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1.
Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol ; 2021 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100718

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Currently, the world is engaged with a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) infection. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has proposed moderate to severe asthma as a risk factor for COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. However, current evidences have not identified asthma in the top 10 comorbidities associated with COVID-19 fatalities. It raises the question that why patients with different type of asthma are not more vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection like other respiratory infection. Increased number of eosinophils and elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expressions in asthma are supposed as two mechanisms which associated with decreased COVID-19 susceptibility in asthmatics. Some studies have been performed to evaluate two mentioned factors in asthmatic patients compared with healthy individuals. Herein, we address these mechanisms and investigate whether ACE2 and eosinophil could protect asthmatic patients against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 16(3):1622-1627, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067515

ABSTRACT

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a primary health concern. They are commonly differentiated as hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) and community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections, based on their epidemiology, susceptibility findings, and molecular typing patterns. Therefore, appropriate contact precautions and isolation measures should be implemented. CA-MRSA mostly causes skin and soft-tissue infections, but the probability and incidence of it causing sepsis and invasive infections have increased dramatically in recent years. In this study, we report a case of CA-MRSA pneumonia with pan-pneumonic effusion in a 59-year-old male diabetic patient with preexisting comorbidities such as diabetic ketoacidosis and non-ST elevated myocardial infarction. The early reporting of the organism's identity and its antimicrobial susceptibility, as well as timely initiation of antibiotic therapy, aided in the successful management and cure of the patient.

3.
Pulmonologiya ; 32(2):151-161, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067423

ABSTRACT

Bronchial asthma occurs in 0.9 - 17% of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. However, it is not clear whether asthma is a risk factor for the development and severity of COVID-19. Studies have shown that patients with asthma appear to be more susceptible to COVID-19 infection, but severe disease progression is not related to medication use, including asthma biologics, but rather to older age and comorbidities. Aim. To evaluate the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in elderly patients with asthma, to examine the effect of asthma and comorbidities on COVID-19-related outcomes, and to determine predictors of mortality. Methods. Elderly patients [WHO, 2020] (> 60 years, n = 131, median age 74 (67;80) years;59 men, 72 women) with asthma hospitalized for COVID-19 were included in the study. COVID-19 was confirmed by laboratory tests (PCR smear) and/or clinical and radiological examinations. All patients had a history of a documented diagnosis of asthma (GINA, 2020). Results. Out of 131 patients, 30 (22.9%) died in the hospital, and 15 (14.9%) died after discharge from the hospital (within 90 days). The group of patients with lethal outcome showed the following differences from those who recovered: values of Charlson index, respiration rate, degree of lung damage on CT scan, absolute number of leukocytes, neutrophils and neutrophils-to-lymphocytes ratio, C-reactive protein on the 5th day of hospitalization, and LDH were statistically significantly higher, while absolute number of eosinophils, total protein content, SpO2 and SpO2/FiO2 levels were lower;steroid intake during the year and non-atopic asthma were more common. Multivariate and ROC analysis revealed the most significant predictors of hospital mortality and their thresholds: Charlson comorbidity index ≥ 6 points, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio ≥ 4.5, total protein ≤ 60 g/l, eosinophil level ≤ 100 cells/μL. Conclusion. The most significant predictors of hospital mortality in elderly patients with severe COVID-19 against asthma are Charlson comorbidity, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio;lower eosinophil and total protein levels. Survival time of patients has an inverse correlation with the number of mortality risk factors present.

4.
Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine ; 7(2):44-46, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2065359

ABSTRACT

Background: BNT162b2 is a widely used mRNA COVID-19 vaccine for which 8.2% of participants above the age of 56 years have reported diarrhea as an adverse event. This case report highlights the possibility of eosinophilic colitis in post-vaccination diarrhea. Case report: A 72-year-old male patient presented with generalized colicky abdominal pain and acute diarrhea after receiving the first dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. Laboratory examination revealed peripheral blood eosinophilia with cecal and ascending colon mucosal eosinophilia with 100-130 cells/HPF and eosinophilic cryptitis. The patient's symptoms and eosinophilia resolved spontaneously and did not recur after the second dose of vaccination. More research is needed to confirm eosinophilic colitis as a possible vaccine adverse reaction. Copyright © 2022 Selva Yuwaraj Vadioaloo et al., published by Sciendo.

5.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):908-909, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063435

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To determine if Apadenoson or Regadenoson has a therapeutic effect in attenuating hyper-inflammation and improving survival rate in K18-hACE2mice or Syrian hamsters infected with SARS-CoV-2. Method(s): 6-8 weeks old male K18-hACE2mice were divided into Control group that received vehicle;Test group 1 that received the drug (Apadenoson or Regadenoson) 24hrs prior to challenge with SARS-CoV-2;and Test Group 2 (Drug-delay), that received the drug with a 5 hr delay post-viral infection (n=6/grp). Viral dose was 1250 PfuHong Kong/VM20001061/2020 delivered via intranasal route. Drug was delivered subcutaneously using 1007D ALZET pumps. 6 weeks old Syrian hamsters were divided into Control group that received Vehicle and Virus (n=4) and 2 test groups (n=5/group) that received Apadenoson+Virus and Regadenoson+Virus. Drugs were delivered by 2ML2 ALZET pumps (4ug/kg/hr). Hamsters were inoculated intratracheally with 750PFU SARS-CoV-2 WA1 strain prior to treatment. Mice were weighed and clinical scores recorded daily. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum were collected along with lungs. Plethysmography was done on days 0, 2, 4 and 7. Result(s): Apadenoson administered post-infection was efficacious in decreasing weight loss, improving clinical score, and increasing the survival rate in K18-hACE2 mice, i.e. 50% survival was observed at Day 5 and at Day 7 post-infection for drug given before or after infection respectively. Apadenoson given post-infection improved the histopathology that was observed in the vehicle control group, decreased pro-inflammatory IL-6, IFN-gamma, MCCP-1, MIP-1beta, IP-10, and Rantes in serum, increased anti-inflammatory Ang1-7 levels, and decreased monocytes in BALF. 42% of mice that received Regadenoson pre-challenge survived infection compared to 6.25% in the vehicle or Drug delay (drug given post-infection) groups. Viral titers in the lungs of Regadenoson-treated mice were found decreased. Treatment also significantly decreased CD4+, CD8+T cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils in BALF. Plethysmography, in hamsters, showed significant improvement of pulmonary function parameters, Rpef and PenH, following treatment with Apadenoson given post-infection. Apadenoson cleared the virus from BALF and maintained Ang1-7 levels. Both drugs decreased plasma IFN-gamma levels. Conclusion(s): Treatment with Apadenoson attenuated inflammation, improved pulmonary function, decreased weight loss, and enhanced survival rate following infection with SARS-CoV-2 virus. The results demonstrate the translational significance of Apadenoson in the treatment of COVID-19.

6.
Chest ; 162(4):A2492-A2493, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060953

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Unique Inflammatory and Autoimmune Complications of COVID-19 Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare illness characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the lung parenchyma. Cases often present with fever, severe dyspnea, bilateral infiltrates, and eosinophilia on BAL exams. The cause of eosinophilic pneumonia is unknown, but is thought to be related to inhalational exposure of an irritant or toxin. Most cases are responsive to steroid treatment. This case demonstrates acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a patient who recently recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 50 year old female with a history of multiple sclerosis, seizure disorder secondary to MS, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, and a distant history of tobacco smoking and opiate dependence on chronic suboxone therapy, presented with dyspnea secondary to respiratory failure. The patient was urged to present by her husband after findings of hypoxia to 79% on room air with cyanosis of the lips and fingers. She recently recovered from COVID-19 1 month prior, at which time she had symptoms of cough productive of red mucus, fever, and exhaustion;but states she never returned to her baseline. With ongoing hypoxia, the patient was intubated for mechanical ventilation. Subsequent bronchoscopy with BAL resulted in a elevated eosinophil count to 76%, with fungal elements and PCR positive for HSV-1. The patient was initiated on high dose glucocorticoid therapy in addition to Acyclovir and Voriconazole. A CT with IV contrast revealed extensive bilateral pulmonary emboli involving the segmental and subsegmental branches throughout both lungs and extension into the right pulmonary artery;the patient was started on anticoagulation. Shortly after beginning glucocorticoid therapy, the patient had significant improvement and was able to be weaned off ventilation to simple nasal cannula. She was able to be safely discharged home with two liters of supplemental oxygen and steroid taper. DISCUSSION: Acute Eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare condition with an unknown acute disease process. The diagnostic criteria for acute eosinophilic pneumonia includes: a duration of febrile illness less than one month, hypoxia with an SpO2 <90%, diffuse pulmonary opacities, and otherwise absence of inciting causes of pulmonary eosinophilia (including asthma, atopic disease, or infection). Diagnosis of eosinophilic pneumonia is attained after meeting clinical criteria with a BAL sample demonstrating an eosinophilia differential of >25%. The mainstay of treatment for this condition is glucocorticoid therapy with most cases resolving rapidly after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Fewer than 200 cases of acute eosinophilic pneumonia have been reported in medical literature. It is imperative to keep a wide differential as critical illness may be rapidly improved with appropriate therapy. The cause of acute eosinophilic pneumonia is largely unknown, it is unclear what role COVID-19 may have played in the development of this pneumonia. Reference #1: Allen J. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Apr;27(2):142-7. doi: 10.1055/s-2006-939517. PMID: 16612765. Reference #2: Nakagome K, Nagata M. Possible Mechanisms of Eosinophil Accumulation in Eosinophilic Pneumonia. Biomolecules. 2020 Apr 21;10(4):638. doi: 10.3390/biom10040638. PMID: 32326200;PMCID: PMC7226607. Reference #3: Yuzo Suzuki, Takafumi Suda, Eosinophilic pneumonia: A review of the previous literature, causes, diagnosis, and management, Allergology International, Volume 68, Issue 4, 2019, Pages 413-419, ISSN 1323-8930 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Tayler Acton No relevant relationships by Calli Bertschy No relevant relationships by Stewart Caskey No relevant relationships by Shekhar Ghamande No relevant relationships by Tyler Houston No relevant relationships by Zenia Sattar No relevant relationships by Heather Villarreal

7.
Chest ; 162(4):A2190, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060909

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Issues After COVID-19 Vaccination Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Eosinophilia is the most commonly reported adverse event following administration of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, accounting for 237 of 372 events (63.7%). Eosinophilic pneumonia has been described noted in 3 of all reported cases. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 73 year-old male presented to his PCP with a 3 week history of nonproductive cough and wheezing. He completed a 2-shot series of BNT162b2 mRNA (Pfizer/BioNTech) COVID vaccine 1 week prior to symptom onset. He had no history of respiratory symptoms, smoking, sick contacts, recent travel, chemical or biological exposures. On presentation, he was afebrile, tachycardic and required 3LPM supplemental oxygen to maintain peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) above 94%. Laboratory findings noted leukocytosis (13,200/mL) and eosinophilia at 5% (Absolute Eosinophil Count (AEC): 580 cells/L). Respiratory viral panel, procalcitonin, ESR and D-dimer were negative. Chest CT scan was unremarkable. He was treated with azithromycin, prednisone and inhaled bronchodilators with improvement in hypoxia. 2 weeks later, he reported intermittent dyspnea during a pulmonary clinic visit. Pulmonary function testing was normal (FEV1/FVC: 76%;FVC: 3.67L (90% predicted);FEV1: 2.80L (88% predicted). IgE level was normal and eosinophilia had resolved. 6 months after initial symptom onset, the patient received his third BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine dose. 2 weeks after vaccination, he presented to the ED with severe dyspnea, wheezing and cough with yellow sputum. He also noted a new itchy, erythematous bilateral forearm rash and painless oral ulcers. On exam, he was afebrile, tachypneic with SpO2 of 93% on 4LPM supplemental oxygen and audibly wheezing with a prolonged expiratory phase. Laboratory studies noted elevated creatinine and leukocytosis (23,100/mL) with marked eosinophilia (29.5 %, AEC: 6814 cells/L). Chest CT scan revealed a 2 cm rounded ground-glass opacity in the right upper lobe. (Figure 1.) Further workup revealed a weakly positive antihistone antibody (1:4 titer). IgE, ANA, ANCA, SS-A/B, anti-CCP, and complement levels were normal. Intravenous methylprednisolone treatment was initiated with rapid improvement in dyspnea, eosinophilia and renal function. A transbronchial biopsy (Figure 2.) of the RUL lung lesion revealed organizing pneumonia with mixed inflammatory infiltrate. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis revealed elevated WBC (432 cells/L) with neutrophilic predominance (85%). Patient was discharged home on a prednisone taper with resolution of symptoms. DISCUSSION: Subsequent allergy work up did not indicate any apparent etiology of hypereosinophilia. Testing for strongyloides, coccidiosis and aspergillosis were also negative. A final diagnosis of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine related pulmonary eosinophilia was made. CONCLUSIONS: Additional study is warranted into eosinophilic disease associated with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Reference #1: 1. United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Public Health Service (PHS), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) / Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) 1990 - 03/11/2022, CDC WONDER On-line Database. Accessed at http://wonder.cdc.gov/vaers.html on Mar 11, 2022 1:18:37 PM DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Matthew Haltom No relevant relationships by Nikky Keer No relevant relationships by Thekrayat Khader No relevant relationships by Muthiah Muthiah

8.
Chest ; 162(4):A2176, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060906

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Systemic Disease Case Report Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis affecting small-to-medium sized blood vessels. GPA is highly associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) and often triggered by environmental factors such as medications and infectious agents. Tracheobronchial stenosis and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage are serious complications of GPA. CASE PRESENTATION: A 35-year-old Caucasian male with a history of chronic sinusitis requiring balloon sinuplasty and recent tympanostomy had presented multiple times to the emergency room due to dyspnea and cough with pinkish sputum production. This was associated with sore throat and fever, which were attributed to his COVID-19 infection and treated with supportive care. Due to persistent drainage through his tympanostomy he was prescribed levofloxacin by his ENT specialist. After the second dose of levofloxacin, he developed Raynaud's phenomenon, diffuse purpuric lesions and swelling over his lower extremity, eyelids, and elbows. Four days later he developed worsening hemoptysis and dyspnea for which he was admitted for further evaluation. Laboratory findings were remarkable for peripheral eosinophilia, elevated ESR 19mm/hr, CRP 9.2mg/dl, c-ANCA 1:320 titer, positive proteinase-3 antibodies and normal p-ANCA titers. Urinalysis with microscopic hematuria. Chest CT scan showed ground glass opacity, consolidative infiltrate with subpleural sparing and minimal left bronchial stenosis. Bronchoscopy suggestive of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Limited lung biopsy showed ulcer and granulation tissue with abundant eosinophils, but no granulomatous inflammation noted. Pulse dose steroids and Rituximab were initiated, and rapid clinical improvement was noted. Patient was discharged on prednisone taper and Pneumocystis jiroveci prophylaxis. DISCUSSION: We believe that GPA may have been triggered by recent COVID-19 infection and levofloxacin use. Mild peripheral blood and tissue eosinophilia (<12%) has been described in GPA, however it is a rare finding. GPA and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) are both ANCA vasculitis that involve lungs and kidneys. GPA presents with sinusitis, alveolar hemorrhage and high titers of PR-3 antibodies. EGPA presents with a history of atopic, asthma and high titers of myeloperoxidase-ANCA along with abundant peripheral eosinophils. Our patient best fits the diagnostic criteria for GPA with eosinophilia variant rather than EGPA. Our patient had no history of asthma or atopic disease and p-ANCA was normal, which also points away from EGPA. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should recognize the differential diagnosis for eosinophils in ANCA vasculitis. Early diagnosis of ANCA vasculitis and initiation of appropriate treatment is important to decrease morbidity and mortality. Reference #1: Potter MB, Fincher RK, Finger DR. Eosinophilia in Wegener's Granulomatosis. Chest 116: 1480-1483, 1999 Reference #2: Krupsky, Meir et al. Wegener's Granulomatosis With Peripheral Eosinophilia. CHEST, Volume 104, Issue 4, 1290 - 1292 Reference #3: Kitching AR, Anders HJ, et al. ANCA-associated vasculitis. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2020 Aug 27;6(1):71. doi: 10.1038/s41572-020-0204-y. PMID: 32855422. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Afoma King No relevant relationships by Joshuam Ruiz Vega No relevant relationships by Krishna Shah no disclosure on file for Milos Tucakovic;

9.
Chest ; 162(4):A1868, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060878

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Drug-Induced Lung Injury Pathology Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is an atypical cause of acute hypoxic respiratory failure in adults, however if not identified can prove to be fatal. It can all be a COVID19 mimic during the pandemic. AEP has several causes, such as inhalational drugs, infections and various pharmaceuticals. Often, patients will have an acute respiratory syndrome for less than one-month, pulmonary infiltrates on chest computed tomography (CT) or radiography (CXR), in addition to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with more than 25% of eosinophils. CASE PRESENTATION: A 79 y/o man underwent an elective total knee replacement complicated by acute lower limb ischemia from an occluded bypass graft. He developed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) joint and soft tissue infection of the lower extremity. He was prescribed a 6-week course of Daptomycin. He presented about 3 weeks into treatment with shortness of breath. He was initially diagnosed with acute on chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) exacerbation and COVID negative. He was initially treated with diuretics. He developed acute renal failure requiring dialysis and acute hypoxic respiratory failure requiring intubation. CXR revealed bilateral lung infiltrates with BAL having 80% eosinophils, eosinophilia and urinalysis positive for eosinophils. Daptomycin was discontinued and he was started on systemic steroids for a two-week course. He was successfully extubated 5 days after diagnosis of AEP and was subsequently discharged to a rehabilitation facility on lifelong Doxycycline for MRSA prosthetic joint infection prophylaxis. DISCUSSION: AEP related to Daptomycin was first reported in 2007, in a patient that developed the condition after receiving treatment for endocarditis. Daptomycin caused an inflammatory reaction within the lungs, due to an accumulation of the drug within the pulmonary surfactant. Our case report patient met all components for AEP diagnosis, in addition to symptom onset being approximately 3 weeks into treatment. The ultimate treatment for AEP is to stop the reversible cause, if identifiable, along with glucocorticoids and symptomatic support. Prognosis for patients with AEP is excellent when diagnosis is prompt, and usually infiltrates are resolved within 1 month without long term adverse pulmonary effects. Our patient was discharged to an acute rehab facility without supplemental oxygen therapy and continues to improve from functional standpoint. This case a definite cause of AEP from Daptomycin presented as COVID19 pneumonia mimic. It highlights the importance of rapid diagnosis to prevent morbidity and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The differential in a patient with acute hypoxic respiratory failure is numerous, especially during the COVID19 pandemic. During these challenging times, it is important to think of atypical causes, such as AEP to improve the patient's clinical status. Reference #1: Allen JN, Pacht ER, Gadek JE, Davis WB. Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia as a Reversible Cause of Noninfectious Respiratory Failure. N Engl J Med. 1989;321:569-574 Reference #2: Hayes Jr. D, Anstead MI, Kuhn RJ. Eosinophilic pneumonia induced by daptomycin. J Infect. 2007;54(4):e211-213. Reference #3: Rachid M, Ahmad K, Saunders-Kurban M, Fatima A, Shah A, Nahhas A. Daptomycin-Induced Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia: Late Onset and Quick Recovery. Case Reports in Pulmonology. 2017. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Moses Bachan No relevant relationships by Zinobia Khan No relevant relationships by Kaitlyn Mehern

10.
Chest ; 162(4):A1804, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060865

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Lung Cancer Imaging Case Report Posters 1 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a lung condition that is caused by a build-up of proteins, fats, and other substances (collectively called surfactants) in the alveoli of the lungs. Here we describe a case of a 47-year-old female diagnosed with PAP, with radiologic features conflicting with Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pneumonia. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient is a 47-year-old female with no significant medical history who presents to the outpatient pulmonology clinic for shortness of breath evaluation. She reported that for the past 3-4 months she has been having progressively worsening shortness of breath (SOB) associated with dry cough, and nasal congestion. She reports no recent illness, no history of COVID or COVID exposure, no second-hand smoke exposure, no toxin/chemical exposure, no pets/birds at home. Her SOB has been impacting her lifestyle. Pulmonary function tests showed no obstruction, moderate restriction, mildly decreased diffusion capacity. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed multiple ground-glass opacities with septal wall thickening (appears crazy paving pattern) - suggestive of infection or inflammatory process. Infectious/inflammatory work up with HIV, COVID-19, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) panel, autoimmune panel, immunoglobulins, QuantiFERON gold, IgM mycoplasma antibodies was negative. Repeat CT chest in 6 weeks as per patient request, was unchanged from prior. A bronchoscopy was done, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) negative for infection - fungal, acid-fast bacilli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis;GMS (Grocott's methenamine silver) stain negative for fungus;negative PCP (Pneumocystis pneumonia);left upper lobe and left lung biopsy showed lung parenchyma with scant amorphous eosinophilic material in alveolar sacs, Periodic Acid-Schiff stain (PAS) stain was positive confirming PAP diagnosis. DISCUSSION: PAP is a rare disease, affecting about 1 person in 100,000 people worldwide, with fewer than 10,000 of them in the United States. The "crazy paving pattern" is characteristic of PAP but recently it has appeared in the list of radiologic findings for COVID 19 pneumonia1,2,3. In these COVID times, these kinds of interactions might make the decision tougher, often leading to misdiagnosis. The decision of diagnosis/treatment should be based on symptoms and their duration, medical history, previous tests, response to treatment. Given our patient never had a COVID infection in the past or current infection, CT chest was typical for PAP with a crazy-paving pattern, no significant subjective/radiological improvement lead us to the diagnosis of PAP with eventual work up with bronchoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: A high index of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis of such rare diseases as PAP, which can be misdiagnosed as COVID-19 pneumonia, given radiological similarities. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve morbidity and mortality of PAP. Reference #1: PAP with COVID-19 Radiology - Differential Diagnosis Discussion, PMID: 33646114 Reference #2: Proteinaceous Lung With COVID-19: The Mimicker, PMID: 34703683 Reference #3: COVID-19 pneumonia: the great radiological mimicker - https://insightsimaging.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s13244-020-00933-z DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Ahmad Al-Alwan No relevant relationships by Arundhati Chandini Arjun No relevant relationships by Farhan Khalid no disclosure submitted for Boning Li;No relevant relationships by Rana Prathap Padappayil No relevant relationships by Raghu Tiperneni

11.
Chest ; 162(4):A1773, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060858

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Drug-Induced Lung Injury Pathology Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Daptomycin is an antibiotic that exerts its bactericidal effect by disrupting multiple aspects of bacterial cell membrane function. It has notable adverse effects including myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, eosinophilic pneumonitis, and anaphylactic hypersensitivity reactions. CASE PRESENTATION: A 46-year-old male with a history of type 2 diabetes presented with a 1-week history of dyspnea and productive cough. 2 weeks prior, he was started on vancomycin for MRSA osteomyelitis of the right foot, but was switched to daptomycin due to vancomycin induced nephrotoxicity. On presentation he was afebrile, tachycardic 100, hypertensive 183/109, tachypneic to 26, hypoxemic 84% on room air, which improved to 94% on nasal cannula. Chest exam noted coarse breath sounds in all fields and pitting edema of lower extremities were present. Labs showed leukocytosis of 15.2/L, Na of 132 mmol/L, and creatinine 3.20mg/dL (normal 1 month prior). COVID-19 testing was negative. Chest X-ray noted new bilateral asymmetric opacifications. Daptomycin was discontinued on day 1 of admission, he was started on IV diuretics and ceftaroline. Further study noted peripheral eosinophilia. Computed tomography of the chest showed bilateral centrally predominant ground-glass infiltrates with air bronchograms and subcarinal and paratracheal lymphadenopathy. On day 4, he underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. Cytology noted 4% eosinophil with 43% lymphocytes. Eventually, oxygen requirements and kidney function returned to baseline. He was discharged on ceftaroline for osteomyelitis DISCUSSION: Daptomycin-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonitis (AEP) often results in respiratory failure in the setting of exposure to doses of daptomycin >6mg/kg/day. It is characterized by the infiltration of pulmonary parenchyma with eosinophils and is often associated with peripheral eosinophilia. AEP has been associated with certain chemicals, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and antibiotics including daptomycin. Renal dysfunction is associated with an increased risk for developing AEP. The mechanism for daptomycin-induced lung injury is unknown but is believed to be related to daptomycin binding to pulmonary surfactant culminating in epithelial injury. Diagnostic criteria include recent daptomycin exposure, fever, dyspnea with hypoxemic respiratory failure, new infiltrates on chest radiography, BAL with > 25% eosinophils, and clinical improvement following daptomycin discontinuation. Our patient met four out of six criteria;we believe that BAL results were due to discontinuing daptomycin days before the procedure was performed. Sometimes stopping daptomycin is enough for recovery, however, steroids may be beneficial and were used in some of the cases reported in the literature CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should consider AEP in a patient on Daptomycin presenting with respiratory failure, as timely discontinuation favors a good prognosis Reference #1: Uppal P, LaPlante KL, Gaitanis MM, Jankowich MD, Ward KE. Daptomycin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia - a systematic review. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2016;5:55. Published 2016 Dec 12. doi:10.1186/s13756-016-0158-8 Reference #2: Kumar S, Acosta-Sanchez I, Rajagopalan N. Daptomycin-induced Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia. Cureus. 2018;10(6):e2899. Published 2018 Jun 30. doi:10.7759/cureus.2899 Reference #3: Bartal C, Sagy I, Barski L. Drug-induced eosinophilic pneumonia: A review of 196 case reports. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018;97(4):e9688. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000009688 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Chika Winifred Akabusi No relevant relationships by Shazia Choudry No relevant relationships by Hector Ojeda-Martinez No relevant relationships by Mario Torres

12.
Chest ; 162(4):A1287, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060795

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Autoimmune Diffuse Lung Disease Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is an interstitial lung disease (ILD) that can be idiopathic or associated with connective tissue disorders (CTDs). The two subtypes of NSIP are cellular interstitial pneumonitis (CIP) and fibrotic, with CIP being less common. Subtypes can be distinguished through pathology and imaging. NSIP constitutes 14-36% of cases of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. ILD-associated DM has a higher mortality, making diagnosis crucial. In specific, fibrotic NSIP has a high 10-year mortality rate, making differentiation relevant. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old female presented with fatigue and erythematous papular lesions on her face, palms, shoulder, and neck for one month. She also developed a fever and dry cough a week before. She denied recent travel or sick contacts. COVID-19 was negative. On exam, she was tachypneic and tachycardic with a maculopapular rash. A pulmonary exam revealed bilateral fine crackles. CXR showed dense left and mild right-sided patchy consolidations. Labs revealed elevated inflammatory markers (ESR-63, CRP-1.9, LDH-982). CPK was high - 517. CBC and procalcitonin were normal. CT showed extensive patchy and confluent areas of opacification of the left lower lobe, including a mass-like area measuring 3.3cm. Infectious workup was negative. Autoimmune testing ( Anti-Jo 1 Ab, ANA, etc) was negative. Bronchoscopic left lower lobe biopsy showed cellular interstitial inflammation composed of lymphocytes, plasma cells, rare eosinophils, and foci of intra-alveolar fibrinous exudates, suggestive of CIP and OP. She was treated successfully with corticosteroids and was discharged on prednisone. Repeat autoimmune antibody workup was negative. Skin biopsy showed a lichenoid lymphocytic infiltrate and necrotic keratinocytes consistent with dermatomyositis. Mycophenolate and rituximab were initiated;prednisone was tapered off. Follow-up chest CT showed cleared infiltrates with symptomatic improvement. DISCUSSION: CIP is an uncommon form of NSIP. On CT, bilateral ground-glass opacities are the most common feature. CIP is characterized histologically by interstitial thickening due to the presence of inflammatory cells and type-II pneumocyte hyperplasia with preserved lung architecture. Treatment is corticosteroids. The prognosis is excellent. ILD associated with DM is strongly associated with a positive Anti-Jo Ab, which was negative here making diagnosis challenging. She was diagnosed with dermatomyositis using histological findings from a skin biopsy. She responded to steroids at acute presentation and treatment was tailored once DM was diagnosed leading to complete recovery. CONCLUSIONS: ILD is not uncommon in CTD, however it is usually associated with a positive Anti-Jo 1 antibody. Our case is unique as the patient had negative Anti- Jo 1 Ab, however was found to have cellular NSIP with DM responding well to treatment following diagnosis. Reference #1: https://ard.bmj.com/content/63/3/297 Reference #2: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK518974/ Reference #3: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33916864/ DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Nawal Ahmed No relevant relationships by TAIKCHAN LILDAR No relevant relationships by Namratha Shripad No relevant relationships by David Wisa

13.
Chest ; 162(4):A1286, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060794

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Diffuse Lung Disease Cases 2 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is dramatic in presentation mimicking infectious pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome in previously healthy individuals. Medications are a commonly recognized cause of AEP. Daptomycin, has been strongly linked to AEP. Herein, we present a case of a patient with a septic joint treated with Daptomycin who went on to develop AEP. CASE PRESENTATION: Patient is an 80 year old man with history of hypertension, hypothyroidism, atrial flutter, complete heart block status post pacemaker, who had a hx of a mucinous cyst on his left index finger, requiring hospitalization. Blood cultures were positive for MRSA s/p debridement of the joint. He was discharged on 4 weeks of intravenous daptomycin. Two weeks after being discharged he presented back to the hospital with fevers, fatigue and worsening shortness of breath. His temperature was 103.8 and O2 saturation of 90% on 2L NC. Laboratory findings included WBC count of 8.6 with no eosinophilia on differential, ESR 110, negative blood cultures, sputum cultures with commensal flora, negative urine legionella, PCR for SARS COV-2 was negative. Chest radiograph showed mild interstitial airspace disease in the left mid and lower thorax, along with small bilateral pleural effusions. CT chest showed scattered bilateral consolidations and ground glass opacities and trace bilateral effusions. Daptomycin was switched to Vancomycin. Patients oxygen requirements had increased to 6l NC. Patient underwent airway exam with bronchoscopy and broncheoalveolar lavage in superior segment of the lingula, which showed inflamed bronchial mucosa with copious secretions. Cell count of the BAL showed increased eosinophil count with negative gram stain and culture. Patient was started on methylprednisolone 60 mg four times per day and then tapered. Vancomycin was switched to oral linezolid. Patient's hypoxia improved and was discharged home on 3l NC. At four week follow up, he no longer required oxygen on ambulation and chest radiograph showed complete resolution of infiltrates. DISCUSSION: Over 140 drugs have been recognized as a cause of drug induced eosinophilic pneumonia (DIEP). The diagnosis of DIEP requires febrile illness <5 days, diffuse bilateral infiltrates, hypoxemia and BAL showing 25% eosinophils or eosinophilic pneumonitis on lung biopsy. Additionally, a diagnosis of DIEP requires exposure to a candidate drug in the appropriate time frame, exclusion of infectious causes of eosinophilic pulmonary opacities. It also requires clinical improvement after cessation of medication. Daptomycin has been strongly linked to DIEP. In 2010 US FDA issued a warning about the risk of developing eosinophilic pneumonia during treatment with Daptomycin. CONCLUSIONS: Daptomycin is strongly linked with DIEP. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for DIEP in patient treated with daptomycin who develop respiratory distress. Reference #1: Uppal, P., LaPlante, K.L., Gaitanis, M.M. et al. Daptomycin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia - a systematic review. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 5, 55 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13756-016-0158-8 Reference #2: Cottin V. Eosinophilic Lung Diseases. Clin Chest Med. 2016 Sep;37(3):535-56. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2016.04.015. Epub 2016 Jun 25. PMID: 27514599. Reference #3: Rosenberg CE, Khoury P. Approach to Eosinophilia Presenting With Pulmonary Symptoms. Chest. 2021 Feb;159(2):507-516. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2020.09.247. Epub 2020 Sep 28. PMID: 33002503;PMCID: PMC8039005. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Kamelia Albujoq No relevant relationships by Rajaninder Sharma

14.
Chest ; 162(4):A1276-A1277, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060793

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Challenges in Asthma SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: Dupilumab is one of the recently developed biological anti-asthma medications which is a human IgG4 monoclonal antibody. Dupliumab inhibits the biological effects of both IL-4 and IL-13. In 2018, Dupilumab was approved for treating moderate to severe asthma with an eosinophilic phenotype or with oral corticosteroid-dependent asthma. Transient, laboratory eosinophilia is a common side effect of Dupilumab, but clinical consequences are hardly ever reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a 66-year-old female patient with history of severe persistent asthma with an eosinophil's baseline of 1403 cells/mm3. She was started on Dupilumab a month prior to presenting to our hospital with shortness of breath, facial rash, recurrent fever and fatigue. Upon further investigations, patient was found to have severe peripheral eosinophilia (35%, absolute eosinophil count of 6100 cells/mm3), imaging studies that included CT scan of the chest showed patchy pulmonary consolidations, ground glass opacification and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Non-invasive infectious work up including COVID-19 was negative. Then, patient underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), transbronchial biopsy, ultrasound guided lymph node fine needle aspiration and endobronchial biopsy (for diffuse endobronchial nodular lesions). Infectious work up from the BAL was negative but the BAL cytology showed eosinophilic alveolitis (31%). Histopathologic examination of the above biopsies showed significant interstitial inflammation with predominant eosinophils. Subsequently, Dupilumab was discontinued, and patient was started on prednisone 60 mg daily with remarkable eosinophils count reduction from a peak of 11,232 to 84 cells/mm3 along with significant improvement in her symptoms. CT chest 8 weeks later showed near complete resolution of pulmonary opacities. DISCUSSION: Dupilumab is an effective treatment for moderate to severe persistent asthma, by lowering rates of asthma exacerbation, as well as better lung function and asthma control. However, it has been reported that dupilumab can rarely cause a state of significant hyper-eosinophilia, which can rarely lead to complications such as eosinophilic pneumonia. Our patient was treated with dupilumab for her severe persistent asthma and after an intensive work up, we reached a diagnosis of severe Dupilumab induced hyper–eosinophilia leading to eosinophilic pneumonia and skin rash. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this unique report is an important add to the reports in literature as it describes this rare entity in the differential diagnosis. Monitoring serum eosinophils count closely for the first few weeks of treatment with dupilumab should be considered, particularly for patients with unusual high level of eosinophils at baseline, to prevent severe complications. We believe that more studies are needed to better describe dupilumab induced severe hyper–eosinophilia Reference #1: Pelaia, Corrado, et al. "Dupilumab for the treatment of asthma.” Expert opinion on biological therapy 17.12 (2017): 1565-1572 Reference #2: Castro, Mario, et al. "Dupilumab efficacy and safety in moderate-to-severe uncontrolled asthma.” New England Journal of Medicine 378.26 (2018): 2486-2496 Reference #3: Menzella, Francesco, et al. "A case of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia in a patient treated with dupilumab.” Therapeutics and clinical risk management 15 (2019): 869 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Hamza Alsaid No relevant relationships by Mark Cowan No relevant relationships by Kamel Gharaibeh no disclosure on file for Kathryn Robinett;Consultant relationship with Medtronic Please note: 1 year Added 04/04/2022 by Ashutosh Sachdeva, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with Intuitive Inc Please note: Intermittent Added 04/04/2022 by Ashutosh Sachdeva, value=Consulting fee Consultant relationship with MErit Please note: 2 years Added 04/04/2022 by Ashutosh Sa hdeva, value=Consulting fee Scientific Medical Advisor relationship with AMBU Please note: 6 months Added 04/04/2022 by Ashutosh Sachdeva, value=Consulting fee

15.
Chest ; 162(4):A602, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060644

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Post-COVID-19 Infection Complications SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: We present two cases of symptomatic post-COVID eosinophilic pneumonia responsive to steroids. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1: A 73-year-old gentleman with underlying asymptomatic rheumatoid arthritis (RA), was admitted with COVID pneumonia for which he received tocilizumab, remdesivir, and 12 days of dexamethasone. His course was complicated by MRSA pneumonia and bacteremia, so was discharged on IV Vancomycin. Six days post discharge, he redeveloped respiratory distress. Labs showed a WBC 18,000 and proBNP 2828. A chest CT revealed bilateral ground-glass opacities, worsening right upper lung airspace disease and bilateral pleural effusions. Despite receiving Furosemide, Vancomycin, and Ceftazidime, he required high-flow nasal cannula oxygenation (HFNC). Bronchoscopy demonstrated thick right bronchial secretions. BAL fluid revealed 7% eosinophils and grew MRSA. Case 2: A 70-year-old gentleman with extensive smoking history, emphysema, psoriasis, Guillain-Barré syndrome and a recent hospitalization for COVID pneumonia was discharged on a steroid taper. He returned 23 days post discharge in respiratory distress requiring HFNC, 5 days after discontinuing steroids. The chest CT revealed worsening fibrosis and bronchiectasis. Intravenous Levofloxacin and Vancomycin resulted in no clinical improvement. Bronchoscopy showed inflamed bronchi with secretions and BAL analysis revealed 6% eosinophils. For both patients, BAL was negative for fungi and PJP and CTA ruled out PE. Both patients were started on Prednisone with a prolonged taper. They improved clinically with decreased oxygen requirements to 4L nasal cannula and dramatic decrease in subjective dyspnea within 48 hours of starting steroids. DISCUSSION: The differential diagnosis for the clinical deterioration and worsening radiographs in both patients includes bacterial/fungal superinfection, PE, post-COVID-ILD and eosinophilic pneumonia. For the first patient, his RA was inactive. His BAL was positive for MRSA but did not improve until steroids were initiated. Neither of the patients were stable for VATS biopsy. Eosinophilic pneumonia is defined as pulmonary infiltrates with peripheral blood eosinophilia =500/ml, BAL eosinophils > 5% or eosinophilic infiltration on lung biopsy [1]. Both of our patients had >5% BAL eosinophils. Potentially, prolonged COVID-ILD stimulates T-Helper-2 cells, causing the release of IL-4/5/13 with recruitment of eosinophils. Studies report post-COVID-ILD biopsies show organizing pneumonia and fibrosis but have not yet been associated with eosinophilia. In both patients, we observed eosinophilia on BAL. It can be hypothesized that a delayed inflammatory response mediated by eosinophils play a role. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary eosinophilic pneumonia is a complication of post-COVID-ILD and can be successfully managed with steroids. Reference #1: De Giacomi F, Vassallo R, Yi ES, Ryu JH. Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia. Causes, Diagnosis, and Management. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018 Mar 15;197(6):728-736. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201710-1967CI. PMID: 29206477. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by farrukh ahmad No relevant relationships by Deborah Markowitz No relevant relationships by Dhiraj Shah No relevant relationships by Garima Singh No relevant relationships by Aakriti Soni

16.
Chest ; 162(4):A585, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060637

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 1 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is a rare cause of acute respiratory failure. AEP has been reported in association with smoking, drugs, and infections. Very few reports of AEP accompanied by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exist in current literature. Here we describe a case of AEP in association with COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old female, non-smoker, with no medical history presented to the emergency room with fever, cough, and shortness of breath for 10 days. She received two doses of vaccine against COVID-19. Her vital signs were notable for oxygen saturation of 56% on room air and respiratory rate of 35 breaths per minute. Her physical exam was notable for distress, tachypnea, and diffuse rhonchi on lung auscultation. Her chest x-ray showed multifocal bilateral peripheral and basilar airspace opacities. A respiratory pathogen panel detected SARS-CoV-2. She was admitted to the medical intensive care unit and suffered worsening acute hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring intubation. She was treated with dexamethasone 6mg for a 10-day course with gradually decreasing oxygen requirements, and she underwent tracheostomy on hospital day 11. Despite this, she continued to deteriorate clinically. Review of laboratory results showed significant eosinophilia of 15.6% on her complete blood count upon withdrawal of steroids. A CTA scan of the chest showed no evidence of pulmonary embolic disease and demonstrated bilateral extensive dense consolidations. A diagnosis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia was suspected. Fungal cultures and stool ova and parasites were negative. She was started on methylprednisolone 1mg/kg and a bronchoscopy was performed with bronchioalveolar lavage (BAL) samples showing 4% eosinophils despite high dose steroid therapy. She was continued on high dose steroids with rapid improvement in her oxygen requirements. DISCUSSION: AEP is an acute febrile illness that can lead to acute respiratory failure. The presence of dense infiltrates in the early stages of COVID-19 and elevated inflammatory markers and reticence to perform bronchoscopy can delay making a diagnosis of AEP in a patient diagnosed with COVID19. The diagnostic hallmark of AEP is the detection of > 25% eosinophils in BAL samples. While this patient did not meet that criterion, she received high dose corticosteroids which may have suppressed pulmonary eosinophilia. A high index of suspicion for AEP should be maintained in patients with COVID-19 with evidence of eosinophilia and clinical deterioration, given that AEP improves rapidly with the appropriate treatment. CONCLUSIONS: AEP is an uncommon cause of respiratory failure that should be considered in patients with unexplained worsening respiratory status and evidence of eosinophilia. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage should be considered early, even in the setting of COVID-19 in patients without risk factors who develop severe disease. Reference #1: De Giacomi F, Vassallo R, Yi ES, Ryu JH. Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia. Causes, Diagnosis, and Management. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018;197(6):728-736. doi:10.1164/rccm.201710-1967CI Reference #2: Murao K, Saito A, Kuronuma K, Fujiya Y, Takahashi S, Chiba H. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia accompanied with COVID-19: a case report. Respirol Case Rep. 2020;8(9): e00683. Published 2020 Nov 16. doi:10.1002/rcr2.683 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Hadya Elshakh No relevant relationships by Christina Jee Ah Rhee no disclosure on file for Lourdes Sanso;

17.
Chest ; 162(4):A462, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060600

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 1 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Mucormycosis is an angio-invasive fungal infection with substantial morbidity and mortality. While diabetes and immune suppression remain well-known risk factors for mucormycosis, COVID-19 is now emerging as its independent predictor. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old male, with a history of hyperlipidemia and alcoholism, presented to the hospital with complaints of progressive dyspnea on exertion, productive cough, intermittent fever, anorexia, and chest pain over the course of 2 weeks. About 5 weeks prior to the current presentation, he was tested positive for COVID-19 by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based test and remained in quarantine at home. He was not vaccinated against COVID-19. He had no known immunosuppressive disease. On initial examination, he was ill-appearing and had a temperature of 101 F, blood pressure 138/83 mmHg, respiratory rate 22/minute, pulse 102/minute, and saturation of 91% on 2 L nasal cannula oxygen. A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the chest revealed small bilateral pneumothorax (2 cm and 5mm) along with extensive ground-glass opacifications in all lobes. In the next 24 hours, the right-sided pneumothorax progressed to tension pneumothorax requiring pigtail pleural drainage catheter placement. The drained pleural fluid had more than 100,000/uL total nucleated cells (91% neutrophils, 2% lymphocytes, and 1% eosinophils) and ultimately cultures grew Rhizopus spp. He was started on intravenous liposomal amphotericin-B infusion (5 mg/kg daily). On hospital discharge, he was switched to oral posaconazole (started with loading 300 mg delayed-release tablet twice a day, followed by 300 mg dosing of delayed-release posaconazole tablets daily) to complete the long term treatment course. DISCUSSION: Most of the reported cases of mucormycosis in COVID-19 were in patients with either diabetes or receiving steroids. This is a rare presentation of COVID-19–associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) as spontaneous pneumothorax, in the absence of known immunosuppression history. COVID-19 results in a considerable increase in cytokines, particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6), which increase free iron by increasing ferritin levels due to increased synthesis and decreased iron transport. Also, concomitant acidosis increases free iron by reducing the ability of transferrin to chelate iron and this available iron becomes a considerable resource for mucormycosis. [1] Also, Mucorales adheres to and invades endothelial cells by specific recognition of the host receptor glucose-regulator protein 78 (GRP-78). Acidosis associated with severe COVID-19 triggers GRP-78 and fungal ligand spore coating homolog (CotH) protein expression on endothelial cells, both contributing to angioinvasion, hematogenous dissemination, and tissue necrosis. [2] CONCLUSIONS: Mucormycosis can present as spontaneous pneumothorax after recent COVID-19 and clinicians should be aware of rare clinical presentation. Reference #1: Singh AK, Singh R, Joshi SR, et al. Mucormycosis in COVID-19: A systematic review of cases reported worldwide and in India. Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev 2021;15:102146. doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2021.05.019 Reference #2: Baldin C, Ibrahim AS. Molecular mechanisms of mucormycosis—The bitter and the sweet. PLOS Pathog 2017;13:e1006408. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1006408 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Faran Ahmad No relevant relationships by AYESHA BATOOL No relevant relationships by Zachary DePew No relevant relationships by Neil Mendoza

18.
Chest ; 162(4):A362-A363, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060574

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Issues After COVID-19 Vaccination Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Covid 19 pandemic has infected 125 million people so far (1). The development of safe and effective vaccines is crucial to lessen the impact of SARS-COV 2 on global health. Some adverse events of the covid 19 vaccination have been reported including few dermatological reactions. We report a case of severe allergic erythematous drug reaction that occurred 3 days after the second dose of messenger RNA (mRNA) Pfizer vaccine. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42 year old female with past medical history of Grover's disease and Multiple Sclerosis presented to the Emergency department from the nursing home with complaints of erythematous, scaly, painful rash that occurred 3 days after the second dose of mRNA covid 19 vaccine. Patient states she had a generalized rash after the first dose of vaccine but it resolved spontaneously and did not require treatment. This time the rash started on the scalp and gradually progressed to the rest of the body. It was associated with severe itching, burning and serosanguinous discharge. Patient did not report any change in medication, use of new detergent or contact with an offending agent. The patient denied fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain, chest pain or palpitations. She had no history of similar complaints in the past. On physical examination, she was afebrile and hemodynamically stable but in severe distress due to pain. The rash covered 95% of the body surface area and was more severe around the mouth, in the axilla, neck and the inframammary area. Erosions could be seen in the skin folds with serosanguinous discharge. The laboratory results were positive for eosinophilia with absolute eosinophil count of 0.7. Remaining laboratory results were within normal limits. The pathology report for the erythematous rash was consistent with drug reaction. A slight vacuolar degeneration along the dermal epidermal junction with few apoptotic keratinocytes were noted. A compact horn and band-like lymphoid infiltrate were also noted. The patient was started on high dose steroids, analgesics and antihistamines. Petroleum gel impregnated gauze was used for dressing. She was placed in the intensive care unit for careful monitoring. Her rash resolved gradually and her symptoms improved. DISCUSSION: mRNA vaccines are associated with type 1 interferon responses that result in inflammation and autoimmune conditions. This could explain the skin manifestations associated with these vaccines. Allergenic components in the vaccines could also be a possible cause of these reactions. A patch test can be performed to prevent these reactions in susceptible individuals. CONCLUSIONS: This report highlights the need for vigilance to detect severe allergic reactions after covid 19 vaccination to improve the safety of the vaccine. Reference #1: WHO coronavirus (COVID-19) dashboard. [ Jul;2021 ];https://covid19.who.int/ 2021 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Ruhma Ali No relevant relationships by Sneha Bijoy No relevant relationships by Chrystina Kiwan no disclosure on file for Richard Miller;No relevant relationships by Aditya Patel No relevant relationships by jihad slim, value=Honoraria Removed 03/25/2022 by jihad slim No relevant relationships by jihad slim, value=Honoraria Removed 03/25/2022 by jihad slim No relevant relationships by jihad slim, value=Honoraria Removed 03/25/2022 by jihad slim No relevant relationships by jihad slim, value=Honoraria Removed 03/25/2022 by jihad slim No relevant relationships by jihad slim, value=Honoraria Removed 03/25/2022 by jihad slim

19.
Chest ; 162(4):A312, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060561

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Care in Chest Infections Case Report Posters 2 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: EVALI is an acute lung injury that occurs due to the use of e-cigarettes or vaporizer products that usually contain THC or nicotine. There was an outbreak of EVALI in 2019. This is a diagnosis of exclusion with foamy macrophages with pneumocyte vacuolization being the best diagnostic clues. (1) Vitamin E acetate laced products seem to be the causing factor. CASE PRESENTATION: A 34-year-old female presented to the emergency department due to increasing shortness of breath, fever, pleuritic chest pain, cough, and headaches for the last 9 days. Two days prior she presented to urgent care where she was given an albuterol inhaler and azithromycin. At arrival, the patient was found to have tachycardia with a rate of 120-130, afebrile, SpO2 at 96% on room air, BP at 100/59. Her initial workup was grossly normal except for an elevated WBC and elevated D-Dimer. Chest X-ray revealed opacities in the lower lungs consistent with pneumonia. CTA of the chest revealed patchy pulmonary opacities consistent with COVID pneumonia. She took three separate SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests which all came back negative. The patient underwent a large workup which included infectious disease, pulmonology, and cardiology consults. She was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for the presumed diagnosis of pneumonia but her condition quickly deteriorated, eventually requiring 6L of O2 via nasal cannula. Screening for a large array of bacteria, fungus, and viruses all resulted negative. Upon further discussion with the patient, she admitted to smoking a THC vaporizer every night for the last seven months and that she had recently purchased a new fluid for her THC vaporizer through the internet. Bronchoscopy was also acquired but did not show any specific findings, including being negative for eosinophils. Discontinuation of antibiotics and initiation of IV steroids treatment provided rapid improvement of the patient's condition. Based on her history of THC vaping, the clinical presentation of fever, hypoxia, her chest x-ray, and chest CT showing extensive lung infiltrates, infections were ruled out and the most likely diagnosis of EVALI was made which responded well to steroids. DISCUSSION: COVID and EVALI initially can present similarly as respiratory problems, fever, and the need for oxygen. It is important to gather history on the patient as a vaping history is needed to suspect EVALI as imaging can show a wide range from ground-glass opacities to acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis. (2) CONCLUSIONS: There are some distinguishing features of EVALI from COVID one being in EVALI there is a large increase in the white count and lastly the response to steroids is the key (2). Steroids are the primary care for someone with EVALI with most patients recovering in 1-3 days with the use of steroids. (2) Reference #1: Bierwirth, A., Orellana, G., Milazzo, E. and Hamdan, A., 2020. TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL VAPING-ASSOCIATED LUNG INJURY (EVALI): A US EPIDEMIC?. Chestnet Journal. Reference #2: MacMurdo, M., Lin, C., Saeedan, M., Doxtader, E., Mukhopadhyay, S., Arrossi, V., Reynolds, J., Ghosh, S. and Choi, H., 2020. e-Cigarette or Vaping Product Use-Associated Lung Injury. Chestnet Journal. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Narden Gorgy No relevant relationships by Matheus Moreira Sanches Peraci No relevant relationships by George Walbridge No relevant relationships by John Zakhary

20.
Chest ; 162(4):A1-A5, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060532

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Imaging Across the Care Spectrum SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm PURPOSE: Eosinophilic airway inflammation and mucus plugs are common in asthma patients. Eosinophil depletion may reduce mucus plugging and improve airway patency and airflow distribution. This study will investigate the short-term benefits of sustained depletion of airway eosinophils by benralizumab, an anti-IL-5Rα monoclonal antibody, on airway structure and dynamics using functional respiratory imaging (FRI) in adults with severe eosinophilic asthma (SEA). METHODS: A multicenter, single-arm, open-label, phase 4 study enrolling approximately 138 patients. Screening will be followed by a run-in period of up to 21 days, before administration of subcutaneous benralizumab 30 mg at Weeks 0, 4 and 8, final assessment at Week 13, and a 2-week follow-up period. RESULTS: Key inclusion criteria: age 18-70 years with diagnosed SEA inadequately controlled by high-dose inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting β2-agonist (ICS-LABA) treatment +- oral corticosteroids (OCS) or other asthma controllers;documented post-bronchodilator (BD) reversibility;≥2 exacerbations in prior 12 months;baseline peripheral blood eosinophil count ≥300/μL (≥150 cells/μL if OCS-dependent);pre-BD forced vital capacity (FVC) <65% predicted, pre-BD FEV1 <80% predicted and Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-6) ≥1.5. Key exclusion criteria: exacerbation/pulmonary infection 6 weeks pre-screening;smokers or ex-smokers who stopped smoking ≤12 months pre-screening and/or history of >10 pack-years;positive for COVID-19 at or ≤6 weeks before screening, or severe COVID-19 at any time.The primary endpoint is mean change from baseline in specific airway volume measured at total lung capacity. Secondary objectives include change from baseline in airway dynamics (lung, airway and blood vessel volumes, airflow distribution, airway resistance, air trapping, ventilation/perfusion mapping) and mucus plug scores, and correlations with conventional lung function measurements (FVC, FEV1) at baseline and Week 13. FRI will be via computed tomography scans assessed using computer modelling. Exploratory objectives include: relationships between airway dynamics and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) such as the Asthma Impairment and Risk Questionnaire (AIRQ), ACQ-6, and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) at baseline, from baseline to Week 13, and change from baseline in Central/Peripheral (C/P) lung deposition ratio of inhaled drugs. Safety and tolerability will also be assessed. CONCLUSIONS: This study will advance understanding of the eosinophil-depletion effects of benralizumab on airway structure, dynamics, and mucus plugs and could provide additional useful insights into the relationship of PROs with changes in airway dynamics and structure. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Our results may help further characterize physiologic changes resulting from eosinophil depletion with benralizumab and better delineate the impact of changes in lung function and structure on PROs. DISCLOSURES: stockholder relationship with AstraZeneca Please note: 2 years Added 03/31/2022 by Donna Carstens, value=Salary No relevant relationships by Wilfried De Backer Employee relationship with AstraZeneca LP Please note: Since 2014 by Eduardo Genofre, value=Salary Shareholder relationship with AstraZeneca LP Please note: Since 2014 by Eduardo Genofre, value=LTIs Employee relationship with FLUIDDA Inc Please note: Aug 2021 - Present Added 04/12/2022 by Patrick Muchmore, value=Salary Advisory Committee Member relationship with AstraZeneca Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Consultant relationship with AstraZeneca Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with AstraZeneca Please note: 24 months by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Removed 03/29/20 2 by Reynold Panettieri Advisory Committee Member relationship with RIFM Please note: 24 months by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Consultant relationship with RIFM Please note: 24 months by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Advisory Committee Member relationship with Equillium Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Advisory Committee Member relationship with Equillium Please note: 24 months by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Advisory Committee Member relationship with Genetech Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Genetech Please note: 24 months by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Sanofi/Regeneron Please note: 24 months by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Consultant relationship with Bayer Please note: 24 months by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Advisory Committee Member relationship with Theravance Please note: 24 months by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Advisory Committee Member relationship with Novartis Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Contracted Research relationship with Optikira Please note: 24 months by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Advisory Committee Member relationship with Medimmune Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Contracted Research relationship with Maven Please note: 24 months by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Contracted Research relationship with Evelobio Please note: 24 months by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Contracted Research relationship with Johnson & Johnson Please note: 24 months by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Advisory Committee Member relationship with AstraZeneca;RIFM;Equillium;Genentech;Thervance Please note: 24 months by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Consultant relationship with AstraZeneca;RIFM;Equillium;Bayer Please note: 24 months by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with AstraZeneca;Sanofi/Regeneron;Genentech Please note: 24 months by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Research grant recipient relationship with Novartis;Optikira;Medimmune;Maven;Evelobio Please note: 24 months by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Research grant recipient relationship with Johnson & Johnson;AstraZeneca;RIFM;Equillium;Genentech Please note: 24 months by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Research grant recipient relationship with Theravance Please note: 24 months by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Advisory Committee Member relationship with AstraZeneca Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Consulting fee Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Principal Investigator relationship with AstraZeneca Please note: $20001 - $100000 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with AstraZeneca Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Advisory Committee Member relationship with MedImmune Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Consulting fee Removed 0 /29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Principal Investigator relationship with MedImmune Please note: $20001 - $100000 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Advisory Committee Member relationship with Reseaerch Institute for Fragrance Materials Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Consulting fee Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Principal Investigator relationship with Reseaerch Institute for Fragrance Materials Please note: $20001 - $100000 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Advisory Committee Member relationship with Equillium Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Consulting fee Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Principal Investigator relationship with Equillium Please note: $20001 - $100000 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Advisory Committee Member relationship with Theravance Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Consulting fee Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Advisory Committee Member relationship with Avillion Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Consulting fee Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Sanofi/Regeneron Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Genentech Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Principal Investigator relationship with Genentech Please note: $20001 - $100000 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Principal Investigator relationshipwith OncoArendi Please note: $20001 - $100000 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Principal Investigator relationship with Metera Please note: $20001 - $100000 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Consultant relationship with TEVA Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Removed 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri Consultant relationship with AstraZeneca Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Advisory Committee Member relationship with AstraZeneca Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with AstraZeneca Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Principal Investigator relationship with AstraZeneca Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Consultant relationship with RIFM Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Advisory Committee Member relationship with RIFM Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Principal Investigator relationship with RIFM Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Advisory Committee Member relationship with Genentech Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Principal Investigator relationship with Genentech Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Consultant relationship with TEVA Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Principal Investigator relationship with TEVA Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Principal Investigator relationship with Equillium Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Principal Investigator relationship with Novartis Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Principal Investigator relationship with Medimmune Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Principal Investigator r lationship with Origo Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Principal Investigator relationship with ACTIV-1 Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Principal Investigator relationship with Janssen Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Principal Investigator relationship with Vault Health Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Grant/Research Support Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Sanofi Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Merck & Co Please note: 24 months Added 03/29/2022 by Reynold Panettieri, value=Honoraria Employee No relevant relationships by Vivian Shih Shareholder relationship with AstraZeneca Please note: >5 years by Frank Trudo, value=Shares

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