-CoV-2 spike S1-induced cell death, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 spike S1- induced death in lung cancer cells depends on its interaction with ACE2 receptor. Similarly, recombinant spike S1 treatment also led to death of H1299 and H358 human lung cancer cells. Finally, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) intoxication led to the formation tumors in lungs of A/J mice and alternate day intranasal treatment with low dose of recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 from 22-weeks of NNK insult (late stage) led to induced apoptosis and tumor regression in the lungs. These studies indicate that recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 protein may have implications in the treatment of lung cancer.

13.
Atemwegs- und Lungenkrankheiten ; 49(4):129-133, 2023.
Article in German | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242600

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was detected in isolates of pneumonia patients in January 2020. The virus cannot multiply extracellularly but requires access to the cells of a host organism. SARS-CoV-2 uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor, to which it docks with its spikes. ACE2 belongs to the renin angiotensin system (RAS), whose inhibitors have been used for years against high blood pressure. Renin is an endopeptidase that is predominantly formed in the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidney and cleaves the decapeptide angiotensin I (Ang I) from angiotensinogen. Through the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), another 2 C-terminal amino acids are removed from Ang I, so that finally the active octapeptide angiotensin II (Ang II) is formed. The biological effect of Ang II via the angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 (AT1-R) consists of vasoconstriction, fibrosis, proliferation, inflammation, and thrombosis formation. ACE2 is a peptidase that is a homolog of ACE. ACE2 is predominantly expressed by pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells in humans and has been detected in arterial and venous endothelial cells. In contrast to the dicarboxy-peptidase ACE, ACE2 is a monocarboxypeptidase that cleaves only one amino acid from the C-terminal end of the peptides. ACE2 can hydrolyze the nonapeptide Ang-(1-9) from the decapeptide Ang I and the heptapeptide Ang-(1-7) from the octapeptide Ang II. Ang-(1-7) acts predominantly antagonistically (vasodilatory, anti-fibrotic, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombogenetically) via the G protein-coupled Mas receptor to the AT1-R-mediated effects of Ang II. In the pathogenesis of COVID-19 infection, it is therefore assumed that there is an imbalance due to overstimulation of the AT1 receptor in conjunction with a weakening of the biological effects of the Mas receptor.Copyright © 2022 Dustri-Verlag Dr. K. Feistle.

14.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 82(Suppl 1):1897-1898, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20242556

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAcetaminophen (APAP = paracetamol) may potentially impact vaccine-associated immune responses as the intake of APAP has been associated with a worse outcome in tumor patients receiving checkpoint inhibitors.[1]Different DMARD regimen have been shown to impair the humoral immune response to mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with rheumatoid arthritis but the effect of paracetamol has not been explored thus far.ObjectivesTo analyse whether the intake of APAP may interfere with antiviral humoral immune responses following two doses of an anti-SARS-CoV-2 mRNA based vaccine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on DMARD therapy.MethodsThe RECOVER trial (Rheumatoid Covid-19 Vaccine Immune Response) was a non-randomised, prospective observational control group trial and enrolled 77 RA patients on DMARD therapy and 21 healthy controls (HC). We performed a posthoc analysis of blood samples taken before the first vaccine dose (T0), two (T1) and three (T2) weeks after the first and second vaccine dose, and at 12 (T3) weeks. APAP intake was measured using ELISA. The antibody response (anti-S) to the receptor binding domain (RBD) within the SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein was measured with the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2-S (Roche Diagnostics GmbH) test. The neutralizing activity NT50 at week 12 was assessed using an HIV-based pseudovirus neutralization assay against Wuhan-Hu-1.ResultsBaseline characteristics of participants are detailed in Table 1. The immunogenicity analyses were based on 73 RA patients after exclusion of 4 patients with previously unnoticed SARS-CoV-2 infection (positive for anti-nucleoprotein at baseline). APAP was detected in serum samples from 34/73 (25%) RA patients and in 7/21 (33%) HC (least at one timepoint T0, T1 and/or T2). APAP intake in HC did not affect levels of anti-S at any timepoint and all HC developed potent neutralizing activity (NT50 ≥ 250) at week 12. RA patients, who tested positive for APAP at T1, showed comparable anti-S levels at T1, T2 and T3 compared to RA patients not exposed to APAP. The detection of APAP at T2 corresponded to lower anti-S levels at T2 (Figure 1 A, B). The detection of APAP at T2 was associated with a significantly lower SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing activity at week 12 compared to patients without perivaccination APAP exposure (p =0.04) (Figure 1 C).ConclusionA decrease of antiviral humoral immune responses was observed in RA patients (but not in HC) who were exposed to APAP at the time of the second mRNA vaccine dose compared to patients in whom APAP was not detected. Our data suggest that the use of paracetamol within the time period around vaccination may impair vaccine-induced immune responses in patients with an already higher risk for blunted immune responses.Reference[1]Bessede A et al. Ann Oncol 2022;33: 909-915Table 1.Baseline characteristics: RA patients and HC with/without APAP exposureRA APAP – n = 37RA APAP + n = 36p-valueHC APAP – n = 8HC APAP + n = 13p-valueAge (yrs), mean (± SD)62 (13)67 (10)0.07 (NS)45 (12)44 (14)0.90 (NS)Female sex, n (%)24 (65)19 (53)0.29 (NS)2 (25)5 (38)0.53 (NS)Vaccination type/schedulemRNA-1273, n (%)4 (11)8 (22.2)0.19 (NS)0 (0)0 (0)BNT162b2, n (%)33 (89)28 (77.8)0.19 (NS)8 (100)13 (100)RA disease characteristicsACPA ± RF, n (%)17/37 (46)19/36 (53)0.56 (NS)NANANARA disease duration (yrs ± SD)9.2 (9.8)10.2 (8.1)0.67 (NS)NANANADMARD therapycsDMARD-mono, n (%)13/37 (35)9/36 (25)0.35 (NS)NANANAbDMARD-mono/combo, n (%)16/37 (43)16/36 (44)0.92 (NS)NANANAtsDMARDs-mono/combo, n (%)8/37 (22)11/36 (31)0.38 (NS)NANANAPrednisone, n (%)15/37 (41)12/36 (33.3)0.52 (NS)NANANAMean daily dose prednisone (mg ± SD)4.6 ± 1.13.9 ± 2.30.39 (NS)NANANA* APAP = acetaminophenFigure 1.Acknowledgements:NIL.Disclosure of InterestsNone Declared.

15.
Pediatric Dermatology ; 40(Supplement 2):88, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242434

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Mastocytosis encompasses a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by an accumulation of clonal mast cells (MC) in the skin and/or internal organs, and symptoms of MC activation. This MC activation can be elucidated by several factors, including infections or vaccination. Objective(s): We present our experience with COVID infection and vaccination in a series of 133 patients with pediatric mastocytosis. Method(s): Between January 1998 and December 2022, 133 pediatric patients have been referred to our hospital owing to clinically suspected MC disorder, mainly with mastocytosis in the skin. The final diagnoses of mastocytosis were established by the presence of typical skin lesions together with an increase of MC numbers in a biopsy from lesional skin or activating KIT mutations in lesional skin tissue. Serum baseline tryptase and total immunoglobulin E levels were measured, and patients underwent a comprehensive allergy workup to confirm atopic status and history of anaphylaxis. Regarding vaccination, REMA's (Spanish Network on Mastocytosis) protocol was followed. Result(s): 13 patients with COVID infection were identified, of which 25 (56,8%) were female and 0% had symptoms of MC activation. All of them had an asymptomatic or mild course of COVID infection. None of the patients experimented MC activation symptoms during viral illness. Regarding COVID vaccination, all patients received premedication with antihistamine 60 minutes prior vaccination. No one experimented immediate reactions and only one patient (0,75%) referred worsening of MC activation symptoms (baseline pruritus, urtication and brain fog) only after the first doses, recovering without changes in his treatment (oral cromoglycate and antihistamine) in two months. Discussion(s): Although MC have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cytokine storm in COVID19, there is no clinical evidence of SARSCoV- 2-induced MC activation, perhaps related to the fact that bone marrow MC lack angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors.

16.
Cancer Research Conference: American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, ACCR ; 83(8 Supplement), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242368

ABSTRACT

The TG6002.03 trial is a dose-escalation phase 1 clinical trial of TG6002 infusion via the hepatic artery in patients with liver-dominant colorectal cancer metastases. TG6002 is an engineered Copenhagen strain oncolytic Vaccinia virus, deleted of thymidine kinase and ribonucleotide reductase to enhance tumor selective viral replication and expressing FCU1, an enzyme converting the non-cytotoxic prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into the chemotherapeutic compound 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In this trial, patients with advanced unresectable liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer who had failed previous oxaliplatin and irinotecan-based chemotherapy were treated with up to 2 cycles of TG6002 infusion 6 weeks apart via the hepatic artery on day 1 combined with oral 5-FC on days 5 to 14 (where day 1 = TG6002 infusion). TG6002 infusion was performed over 30 minutes via selective catheterization of the hepatic artery proper. 5-FC oral dosing was 50mg/kg x4 daily. Blood was sampled for TG6002 pharmacokinetics and 5-FC and 5-FU measurements. Sampling of liver metastases was performed at screening and on day 4 or day 8 for virus detection and 5-FC and 5-FU quantification. In total, 15 patients (median age 61 years, range 37-78) were treated in 1 UK centre and 2 centres in France and received a dose of TG6002 of 1 x 106 (n=3), 1 x 107 (n=3), 1 x 108 (n=3), or 1 x 109 pfu (n=6). Fourteen of the 15 patients received a single cycle of treatment, including one patient who did not received 5-FC, and one patient received two cycles. TG6002 was transiently detected in plasma following administration, suggesting a strong tissue selectivity for viral replication. In the highest dose cohort, a virus rebound was observed on day 8, concordant with replication time of the virus. In serum samples, 5-FU was present on day 8 in all patients with a high variability ranging from 0.8 to 1072 ng/mL and was measurable over several days after initiation of therapy. Seven of the 9 patients evaluable showed the biodistribution of the virus in liver lesions by PCR testing on day 4 or day 8. Translational blood samples showed evidence for T-cell activation and immune checkpoint receptor-ligand expression. At 1 x 109 pfu, there was evidence for T-cell proliferation and activation against tumour-associated antigens by ELISpot and for immunogenic cell death. In terms of safety, a total of 34 TG6002-related adverse events were reported, of which 32 were grade 1-2 and 2 were grade 3. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached, and a single dose-limiting toxicity was observed consisting of a myocardial infarction in a context of recent Covid-19 infection in a 78-year-old patient. These results indicate that TG6002 infused via the hepatic artery in combination with oral 5-FC was well tolerated, effectively localized and replicated in the tumor tissues, expressed its therapeutic payload and showed anti-tumoral immunological activity.

17.
Revue Medicale Suisse ; 16(691):852-854, 2020.
Article in French | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242159

ABSTRACT

The safety of NSAIDs, corticosteroids and renin-angiotensin inhibitors in COVID-19 is challenged. NSAIDs may interfere with the defense process against viral infection and are best avoided. Systemic corticosteroids have not shown benefit in viral infection, including other coronavirus;thus they should be avoided, unless prescribed for another indication. The benefit-risk ratio is however clearly in favor of continuing inhaled corticosteroids in patients with asthma or COPD. ACE inhibitors and sartans upregulate the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the pulmonary receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Any possible clinical impact of these treatments on COVID-19 infection remains to be clarified;in the meantime, they should be continued.Copyright © 2020 Editions Medecine et Hygiene. All rights reserved.

18.
Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242119

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies have shown an impaired humoral immune response to COVID-19 vaccination. It is therefore of paramount importance to investigate anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels in plasma pools and in immunoglobulin (IgG) products used to treat these patients. AIM: To assess the evolution of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (S protein) in plasma pools and IgG products and its neutralizing activity to original-type virus (Wuhan) and the variants of concern (VOC), including Omicron. Method(s): Healthy donors plasma pools collected in the US and Europe, and the subsequent intravenous (Flebogamma DIFand Gamunex-C, Grifols) and subcutaneous (Xembify, Grifols) IgG manufactured batches were followed from March 2020. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S protein IgG titers were determined in plasma pools and in IgG batches by ELISA. Neutralization assays analyzed the capacity of IgG products to neutralize original-type virus and VOC (Alpha, Beta, Delta, Omicron BA.1 and BA.5), using pseudo viruses expressing S protein. Results were expressed as the dilution producing 50% neutralization (ID50). Result(s): In plasma pools, anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies continuously increased throughout the study period regardless of the geographic origin. In the US, the first positive plasma pools were collected at the end of 2020. Since July 2021, an exponential increase over 30-fold of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies was reported. This trend continued increasing until the end of study period. Similarly, IgG products showed a similar evolution of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies. As expected, IgG batches released at the end of 2020 presented low SARS-CoV-2 neutralization activity. However, IgG products manufactured since August 2021 showed high neutralization activity against original-type virus and the rest of VOC. Regarding Omicron BA.5, a 5 to 10-fold increase was observed over time. Conclusion(s): This study reported the onset of elevated anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers in plasma pools and IgG products since mid-2021, reflecting the evolution of the pandemic and vaccine campaigns. Intravenous and subcutaneous IgG products efficiently neutralized the current circulating VOC, Omicron BA.5. Further research is warranted to assess whether a clinical protective titer against SARS-CoV-2 and passive immunization is achieved in patients with immunodeficiencies treated with IgG products.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

19.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 82(Suppl 1):1622-1623, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20241909

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAnti-synthetase syndrome (ASS) is a rare auto-immune condition that combines autoantibodies and specifics clinical manifestations, including myositis, interstitial lung disease (ILD), polyarthritis, mechanic's hands, Raynaud's phenomenon, and unexplained fever. The hallmark of this syndrome is the presence of anti-aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase (ARS) antibodies. Several anti-ARS antibodies have been described, anti-Jo1 being the most common, followed by anti-PL7, anti-PL12, anti-OJ, anti-EJ, anti-KS, anti-YRS, and anti-Zo. According to a recent epidemiological survey, the rising number of patients with autoimmune diseases, including idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) coincides with the COVID-19 pandemic.ObjectivesTo evaluate the clinical characteristics of ASS patients with different anti-ARS antibodies from a tertiary rheumatology center.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective, single-centered study on consecutive patients diagnosed with ASS from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2022. Clinical and serologic data were obtained by medical records review from hospital database. Myositis-specific antibodies (MSA) and myositis-associated antibodies (MAA) were tested using commercial ELISA kits. We included all patients fulfilling Connor's criteria for ASS.ResultsSixty-one patients (44 females) with mean age 54.4 (13.8) years were included. The most frequently reported clinical manifestation was arthralgia (68.8%), followed by Raynaud's phenomenon (67.2%), ILD (65.6%), myositis (46%), mechanic's hands (44.3%), arthritis (39.3%), and fever (18.0%). The typical triad for ASS, including myositis, arthritis and ILD was present in 17 patients. Twenty-eight (45.9%) patients were PL7+, 21 (34.4%) were Jo1+, 3 (4.9%) were PL12+, and 2 (3.2%) were OJ+. Seven patients were positive for more than two anti-ARS antibodies. The most frequently found MAA was anti-Ro52 (n=23, 37.7%). Of the 61 patients included, 41 (67.2%) patients were diagnosed in the last 3 years (COVID-19 pandemic). The most frequently detected MSA in ASS patients diagnosed during COVID-19 pandemic was anti-PL7 (25/28), while anti-Jo1 was the most common MSA in ASS patients diagnosed before 2020 (p<0.05) (Fig 1).The anti-Jo1+ patients were younger, have significantly more frequent muscle involvement and significantly higher levels of CK than anti-PL7+ patients (p<0.05). The co-occurance of anti-Ro52 antibodies was more frequently observed in anti-Jo1+ patients (n=11, 52.4%) than in anti-PL7+ patients (n=6, 21.4%) (p<0.05). We did not find statistically significant differences between ASS groups regarding sex, disease duration, clinical manifestations including dermatologic lesions, Raynaud's phenomenon, arthralgia/arthritis, ILD, fever, and cancers (all p>0.05).ConclusionASS patients have heterogenous manifestations, and different types of anti-ARS antibodies are associated to distinct clinical and immunological features. The COVID-19 pandemic led to increase prevalence of ASS cases and to a remarkable shift in the anti-ARS antibodies profile, with increased frequency of anti-PL7 antibodies. Further studies are needed to investigate the link between SARS-CoV-2 infections and myositis.References[1]Witt LJ, et al. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Antisynthetase Syndrome. Clin Pulm Med. 2016 Sep;23(5):218-226.[2]Gracia-Ramos AE, et al. New Onset of Autoimmune Diseases Following COVID-19 Diagnosis. Cells. 2021 Dec 20;10(12):3592.[3]Connors GR, et al. Interstitial lung disease associated with the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: what progress has been made in the past 35 years? Chest. 2010 Dec;138(6):1464-74.[4]García-Bravo Let al. Association of anti-SARS-COV-2 vaccine with increased incidence of myositis-related anti-RNA-synthetases auto-antibodies. J Transl Autoimmun. 2022 Jun 30;5:100160.Figure 1.ASS patients with positive anti-ARS antibodies per year (from 2015 to 2022). The green line shows the PL7+ patients;and the orange line shows the Jo1+ cases.[Figure omitted. See PDF]AcknowledgementsI have no acknowledgements to declare.Disclosure of Inter stsNone Declared.

20.
Siberian Medical Review ; 2022(5):81-85, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20241416

ABSTRACT

The aim of the research. To study the features of cardiovascular system disorders in post-covid syndrome (PCS) in children and adolescents after a mild form of coronavirus infection (COVID-19). Material and methods. From 260 children and adolescents after a mild form of COVID-19, a total of 30 patients aged 7-17 years with cardiac manifestations of PCS were selected. Therewith, 32 patients with an uncomplicated form of the disease were selected to form a comparison group. In 3 and 6 months after disease onset, a comprehensive examination of patients was performed with a questionnaire on the subjective scale for MFI-20 assessment asthenia (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20), electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography;daily monitoring of ECG and blood pressure. The biochemical blood test included assay of creatine phosphokinase-MB (CPK-MB), troponin I and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Results. The incidence of PCS with cardiac manifestations amounted to 11.5 %. After 3 months from the disease onset, complaints of pain and discomfort in the chest, palpitations, fatigue, and poor exercise tolerance persisted. Asthenic syndrome was diagnosed in 70 % of patients. The "general asthenia" indicator totalled14 [12;16] points (p<0.001) and was associated with the age of patients (r=+0.5;p<0.05). Arrhythmic syndrome and conduction disorders were detected in 67% of children. Labile arterial hypertension and hypotension occurred in 23 % of the adolescents. The increase in CPK-MB remained in 17% of the children, LDH - in 10%. In the sixth month after the onset of the disease, there were no significant differences in the results of the examination in the observation groups. However, a decrease in the level of resistance within 6 months was recorded in 43.3% of the schoolchildren with PCS (p<0.001). Conclusion. The data obtained indicate the need for early verification of cardiopathies in children with COVID-19, determination of a set of therapeutic and rehabilitation measures as well as ECG monitoring.Copyright © 2022, Krasnoyarsk State Medical University. All rights reserved.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL