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1.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(39): 5735-5749, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was perhaps the most severe global health crisis in living memory. Alongside respiratory symptoms, elevated liver enzymes, abnormal liver function, and even acute liver failure were reported in patients suffering from severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2 pneumonia. However, the precise triggers of these forms of liver damage and how they affect the course and outcomes of COVID-19 itself remain unclear. AIM: To analyze the impact of liver enzyme abnormalities on the severity and outcomes of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. METHODS: In this study, 684 depersonalized medical records from patients hospitalized with COVID-19 during the 2020-2021 period were analyzed. COVID-19 was diagnosed according to the guidelines of the National Institutes of Health (2021). Patients were assigned to two groups: those with elevated liver enzymes (Group 1: 603 patients), where at least one out of four liver enzymes were elevated (following the norm of hospital laboratory tests: alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≥ 40, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ≥ 40, gamma-glutamyl transferase ≥ 36, or alkaline phosphatase ≥ 150) at any point of hospitalization, from admission to discharge; and the control group (Group 2: 81 patients), with normal liver enzymes during hospitalization. COVID-19 severity was assessed according to the interim World Health Organization guidance (2022). Data on viral pneumonia complications, laboratory tests, and underlying diseases were also collected and analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 603 (88.2%) patients produced abnormal liver test results. ALT and AST levels were elevated by a factor of less than 3 in 54.9% and 74.8% of cases with increased enzyme levels, respectively. Patients in Group 1 had almost double the chance of bacterial viral pneumonia complications [odds ratio (OR) = 1.73, P = 0.0217], required oxygen supply more often, and displayed higher biochemical inflammation indices than those in Group 2. No differences in other COVID-19 complications or underlying diseases were observed between groups. Preexisting hepatitis of a different etiology was rarely documented (in only 3.5% of patients), and had no impact on the severity of COVID-19. Only 5 (0.73%) patients experienced acute liver failure, 4 of whom died. Overall, the majority of the deceased patients (17 out of 20) had elevated liver enzymes, and most were male. All deceased patients had at least one underlying disease or combination thereof, and the deceased suffered significantly more often from heart diseases, hypertension, and urinary tract infections than those who made recoveries. Alongside male gender (OR = 1.72, P = 0.0161) and older age (OR = 1.02, P = 0.0234), diabetes (OR = 3.22, P = 0.0016) and hyperlipidemia (OR = 2.67, P = 0.0238), but not obesity, were confirmed as independent factors associated with more a severe COVID-19 infection in our cohort. CONCLUSION: In our study, the presence of liver impairment allows us to predict a more severe inflammation with a higher risk of bacterial complication and worse outcomes of COVID-19. Therefore, patients with severe disease forms should have their liver tests monitored regularly and their results should be considered when selecting treatment to avoid further liver damage or even insufficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Failure, Acute , Pneumonia, Viral , United States , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Liver Failure, Acute/complications , Inflammation/complications
2.
Asian Journal of Water Environment and Pollution ; 19(5):37-42, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2071052

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a viral pathogen that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), as a receptor, is crucial for SARS-CoV-2 to get access into the host cells. According to reports, ACE2 is expressed in the liver, placenta, heart, lungs and kidneys. This study sought to gain unique insights into the features of liver indicators in individuals suffering from COVID-19 disease in order to enhance their therapeutic care. The study groups included 50 people diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in the patient's group and 25 healthy people without any systemic diseases in the control group. Human serum samples were used to measure liver function enzymes, CRP, D dimer, and ferritin all samples by using automated quantitative tests. The results revealed a statically significant difference between AST, ALP, TSB, and study groups, where it is found that the mean levels of AST (88.04 +/- 33.00) and ALP (99.61 +/- 41.93) were high in patients than in controls, while the mean levels of TSB were low in patients (0.51 +/- 0.21) than the controls. A significant difference was also obtained for each ferritin, CRP, and D dimer between the study groups, where it found the mean concentrations of D dimer, ferritin and CRP, i.e., 1208.09 +/- 667.32, 60.53 +/- 23.91 and 204.52 +/- 90.62, respectively, were high in the patient's group than in controls.

3.
Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases ; 14(2):229-234, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067666

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D, HOMA-IR, Exercise, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease INTRODUCTION Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide, defined as fat accumulation, especially triglycerides, in hepatocytes, which are associated with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.1-2 Sedentary lifestyles and poor eating habits are among the main causes of increased insulin resistance and obesity, the two important risk factors for NAFLD.2-3 Different exercise and physical activity cause diverse alterations in insulin resistance and recognizing these changes might affect the interpretation of exerciseinduced mechanisms in patients with NAFLD.4-5 It has been reported that exhaustive eccentric exercise (EEE), along with a positive role in weight loss and physiological adaptation, might lead to cell damage.6 Many studies have reported liver damage and increased insulin resistance following EEE due to the reduced hepatic circulation and subsequent mitochondrial swelling in hepatocytes.7,8 Different approaches (e.g. supplementation) have been considered to neutralize the adverse effects of EEE including increased liver enzymes and muscle damage.9 Among which vitamin D (Vit D ) supplementation plays a significant role in the prevention of NAFLD.10 According to studies, Vit D with anti-fibrosis and anti-inflammatory properties is effective to induce insulin sensitivity by improving liver enzymes and reducing insulin resistance.11,12 To our knowledge, few studies have investigated the EEE-induced glycemic variables responses before and after a short-term Vit D supplementation in patients with NAFLD;thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of short-term Vit D supplementation on glycemic variables alterations in response to EEE in patients with NAFLD. Exclusion criteria were smoking, history of heart or kidney disease, taking lipid-lowering drugs, being infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Vit D supplementation and regular exercise six months before the start of the study, fundamental diet changes, and failure to follow the study protocol. 26 individuals who met the inclusion criteria were then selected as subjects that were randomly assigned into Exp (n=13) and C (n=13) groups. [...]5 minutes of cooling down at a speed of 3 km/h and a zero slope were performed. Liver enzymes (Alanine transaminase [ALT], Aspartate transaminase [AST], and gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT]) were measured with the enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method (Greiner Bio-One kit, made in Germany), fasting insulin levels with ELISA method (Mercodia kit, made in Sweden), glucose with enzymatic method (Pars Azmun kit, made in Iran), and the insulin resistance index was also performed using the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance) equation.

4.
The British Journal of Nutrition ; 128(8):1459-1469, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2062085

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D is both a nutrient and a neurologic hormone that plays a critical role in modulating immune responses. While low levels of vitamin D are associated with increased susceptibility to infections and immune-related disorders, vitamin D supplementation has demonstrated immunomodulatory effects that can be protective against various diseases and infections. Vitamin D receptor is expressed in immune cells that have the ability to synthesise the active vitamin D metabolite. Thus, vitamin D acts in an autocrine manner in a local immunologic milieu in fighting against infections. Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics are the new disciplines of nutritional science that explore the interaction between nutrients and genes using distinct approaches to decipher the mechanisms by which nutrients can influence disease development. Though molecular and observational studies have proved the immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D, only very few studies have documented the molecular insights of vitamin D supplementation. Until recently, researchers have investigated only a few selected genes involved in the vitamin D metabolic pathway that may influence the response to vitamin D supplementation and possibly disease risk. This review summarises the impact of vitamin D supplementation on immune markers from nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics perspective based on evidence collected through a structured search using PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct and Web of Science. The research gaps and shortcomings from the existing data and future research direction of vitamin D supplementation on various immune-related disorders are discussed.

5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(12): 858, 2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059929

ABSTRACT

We examined 10 subsurface water, 5 benthic water and 19 sediment (02 cm) samples along a 518 km of the middle segment of the Ganga River to assess the possible improvements that resulted from the industrial shutdown during the COVID-19 pandemic. The sites included the main stem river, tributary confluences, and two point sources, one of which releases metal-rich effluents and the other flushes municipal sewage. We found significant declines in the carbon, nutrient and metal concentrations in both the water and sediment. Even the most polluted zones did not show hypoxia (dissolve oxygen; DO < 2.0 mg L-1) that had been observed in the previous year. Despite a significant decline in carbon and nitrogen as substrates, the activities of extracellular enzymes (EEs), such as ß-D-glucosidase, FDAase and protease in sediment (0-2 cm depth), increased significantly (p < 0.05) in response to the declining metal concentrations resulting from the industrial shutdown. We found strong negative correlations between EE activity and the concentrations of metal pollutants measured in 2019, but the correlations between these variables appeared poor in 2020 (lockdown period). Also, we found large variances (low stability coefficients) during the period of strong anthropogenic effects (2019). The study indicates that industrial sources are important contributors of metal pollution in the Ganga River and has relevance exploring river ecosystem recovery windows for management decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metals, Heavy , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Carbon , Communicable Disease Control , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Geologic Sediments , Glucosidases , Humans , Metals , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Nitrogen , Oxygen , Pandemics , Peptide Hydrolases , Rivers , Sewage , Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
6.
Algae ; 37(3):239-247, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2055979

ABSTRACT

Enzyme-assisted hydrolysis is frequendy used as a cost-effective and efficient method to obtain functional ingredients from bioresources. This study involved die enzyme-assisted hydrolyzation and purification of fucoidan from Ecklonia maxima stipe and die investigation of its anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Fucoidans of Viscozyme-assisted hydrolysate from E. maxima (EMSFs) harvested in Jeju, Korea. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, and monosaccharide analysis. Among fucoidans, EMSF6 was rich in fucose and sulfate and had a similar structural character to commercial fucoidan. EMSF6 showed a strong inhibitory effect on nitric oxide generation in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells and significantly decreased die production of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, interleukin-1 p, and tumor necrosis factor a. The anti-inflammatory potential of EMSF6 was mediated through the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Thus, fucoidans from&temppound;. maxima stipe are promising candidates for functional food products.

7.
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation ; 46(9), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2052701

ABSTRACT

Virgin Coconut oil (VCO), owing to its functional properties (important in COVID-19), is costly and, therefore, susceptible to adulteration with other cheaper oils like coconut oil. An enzyme-based biosensor confirmative test of VCO was constructed by co-immobilizing enzymes onto a glassy carbon electrode. The performance of the biosensor was optimized at a potential of +0.5 V with 45 mg gelatin, 30 mg BSA coupled with 2.5% glutaraldehyde at pH 7.0 with an incubation time of 1 hr. Adulterated samples of VCO with coconut oil (CO) were analyzed. The concentration of diglyceride (DG) was estimated from the empirical relation, which showed a linear increase with the increase in adulteration. The developed biosensor was validated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods using a paired sample t test at a 5% significance level. The biosensor could detect adulteration in VCO with CO above 20% within 3-5 s and can be reused for 25 days.

8.
Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies ; 149:214-230, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2048147

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to find the original source of envelope protein (spiked surface) of the Covid-19. It was assumed that the envelope protein was related to ordinary proteins like the human liver enzymes as possible original sources. A comparison was made on the genome sequences of the envelope protein and the human liver enzymes. The results of computational experiments showed that the longest sequence, common in both groups, was as follows: glutamine acid (e) - glutamine acid (e) - threonine (t) - glycine (g). Upon this finding further investigation was performed on the molecular structure of this sequence;and the probabilities of electron captures by the protons of the atoms were computed to determine which atoms could connect the amino acids using the approximation method taken from the quantum mechanics. The study was continued to identify which amino acid grew the genome sequence of the envelope protein differently from the human liver enzymes. And it was found that the electron capture by the proton of the atom could explain the process that formed the genome sequence of the Covid-19’s envelope protein out from the human liver enzymes. To our opinion this method could be used for identification of other candidate proteins so that to find the original source of the virus. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

9.
Revista Cubana de Medicina Militar ; 51(3), 2022.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2046948

ABSTRACT

Introduction: It is important to know the alterations in liver enzymes in patients with COVID-19, as markers of liver damage. Objective: To identify alterations in liver enzymes in high-risk patients with COVID-19. Methods: A prospective descriptive study was carried out on alterations in liver enzymes in 56 patients admitted with COVID-19. The variables studied were age, sex, evolution towards gravity, and liver enzymes. Serum samples were taken on the first day of admission and on the fifth day to determine liver enzymes. The Ritis index was also found. Results: The average age was 66.64 ± 13.12 years, 51.8% were older men and 37.5% progressed towards severity. In all enzymes there was an increase in the mean on the fifth day of the study. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were found to be high in most of the patients from the first day. On the fifth day, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was high in 71.4% of non-severe patients and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in severe cases. At the beginning, a Ritis index < 1 was more frequent, but on the fifth day the Ritis index > 1 increased by 42.9% in seriously ill. 56.6% of seriously ill patients modified this index on the fifth day. Conclusions: The elevation of the mean liver enzymes on the fifth day was demonstrated. LDH and GGT remained high from the beginning of the disease. The majority of severe patients reversed the Ritis index on the fifth day. © 2022, Editorial Ciencias Medicas. All rights reserved.

10.
Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research (Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research) ; 13(6):576-580, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2046920

ABSTRACT

Background: The mortality rate is never understood completely but it in the range of 3 to 7 percent. This study puts in an effort to find one such difference if any between the survivors when compared to the non-survivors. This study makes an effort to find the Acute inflammatory protein levels in the two groups. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research (Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research) is the property of Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

11.
Australian Journal of Herbal and Naturopathic Medicine ; 34(3):129-132, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046170

ABSTRACT

Preliminary studies have been conducted on the effect of lavender on people's stress;however, there have been inconsistencies in the results. [...]the current study aimed to estimate the pooled effect of lavender on stress using systematic review and meta-analysis. [...]of combining the studies, stress scores after using lavender in the intervention group showed a significant decrease compared to the control group. Acute vertigo can significantly impact the quality of life. [...]research is targeting therapeutics that can improve symptoms and improve wellbeing. EGb has several actions which may directly or indirectly be beneficial for vertigo, including antiinflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, circulatory stimulating, and platelet-activating factor (PAF) inhibitory effects. [...]the current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of EGb in addition to vestibular exercises in central vestibular vertigo caused by vertebrobasilar ischaemia.

12.
Chimia ; 76(7-8):716-719, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2043370

ABSTRACT

There is usually only one Nobel Symposium per dis-cipline and year, but COVID has also had an effect on this rule. Initially planned to take place in 2020, this Nobel Symposium lined up a unique group of speakers and just about the same number of observers, as well as three members of the scientific press, all by invitation.

13.
Trends Pharmacol Sci ; 43(12): 1041-1054, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042159

ABSTRACT

The development of clinically effective drugs that could complement existing vaccines is urgently needed to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19. Drug-metabolizing enzymes, membrane-associated drug transporters, and inflammatory responses can partly determine the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 drugs by controlling their concentrations in both the systemic circulation and in peripheral tissues. It is still unknown how these factors affect how well COVID-19 drugs work in the clinic. We explore how drug metabolism and transport, as well as SARS-CoV-2-associated inflammatory response at disease target sites, may affect the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 drugs. In addition, we provide expert opinion on potential strategies for overcoming the clinical pharmacology and pathophysiological obstacles to improve COVID-19 drug effectiveness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 982839, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039678

ABSTRACT

The secreted enzyme interleukin four-induced gene 1 (IL4I1) is involved in the negative control of the adaptive immune response. IL4I1 expression in human cancer is frequent and correlates with poor survival and resistance to immunotherapy. Nevertheless, its mechanism of action remains partially unknown. Here, we identified transmembrane serine protease 13 (TMPRSS13) as an immune cell-expressed surface protein that binds IL4I1. TMPRSS13 is a paralog of TMPRSS2, of which the protease activity participates in the cleavage of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and facilitates virus induced-membrane fusion. We show that TMPRSS13 is expressed by human lymphocytes, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages, can cleave the spike protein and allow SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotyped virus entry into cells. We identify regions of homology between IL4I1 and spike and demonstrate competition between the two proteins for TMPRSS13 binding. These findings may be relevant for both interfering with SARS-CoV-2 infection and limiting IL4I1-dependent immunosuppressive activity in cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Interleukins , L-Amino Acid Oxidase , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
15.
Russian Journal of Infection & Immunity ; 12(4):779-782, 2022.
Article in Russian | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2040483

ABSTRACT

Viral infections are the first ranked conditions among infectious diseases causing 5–15% of all community-acquired pneumonia. The aim of the study was to describe a case of COVID-19 infection, proceeding with acquired bacterial infection and developing abscess pneumonia in a young patient. Material and methods. The accompanying medical documentation was examined, clinical and morphological analysis was carried out for assessing macro- and micropreparations. Results. Patient A.E., 31 years old, within 5 hours 10 minutes was at in-hospital treatment with a diagnosis of Coronavirus infection, severe course. Community-acquired bilateral polysegmental pneumonia. The patient admitted with complaints of respiratory difficulty, shortness of breath, weakness, fever up to febrile level, severe pain in the right groin area, both lower extremities, swelling in hands and feet. However, despite initiated treatment, the patient’s condition worsened and biological death was verified. The postmortem examination revealed signs of total bilateral hemorrhagic pneumonia. Histological examination showed areas of necrosis in the alveolar epithelium and signs of marked edema with a hemorrhagic component;hemolyzed erythrocytes were found in alveolar lumen. Focal hemorrhages were visualized in the pulmonary parenchyma, sometimes merging along with lung tissue with forming microabscesses. a well-defined shaft consisting of granular leukocytes and congested vessels with erythrocyte sludge was noted on the periphery of necrosis area. In the alveoli located closer to the abscesses, fibrinous and serous exudate was detected. Signs of edema were observed in the brain;histological examination revealed perivascular, pericellular optical voids with vascular congestion, erythrocyte sludge and minor hemorrhages. SARS-CoV-2-caused pneumonia and acquired bacterial infection, in this case due to staphylococcus, led to abscess pneumonia and severe respiratory failure with developing acute distress syndrome. Obviously, the high frequency of destructive processes in staphylococcal pneumonia is due to the pathogenic staphylococci characterized by production of high-level proteolytic enzymes destroying body tissues. Thus, the current case of COVID-19 infection in a young patient is of particular importance and relevance, because it demonstrates an unfavorable disease outcome despite patient young age and lack of concomitant pathology. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR] Вирусные инфекции занимают первое место среди инфекционных заболеваний и являются причиной 5-15% всех внебольничных пневмоний. Цель исследования - описание случая инфицирования COVID-19, протекающего с присоединением бактериальной инфекции и развитием абсцедирующей пневмонии у молодой пациентки. Материалы и методы. Изучена сопроводительная медицинская документация, проведен клинико-морфологический анализ с помощью описания макро- и микропрепаратов. Результаты. Больная А.Е., 31 год, в течение 5 ч 10 мин находилась на стационарном лечении с диагнозом: «Коронавирусная инфекция, тяжелое течение. Внебольничная двусторонняя полисегментарная пневмония». Поступила с жалобами на затруднение дыхания, одышку, слабость, повышение температуры тела до фебрильных цифр, выраженные боли в правой паховой области, в обеих нижних конечностях, пастозность рук и ног. Однако, несмотря на начатое лечение, состояние пациентки ухудшалось, и была констатирована биологическая смерть. На патологоанатомическом исследовании выявлялись признаки двусторонней тотальной геморрагической пневмонии. При гистологическом исследовании определялись участки некроза альвеолярного эпителия и признаки выраженного отека с геморрагическим компонентом, в просвете альвеол встречались гемолизированные эритроциты. Визуализировались очаговые кровоизлияния в легочной паренхиме, местами сливающиеся и участки некроза легочной ткани с формированием «гнойников» (микроабсцессов). На периферии участка некроза отмечался хорошо выраженный вал из зернистых лейкоцитов и полнокровных сосудов с эритроцитарными сладжами. Ð’ альвеолах, расположенных ближе к гнойникам, определялся фибринозный и серозный экссудат. Ð’ головном мозге наблюдались признаки отека, при гистологическом исследовании определялись периваскулярные, перицеллюлярные оптические пустоты с полнокровием сосудов, эритроцитарными сладжами и мелкими кровоизлияниями. Вирусная пневмония, вызванная коронаровирусом и присоединением бактериальной инфекции, в нашем случае стафилококка, привела кабсцедирующей пневмонии и тяжелой дыхательной недостаточности с развитием острого дистресс-синдрома. Очевидно, что высокая частота деструктивных процессов при стафилококковой пневмониРобъясняется тем, что для патогенных стафилококков характерна выработка большого количества протеолитических ферментов, разрушающих ткани. Таким образом, представленный случай инфицирования COVID-19 у молодой пациентки имеет особую важность и актуальность, так как демонстрирует неблагоприятный исход заболевания, несмотря на молодой возраст, и отсутствие сопутствующей патологии. (Russian) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Russian Journal of Infection & Immunity is the property of National Electronic-Information Consortium and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

16.
Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine ; 44(3):346-346, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034493

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is raging around the world, infecting more than 460 million people and killing more than 6 million people, posing a serious threat to human health. Analyzing the pathogenic mechanism of the virus and discovering new drug targets are the keys to the development of antiviral drugs. Similar to the envelope proteins of many important viruses such as Ebola virus and Marburg virus, the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 relies on the cleavage and processing of cellular furin to mature during infection, and then make the virus infective, so furin is an important potential target for antiviral therapy. However, the regulation mechanism of furin enzyme activity in cells under physiological and infection conditions is not yet very clear.

17.
American Family Physician ; 106(3):308, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2034008

ABSTRACT

Approximately 10 million people worldwide were infected with tuberculosis (TB) in 2019, resulting in 1.4 million deaths. In the United States that same year, there were nearly 9,000 reported cases of TB disease and up to 13 million people were living with latent TB infection (LTBI), which is an asymptomatic, noncommunicable infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Without treatment, LTBI will progress to active TB disease in approximately 5% to 10% of affected people. Individuals with symptoms of TB disease warrant testing. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends testing individuals at increased risk of LTBI with an interferon-gamma release assay or tuberculin skin testing. Because the incidence of LTBI in health care professionals is similar to that of the general population, periodic retesting is not recommended. After a positive test result, chest radiography should be performed and, in patients with suspected pulmonary TB disease, sputum collected for diagnosis. Both suspected and confirmed cases of LTBI and TB disease must be reported to local or state health departments. Preferred treatment regimens for LTBI include isoniazid in combination with rifapentine or rifampin, or rifampin alone for a duration of three and four months, respectively. Treatment of drug-susceptible TB disease includes an eight-week intensive phase with four drugs (isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol), followed by a continuation phase lasting 18 weeks or more, with two drugs based on susceptibility testing results. Consultation with a TB expert is necessary if there is suspicion or confirmation of drug-resistant TB. (Am Fam Physician. 2022;106(3):308–315. Copyright © 2022 American Academy of Family Physicians.)

18.
Journal of Biotech Research ; 13:177-188, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2033805

ABSTRACT

The 3C protease is distinguished from most proteases due to the presence of cysteine nucleophile that plays an essential role in viral replication. This peculiar structure encompassed with its role in viral replication has promoted 3C protease as an interesting target for therapeutic agents in the treatment of diseases caused by human rhinovirus (HRV). However, the molecular mechanisms surrounding the chirality of inhibitors of HRV 3C protease remain unresolved. Herein using in silico techniques such molecular dynamic simulation and binding free estimations via molecular mechanics poisson-boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA), we present a comprehensive molecular dynamics study of the comparison of two potent inhibitors, SG85 and rupintrivir, complexed with HRV3C protease. The binding free energy studies revealed a higher binding affinity for SG85 of 58.853 kcal/mol than that for rupintrivir of 54.0873 kcal/mol and this was found to be in correlation with the experimental data. The energy decomposition analysis showed that residues Leu 127, Thr 142, Ser 144, Gly 145, Tyr 146, Cys 147, His 161, Val 162, Gly 163, Gly 164, Asn 165, and Phe 170 largely contributed to the binding of SG85, whereas His 40, Leu 127, and Gly 163 impacted the binding of rupintrivir. The results further showed that His 40, Glu 71, Leu 127, Cys 147, Gly 163, and Gyl 164 were crucial residues that played a key role in ligand-enzyme binding, and amongst these crucial residues, His 40, Glu 71, and Cys 147 appeared to be conserved in the active site of HRV-3C protease when bound by both inhibitors. These findings provided a comprehensive understanding of the dynamics and structural features and would serve as guidance in the design and development of potent novel inhibitors of HRV.

19.
Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry ; : 100701, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031213

ABSTRACT

Noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) merge the conformational behavior and native interactions of proteinogenic amino acids with nonnative chemical motifs and have proven invaluable in developing modern therapeutics. This blending of native and nonnative characteristics has resulted in essential drugs like nirmatrelvir, which comprises three ncAAs and is used to treat COVID-19. Enzymes are appearing prominently in recent syntheses of ncAAs, where they demonstrate impressive control over the stereocenters and functional groups found therein. Here we review recent efforts to expand the biocatalyst arsenal for synthesizing ncAAs with natural enzymes. We also discuss how new-to-nature enzymes can contribute to this effort by catalyzing reactions inspired by the vast repertoire of chemical catalysis and acting on substrates that would otherwise not be used in synthesizing ncAAs. Abiotic enzyme-catalyzed reactions exploit the selectivity afforded by a macromolecular catalyst to access molecules not available to natural enzymes and perhaps not even chemical catalysis.

20.
Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev ; : 1-21, 2022 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028787

ABSTRACT

In response to different viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2 infection, pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory cytokines, and bioactive lipids are released from infected and immune cells. One of the most critical bioactive lipids is prostaglandins (PGs) which favor perseverance of inflammation leading to chronic inflammation as PGs act as cytokine amplifiers. PGs trigger the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, activate Th cells, recruit immune cells, and increase the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Therefore, PGs may induce acute and chronic inflammations in various inflammatory disorders and viral infections like SARS-CoV-2. PGs are mainly inhibited by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by blocking cyclooxygenase enzymes (COXs), which involve PG synthesis. NSAIDs reduce inflammation by selective or non-selective blocking activity of COX2 or COX1/2, respectively. In the Covid-19 era, there is a tremendous controversy regarding the use of NSAIDs in the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection. As well, the possible role of PGs in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is not well-defined. Thus, the objective of the present study is to review the potential role of PGs and NSAIDs in Covid-19 in a narrative review regarding the preponderance of assorted views.

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