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1.
Breathe ; 18(2), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1968538

ABSTRACT

Determining the treatment strategies for pregnant women with respiratory failure is difficult. To save the lives of both mothers and children, it is necessary to determine the timing of fetal delivery with the cooperation of not only respiratory physicians but also obstetricians and paediatricians.

2.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-846, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967375

ABSTRACT

The incidence of Eosinophilic Oesophagitis (EoE) is increasing worldwide in the paediatric population. Management of these children is complex, and includes elimination diet (2/4/ 6 food), steroids etc. It is recommendedto perform endoscopies between each reintroduction to assessdisease activity. In our centre dietary exclusion is the standard practice. Since 2019 we follow a step-up approach with regards to elimination diet starting with 2 food exclusion diet (FED) and building up as required. Food is reintroduced gradually with significant dietetic support and proactive monitoring including endoscopy. Objectives: We looked at the outcomes of children with EoE referred to Maidstone and Tunbridge Wells NHS Trust from Kent and East Sussex. Methods: Retrospective review of case notes of paediatric patients diagnosed with EoE between January 2015 and December 2020. Data collected included symptoms, endoscopy findings and histology at diagnosis and compared the same after dietary intervention. Results 21 patients were diagnosed with EoE between January 2015 and December 2020 between 5-16 yrs Median age at diagnosis 11years. Frequently seen in boys (65%). Dysphagiawas the predominant symptom (76%) followed by vomiting (60%), abdominal pain (50%), and choking (20%). Features of EoE were seen during endoscopy in 71% and oesophagus looked endoscopically normal in 29% of patients. Diagnosis was made on eosinophil count as per ESPGHAN guidance. The frequency and timing of repeat endoscopies following dietary intervention varied due to a multitude of factors including COVID-19 restrictions (between 4-9 months median 4 months). Histological remission (Eosinophils <15 pHPF) was achieved in 15/21 (70%) of patients. 7/10 children on 2FED, 3/3 patients on 4FED and 5/5 children on 6FEDachieved histological resolution. The 6FED group took significantly longer to identify the causative food, establish long term dietary management and required more endoscopies. Food was reintroduced gradually on an individual basis with the aim of introducing back all food groups. 13/15 continue to be on milk free diet, 5/15 remain on milk and wheat free diet, 1/15 on soya and egg free diet and the other patient remains on 4FED (parental choice). 2 patients have started steroids due to on-going symptoms findings on surveillance endoscopy and histological following reintroduction. Summary and Conclusion Dysphagia was the predominant symptom in our cohort of patients. Furrowing and oedema was the major finding duringendoscopy. With dietary exclusion endoscopic resolution was seen in 62% and histological resolution seen in 70% of patients at first surveillance endoscopy. Re-introduction continues to remains a major challenge and we have not been able to introduce all the food groups in any of our patients due to either symptoms or recurrence on endoscopy/histology.

3.
Medical Journal of Bakirkoy ; 18(2):247-251, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939263

ABSTRACT

Objective: Smoking, and also water pipe smoking (hookah), is a common method of tobacco use in Southwest Asia and Middle East countries. Although the relationship between coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection and smoking has been evaluated in many studies, no study has been conducted to evaluate the relationship between COVID-19 infection and water pipe smoking. Methods: We enrolled 150 in-hospital patients. The severity of disease classified as mild, moderate, severe, and critically ill. The relationship between waterpipe smoker, smoker and non-smoker patients and severity of disease statistically evaluated. Results: Patients with minimal involvement (1-25%) on thorax computed tomography were found to be higher in the smoker and cigarette-hookah smoking group compared to the non-smoking group, and the patients with moderate involvement (51-75%) were found to be less in the smoking-hookah group. in terms of disease degree;It was found that there were more mild and moderate smokers in the smoking and smoking-hookah group than the non-smoking group. The C-reactive protein and sedimentation values of cigarette-waterpipe tabocco smokers were found to be lower than non-smokers. Conclusion: Waterpipe smoking does not aggravate the course of the disease in the young population, but new studies are needed for its effects on the elderly population.

4.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927920

ABSTRACT

Rationale: COVID-19 patients present with a number of clinical symptoms ranging from mild, moderate to severe, while only a subgroup of patients, who requires high-dependency critical care resources, accounts for most of the COVID-19 associated health care expenditure and death. A reliable prognostic tool is therefore required to identify patients at risk of developing severe COVID-19 pneumonia. To address this unmet need, we tested a wide range of potentially important peripheral blood biomarkers in a group of clinically risk-stratified COVID-19 patients in order to identify most relevant candidate biomarker(s) predictive of disease progression. Methods: Patients and healthy controls recruited to this study are summarised in Figure 1. Biomarkers levels were analysed using ANOVA across the severity groups. Spearman-correlation coefficients against pairs of average levels from each biomarker within severity-group and healthy controls were assembled into a 76x76 matrix and agglomerative hierarchical clustering was applied to generate the final heatmaps. Linear-discriminant analysis (LDA) was carried out on a reduced optimised set of biomarkers to explore the boundaries between the clinical severity groups.Results: Degree of lymphopaenia, neutrophil levels, TNF-α, INR-levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokines;IL6, IL8, CXCL9 and D-dimers were significantly increased in COVD-19 patients compared to healthy controls (p<0.05, 95% C.I.). C3a and C5 was significantly elevated in all categories of severity compared to healthy controls (p<0.05), C5a levels were significantly different between “moderate” and “severe” categories (p<0.01). sC5b-9 was significantly elevated in the “moderate” and “severe” category of patients compared to healthy controls (p<0.001).Heatmap analysis demonstrated distinct visual differences of biomarker profiles between the clinical severity groups. LDA on the deteriorators, non-deteriorators and healthy volunteers as a combined function of the predictor variables: C3, eosinophil-counts, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), fractalkine, IL10, IL27, LTB4, lymphocyte count, MIG/CXCL9, M-CSF, platelet count and sC5b-9 showed clear separation between the groups based on biomarker/blood-count levels.Conclusions: Diagnostic and clinical assessments followed by robust statistical and machine learning approaches could identify peripheral blood biomarkers for prognostic stratification of patients in COVID-19. Our results would be helpful for clinicians and supports the use of point of care devices that can quantify multiple analytes. (Lui G, et al., Pointof- care detection of cytokines in cytokine storm management and beyond: Significance and challenges. VIEW. 2021;2: 1-20.). Such would allow for more efficient management and resource allocation. 1 (Figure Presented).

5.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927846

ABSTRACT

Introduction:Dupilumab is an anti-IL4R monoclonal antibody (mAb) with proven efficacy in severe eosinophilic asthma (SEA). We have previously identified that a suboptimal response to the eosinophil targeting anti-IL5/5R mAbs mepolizumab and benralizumab is seen in 27% and 14% of patients with SEA respectively1,2. The mechanism of this is not well-understood. It is unknown whether such patients respond in a clinically meaningful way following a switch to dupilumab. Methods:We performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical effectiveness of dupilumab (minimum 6 months treatment) in patients with SEA at our tertiary severe asthma centre who had failed to adequately respond to at least one of the anti-IL-5/5R mAbs. Change in the annualised exacerbation rate (AER), maintenance oral corticosteroids (mOCS) requirements, ACQ-6 and mAQLQ was recorded. Results:Thirty-two patients (mean age 41.2, 68.8% female, 71.9% atopic) were included in the analysis. 13/32(40.6%) had co-morbid nasal polyposis and 5/32(15.6%) had eczema. The baseline FeNO was 60ppb(IQR 39.6-87.5) and peak eosinophil count prior to any mAb was 0.6(IQR 0.5-0.9). 23/32(71.8%) were switched from benralizumab, of whom, 12/23(52.2%) had also failed to respond to at least one other anti-IL5 mAb previously. At six months, the daily median mOCS dose in those requiring mOCS at baseline (n=18) fell from 10mg(IQR 5-25mg) to 3mg(IQR 0-5mg), p≤0.001. 4/18(22%) were able to stop mOCS completely. Mean(SD) AER improved from 2.34(1.89) to 0.44(0.95), p≤0.001. There were also significant improvements in ACQ6 and mAQLQ that exceeded twice the MCID for both measures: mean (SD) ACQ6 improved from 3.04(1.26) to 1.82(1.28), p≤0.001;mAQLQ improved from 3.90(SD 1.40) to 5.36(SD 1.05), p≤0.001. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, FEV1 data was only available for 8 patients. However, there was nonetheless a significant rise in FEV1 (%predicted) from 55.6% (9.78) to 68.5%(16.9), p=0.011. One patient discontinued dupilumab during the follow-up period. Conclusion: A minority of individuals with SEA have a suboptimal response to eosinophil targeted therapy with an anti-IL5/5R mAb. In these patients, we report significant clinical improvements following initiation with dupilumab suggesting an important role for the IL-4/-13 pathway in these patients. Further research is required to understand whether these patients represent a distinct subphenotype of T2-high asthma.

6.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927832

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a multisystem disorder characterized by asthma, prominent peripheral blood eosinophilia, and small-vessel vasculitis. We report a case of EGPA in an adolescent with uncontrolled asthma who was receiving montelukast. Case: A 12-year-old boy who is known to have asthma and allergic rhinitis which were previously controlled on ICS, intranasal steroids, and prolonged use of montelukast for 4 years. He presented with cough and nasal blockage for 2 months. He also reported an increase in the frequency of asthma attacks and received multiple courses of systemic steroids. Subsequently, his asthma controller medications were upgraded to ICS/LABA few weeks prior to admission. His symptoms were also associated with weight loss, diarrhoea and haematochezia. He was vitally stable and maintained oxygen saturation on room air. Physical examination revealed nasal polyps, purple skin flat lesions on palms and feet (Figure1), and bilateral crackles on chest auscultation. His blood investigations were significant for leukocytosis with marked eosinophilia (11x103/uL, (51%)), high inflammatory markers and total-IgE (1975 kU/L). Initial chest XR showed bilateral interstitial thickening and small pleural effusions (Figure2). Chest CT showed centrilobular nodules and peripheral ground-glass opacities, tree-in-bud appearance with no peripheral sparing in addition to moderate pericardial effusion and bilateral mild pleural effusion (Figure3). Sinus CT showed extensive sino-nasal polyposis with pansinusitis (Figure4). Initial echocardiography showed moderate pericardial effusion with normal biventricular function. Patient was started on IV furosemide. During his hospitalization, patient developed chest pain. His serial troponin was rising and LV contractility was depressed. ECG showed ST-segment depression. Therefore, EGPA with cardiac involvement was suspected. Cardiac MR showed features of a peri-myocarditis. IVIG was commenced for suspicion of coronary artery involvement, which was later disputed by cardiac cath. He was also started on IV pulse steroids at a dose of 30 mg/kg for 3 days which resulted in dramatic decrease in troponin level, eosinophil count and CRP. Skin biopsy, which was later performed after administration of steroids, showed perivascular non-necrotizing granulomas. His ANA, ANCA and COVID-19 PCR came negative. Serum chemistries and urine microscopy were unremarkable. Patient was later started on Rituximab with significant clinical, serological and radiological (Figure5,6) improvement after 10-months of follow-up. Discussion: EGPA is rare but should be considered in children with uncontrolled asthma, eosinophilia and rhino-sinusitis. This case shows the importance of being aware that montelukast could cause EGPA, in spite of the uncertainty about its mechanism. (Figure Presented).

7.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927722

ABSTRACT

Palbociclib, abemaciclib and ribociclib are cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK 4/6) inhibitors used in the current treatment of HR-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer.1.2 As CDK 4/6 inhibitors are becoming more common it is important to be aware of some potentially fatal side effects. A 54-year-old woman with stage III breast cancer with prior mastectomy currently on hormonal and immunotherapy with anastrozole, ribociclib and goserelin presented with fever and shortness of breath. The patient became febrile with a negative COVID-19 test, and was treated for community acquired pneumonia. The fevers persisted despite antibiotics. CBC notable for leukopenia and uptrending absolute eosinophil count of 280 cells per microlitre. A chest CT scan revealed scattered, predominantly peripheral ground glass opacities in the bilateral upper, bilateral lower, and right middle lobes not present on prior imaging. A diagnostic bronchoscopy with BAL revealed 140 white-blood cells, 4 polys, 60 lymphocytes, 30 monocytes and 6 eosinophils. Flow cytometry yielded predominantly T-cells, abundant macrophages and inflammatory Infectious work up including PCP PCR, gram stain, fungal and AFB culture were negative. Ribociclib was discontinued and the patient improved symptomatically with return to baseline level of function. Reports of CDK 4/6 inhibitor drug-associated lung injury are limited There has been only one case report outside of clinical trials of Ribociclib pneumonitis.7 As these drugs become more commonly used, it is important for clinicians to be aware of this potentially fatal drug associated lung injury. Treatment with drug cessation has varying responses from recovery like in our patient to death.

8.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927720

ABSTRACT

Introduction Eosinophilic pneumonia is a class of lung diseases characterized by accumulation of eosinophils in the lung. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is diagnosed through radiographic imaging and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with elevated eosinophil count (>25%) in the setting of pulmonary symptoms for more than 2 weeks. While CEP is often an idiopathic disease, it may also be caused by medications, illicit substances, or infections. Identifying the trigger is imperative for successful treatment. A 71-year-old man presented with fever and chronic shortness of breath that started after COVID-19 infection (6 months prior to presentation). Medical history was also significant for multiple myeloma, asthma, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease, and Alzheimer's dementia. Current medications included bortezomib, pomalidomide, aspirin, clopidogrel , donepezil, tramadol and insulin. Lenalidomide was discontinued 3 months prior due to generalized skin rash and high peripheral eosinophilia (19%). On presentation, physical exam revealed mild respiratory distress, bibasilar crackles, and bilateral pedal edema. Long COVID Syndrome was suspected. He was started on antibiotics and diuretics with no improvement. Labs revealed mild peripheral eosinophilia. Chest X-ray showed diffuse bilateral reticular nodular opacities predominantly on the right. CT chest revealed reticulonodular infiltrates in both lungs predominantly in the right upper lobe with small pleural effusion. Bronchoscopy with BAL was negative for infection but revealed 28% eosinophils. Pomalidomide was discontinued and oral prednisone started. Discussion: CEP is part of a group of eosinophilic lung diseases characterized by abnormal accumulation of eosinophils in the lung tissue. Symptoms include dyspnea and cough in the majority of cases, but may also include fever, sinusitis, rhinitis, fatigue and weight loss. The radiographic hallmarks are bilateral alveolar infiltrates peripherally predominantly in the upper lobes and may be ground glass or consolidation. The presence of an elevated eosinophil count (>25%) in a BAL confirms the diagnosis. Though often idiopathic, identification of possible causes is important for proper management. In our case, the patient has multiple risk factors including possible Long COVID Syndrome and malignancy. Medications such as bortezomib, lenalinomide and pomalidomide have been known to cause diffuse lung injury. To the best of our knowledge there is one case report illustrating Lenalinomide related CEP. History of asthma is present in most cases of idiopathic CEP. Our patient had multiple potential triggers for CEP. We suspect that CEP was medication-related in this case. (Figure Presented).

9.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 37(SUPPL 3):i636-i637, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1915768

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected patients with pre-existing comorbidities, particularly dialysis patients. These patients appear to be more susceptible to severe forms of the infection, due to underlying, coexisting pathologies and their immunocompromised status. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of mortality in this population. METHOD: We conducted an observational, retrospective, cohort study collecting data from the electronic medical records of a single dialysis centre at Hygeia Hospital Tirana, Albania. Baseline patient characteristics, including demographic, clinical and laboratory data were recorded. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine predictors of mortality, their respective sensitivity, specificity and cut-off values. RESULTS: Of 170 haemodialysis patients, 52 were diagnosed with COVID-19. The prevalence of COVID-19 infection in haemodialysis patients in our study was 30.5%. The mean age was 61.5 ± 12.3 years and 65.4% were men. The mortality rate in our cohort was 19.2%. Mortality rates were higher in patients with Diabetic Nephropathy (P < 0.04) and Peripheral Vascular Disease (P < 0.01). High BMI (P < 0.024), high RDW (P < 0.03), elevated C-reactive protein (P < 0.018) and elevated serum ferritin (P < 0.021) levels, were found to be risk factors for severe COVID-19 disease. ROC analysis identified lymphopenia and eosinopenia as the strongest predictors of mortality. AUC for lymphopenia was 0.739. It showed a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 85.7%, at a cut-off value of 13.15%. AUC for eosinopenia was 0.814. At a cut-off value of 0.185%, it revealed a sensitivity and specificity of 72.7% and 75%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that risk factors for the development of severe COVID-19 infection were high BMI, high RDW, elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum ferritin. Lymphopenia and eosinopenia were determined as the most important predictors of mortality, in our cohort. Early recognition during the course of the infection, of a declining tendency of lymphocyte and eosinophil counts is paramount, in identifying high-risk patients for severe disease and poor outcomes among haemodialysis patients.

10.
Italian Journal of Medicine ; 16(SUPPL 1):71, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1912982

ABSTRACT

Background: Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a medium and small vessel vasculitis. Discussion: A 58-years man was admitted to the Emergency Department in January 2022 for myalgia and weakness of lower limbs in recent COVID-19 infection. He had a clinical history of allergic asthma and eosinophilic pneumonia (ANCA negative) diagnosed as secondary to sensitization work-related in 2001. Blood test showed a severe hypereosinophilia (absolute eosinophil count: 9875/microL) and elevated creatine kinase (CK: 7555 U/L). He was hospitalized in HUB COVID. During hospitalization reported paraesthesia of upper and lower limbs and fever;blood test showed elevation of inflammation markers. Autoimmune screening showed a antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies positivity (ANCA anti-MPO 178UI/mL). A sinus CT showed nasal polyposis. A neurological evaluation and electromyography were performed with the evidence of polyneuropathy. Muscle biopsy showed eosinophil-associated vascular occlusion and eosinophilassociated tissue damage. The investigation excluded renal, cardiac, pulmonary and gastro-intestinal involvement. A steroid therapy (Prednisone 1 mg/kg/die) was started with clinical improvement. Conclusions: EGPA is a multisystemic disorder, typically suspected based on a combination of clinical findings, such as asthma, nasal and sinus symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, and eosinophilia ≥1500/microL. ANCA antibodies are positive in around 40% of patients and diagnosis can often be challenging and delayed.

11.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; 44(12):1190-1194, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1911765

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical value of eosinophil count in predicting the progression and prognosis of COVID-19. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, 115 patients confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled in Taizhou Public Health Medical Center, Taizhou Hospital, Zhejiang Province, China, from January 22, 2020 to February 12, 2020. The subjects were divided into non-severe (n=90) and severe (n=25) groups, of which medium age was 46 years old, including 65 male and 50 female subjects. The value of eosinophil count in reflecting the severity of COVID-19 was tested with a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis;Correlation analysis of eosinophil count at the admission with length of stay (LOS) were studied. GraphPad Prism6 and SPSS 19.0 statistical software were applied to data analysis. Differences among groups were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test. Results admission, Eosinophil counts of severe patients were significantly lower than those of non-severe (P<0.001). The eosinophil count remained below normal for 1-7 days after admission and rose to normal by 21 to 28 days;The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of eosinophil to COVID-19 severity was 0.781(95%CI:0.693-0.869);The Eosinophil count at admission was negatively correlated with the patient's length of stay. Conclusions The decrease of Eosinophil count can serve as a risk factor for auxiliary diagnosis in severe COVID-19 patients. The dynamic monitoring of eosinophils is useful for prognostic purposes. © 2021 Chinese Medical Journals Publishing House Co.Ltd. All rights reserved.

12.
Lung India ; 39(SUPPL 1):S117-S118, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857152

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Asthma control is the extent to which symptoms of asthma observed in patients and reduction in symptoms after treatment. Simple screening tools are available to assess asthma control. Asthma control test is a simple numerical scoring system that can be easily used on a routine basis. Latest GINA guidelines stress that asthma control is the main objective of asthma treatment. In this COVID pandemic situation there is a hesitancy in performing and undergoing pulmonary function tests among physicians and the patients. Hence in this study was planned to correlate the asthma control test values with FEV1 and other parameters like PEFR, AEC and serum magnesium. Methods: This study was conducted at Department of Pulmonary Medicine, SRM Hospital & Research centre, Chennai. It is a retrospective cross-sectional observational study. Patients of Bronchial Asthma in line with GINA Guidelines were included in the study. AIMS and OBJECTIVES: To study the correlation between asthma control test and FEV1, To study the correlation between asthma control test and other parameters like Peak expiratory flow rate, Absolute eosinophil count and Serum magnesium. Results: Asthma control test had positive correlation with FEV1 with a spearman's correlation of 0.2758 and P value of 0.0414 which was statistically significant. The spearman's correlation between Asthma control test and AEC was -0.4583 with a P value of 0.00043, which was significant. The correlation of asthma control test with serum magnesium was 0.3414 with a p value of 0.010. Conclusion: Asthma control test score had a significant positive correlation with FEV1 and serum magnesium levels. It also had significant negative correlation with Absolute eosinophil count (inflammatory marker). Hence Asthma control test can be used as tool for treatment response in the current COVID pandemic situation and also in resource limited settings.

13.
Asthma Allergy Immunology ; 19(3):174-182, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1856522

ABSTRACT

Objective: The clinical features of COVID-19 range from asymptomatic disease to severe pneumonia or even death. Therefore, many researchers have investigated the factors that could affect the severity of COVID-19. We aimed to assess the impact of aero-allergen sensitization and allergic diseases on the severity of COVID-19. Materials and Methods: We included 60 adult patients with symptomatic COVID-19 and allocated them into two groups equal in number as having severe and non-severe COVID-19. We evaluated the demographic features and allergic diseases in addition to clinical, laboratory and radiological findings of COVID-19. Skin prick tests (SPTs) with common aero-allergens, serum total IgE levels and blood eosinophil counts were evaluated 3 months after the patient's recovery from COVID-19. Results: The mean age of the patients was 52 ± 11 years and 73.3% of the patients were male. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, gender, smoking habits, obesity and comorbidities. Although the frequency of sensitization to aeroallergens and the allergic diseases were similar, the history of allergic diseases in the family was higher in the severe group (p<0.001). The polysensitization in SPTs was associated with the presence of a cytokine storm during the infection (p=0.02). Total IgE levels and blood eosinophil counts were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: The presence of atopy or allergic diseases does not seem to be related to the severity of COVID-19. However, polysensitization and a family history of allergic diseases are more prominent in those having a cytokine storm and severe COVID-19, respectively.

14.
Cardiogenetics ; 12(2):133-141, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818054

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic pancarditis (EP) is a rare, often unrecognized condition caused by endomyocardial infiltration of eosinophil granulocytes (referred as eosinophilic myocarditis, EM) associated with pericardial involvement. EM has a variable clinical presentation, ranging from asymptomatic cases to acute cardiogenic shock requiring mechanical circulatory support (MCS) or chronic restrictive cardiomyopathy at high risk of progression to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). EP is associated with high in‐hospital mortality, particularly when associated to endomyocardial thrombosis, coronary arteries vasculitis or severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. To date, there is a lack of consensus about the optimal diagnostic algorithm and clinical management of patients with biopsy‐proven EP. The differential diagnosis includes hypersensitivity myocarditis, eosinophil granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), hypereosinophilic syndrome, parasitic infections, pregnancy‐related hypereosinophilia, malignancies, drug overdose (particularly clozapine) and Omenn syndrome (OMIM 603554). To our knowledge, we report the first case of pancarditis associated to eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) with negative anti‐neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). Treatment with steroids and azathioprine was promptly started. Six months later, the patient developed a relapse: treatment with subcutaneous mepolizumab was added on the top of standard therapy, with prompt disease activity remission. This case highlights the role of a multimodality approach for the diagnosis of cardiac involvement associated to systemic immune disorders.

15.
American Journal of Blood Research ; 12(1):43-53, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798258

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by pathogenic and highly transmissible Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which is a single stranded RNA virus. It rapidly emerged from an epidemic to a global pandemic form spreading in alarming levels. The pathogenesis involving spike protein which is present on the viral surface, plays a key role in host attachment and penetration. SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly affects respiratory system, but may involve other systems including haematopoietic system and homeostasis. Aim of the review article is to discuss spectrum of haematological changes in the blood counts, coagulation, peripheral blood and bone marrow in COVID-19 for complete understanding the disease process, the knowledge of which is helpful in early diagnosis and management of these patients. An extensive immune profiling of B and T cell population with analysis of spectrum of immune changes during the period of infection were also discussed. In COVID-19, changes in laboratory parameters and hematologic abnormalities have been reported and its association with early diagnosis, disease prognosis and severity has been repeatedly discussed in the literature. Changes in laboratory investigations help in risk stratification and early intervention. The most common laboratory finding in COVID-19 is lymphopenia. COVID-19 patients presented with coagulopathy is at high risk of morbidity and mortality. In severe COVID-19 patients, bone marrow aspirate shows histiocytic proliferation with hemophagocytosis. To understand the correlations between immune responses and severity of COVID-19, immune profiling of B and T cell population was compared with extensive clinical data. A deep understanding of the laboratory findings and haematological abnormalities associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection would help to raise disease suspicion in absence of Real time polymerase chain reaction or antibody results. Also the blood counts along with the morphological changes in peripheral blood would be helpful in prompt screening, diagnosis, prognosis and management of COVID-19 patients.

16.
Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion ; 37(SUPPL 1):S117, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1637382

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Coronavirus disease is a systemic infection associated with changes in haematological parameters, which have asignificant role in early risk stratification and prognostication in theaffected patients.Aims &Objectives: To study the haematological parameters Hemoglobin(Hb), Mean Corpuscular Volume(MCV),Red celldistribution width(RDW),total leukocyte count(TLC), NeutrophilLymphocyte ratio (NLR), Absolute eosinophil count(AEC), Absolutelymphocyte count(ALC) and platelet count(PC)] in patients ofCOVID-19 s wave, at our tertiary care institute.Materials &Methods: The study was conducted on 214 COVID-19patients admitted to our institute from April 2021 to June 2021.Data was collected from Central laboratory records in Microsoft exceland analysed using student SPSS version 26.0.Result: The mean age of the patients was 53.46 ± 13.09 years with amale to female ratio of 1.9:1. Anemia was observed in 143 patients(66.82%).Normal MCV was observed in 128 (59.81%) and RDW wasincreased in 159(74.29%) while TLC was normal in 109(50.93%)followed by leukocytosis in 99 (46.26%) and leukopenia in 6(2.8%)patients. NLR was raised in 207 (96.72%) patients. Eosinopenia in205(95.79%), lymphopenia in 156(72.89%) while normal PC wasobserved in 140(65.42%), decreased in 69 (32.24%) and increased in5(2.42%) patients.Conclusions: Anaemia, increased RDW, increased NLR, lymphopenia and eosinopenia were associated with COVID 19 disease.

17.
Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion ; 37(SUPPL 1):S125, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1635355

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Peripheral blood changes in Coronavirus disease 19(COVID-19) are diverse and have been reported in literature in theform of brief communications and case series with relatively smallersample size and with a handful of studies showing associationbetween peripheral blood smear (PBS) and clinical severity of thedisease.Aims &Objectives: To highlight the numerical and morphologicalchanges in COVID-19 patients and to compare the same in IntensiveCare Unit (ICU) and non-ICU settings as well as between COVID-19survivors and deceased patients.Materials &Methods: This cross-sectional study included 80COVID-19 positive (41 ICU and 39 non-ICU) patients and 32COVID-19 negative ICU patients, done in Department of Pathology,ABVIMS &Dr RML Hospital, New Delhi from December 2020 toFebruary 2021. Complete blood counts (CBC) and PBS findings werestudied and scored by two pathologists blindfoldedly.Result: Among CBC parameters, absolute lymphocyte count (ALC)and absolute eosinophil count (AEC) were significantly lower inCOVID-19 positive cases as compared to COVID-19 negative group(p = 0.001 &p = 0.001). On PBS, COVID-19 positive group showedsignificant left myeloid shift (p = 0.021), Dohle bodies (p = 0.025)with significant prominence of acquired pseudo pelger-huet anomaly,ring shaped neutrophils, monolobulate neutrophils and plasmacytoidlymphocytes as compared to control group (p = 0.000, p = 0.009,p = 0.046 &p = 0.011 resp). The overall mean White blood cell(WBC) counts were higher in COVID-19 positive ICU patients ascompared to non-ICU COVID positive patients with significant shiftto left (p = 0.017). Ring shaped neutrophils, monocyte vacuolationand large granular lymphocyte (LGL) were significantly higher inCOVID-19 positive ICU patients as compared to non-ICU patients(p = 0.007, p = 0.008 &p = 0.004 resp). Deceased group (14/39 ICUCOVID positive cases) showed significantly high WBC count(p = 0.018) with marked neutrophilia (p = 0.024) and toxic granulation (p = 0.01) and prominence of monocyte vacuolization, ringshaped neutrophils, large granular lymphocytes and reactive lymphocytes as compared to survivor.Conclusions: Morphological parameters like myeloid left shift, ringshaped neutrophils, monocyte vacuolation, LGLs and reactive lymphocytes emerged as highly sensitive markers of COVID-19 diseaseseverity. Therefore, serial CBC with comprehensive PBS analysisshould be done in every newly diagnosed hospitalized COVID-19patients to potentially predicts the course of disease and its clinicaloutcome.

18.
Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion ; 37(SUPPL 1):S120-S121, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1631896

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has placed the health systemworldwide in unprecedented stress, therefore, prompt identification and management of patients having severe disease is essential fortriaging of patients at the time of admission.Aims &Objectives: To identify hematological biomarkers ofCOVID-19 disease severity in patients admitted in a tertiary carehospital.Materials &Methods: A retrospective study was conducted over aperiod of 17 months (20th March 2020-19 August 2021) on 7416COVID-19 patients. Patients with cancers, pregnancy and chronichematological diseases were excluded from the study. Patients wereclassified clinically as per severity of disease as non-severe (asymptomatic, mild, moderate) or severe and their hematological parameterswere analyzed.Mann-Whitney test was used to compare between the groups. Optimal predictive cut off points for the variables were defined by receiveroperating characteristic (AUC) curve to dichotomize the variables.Univariate analysis was performed to screen out independent variables to be used in the binary logistic regression (BLR). A p valueof< = 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.Result: Age, duration of hospital stay, RBC count, WBC, Plateletcount, RDW, Neutrophils %, Absolute neutrophil count (ANC),Absolute monocyte count (AMC), NLR, PLR, NMR were statisticallyhigher whereas hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCHC, lymphocyte %,Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), Eosinophils %, Absolute eosinophil count (AEC), Monocytes %, Basophils %, Absolute Basophilcount (ABC) and Lymphocyte Monocyte ratio (LMR) were lower insevere group. MCV and MCHC were not significant, so wereexcluded from the logistic regression model. All variables were significant in univariate analysis. Age (>42 yrs), duration of hospitalstay (>10 days), RBC count (B 4.33 106/lL),WBC count (> 7.73103/lL), RDW (>14.8%), Neutrophils (>71.7%), Eosinophils(B 0.3%), Monocytes (B 5%), ALC (B 1.01 103/lL), LMR(B 3.125) with adjusted odd ratio of 1.8, 1.5, 1.3,1.3, 1.4, 2.0, 2.1, 1.5,2.0 and 1.3 respectively were found to be significant predictors ofseverity.Conclusions: Age, duration of hospital stay, RBC count, WBC,RDW, Neutrophils %, Eosinophils %, Monocytes %, ALC, LMRshould be assessed and monitor at the earliest to halt unfavorableoutcome of mortality or morbidity.

19.
Blood ; 138:1767, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582215

ABSTRACT

Introduction Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2) can induce a strong host immune response. Several groups have investigated the course of antibody responses in patients recovering from SARS-CoV-2 infections but little is known about the recovery of cellular immunity. This study investigated the cellular immune response in people who had recovered from SARS-CoV2 infection. Methods 162 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma donors (CCD) and 40 healthy donor (HD) controls were enrolled prospectively in an IRB-approved protocol (Clinical Trials Number: NCT04360278) and provided written informed consent to participate in the study. Using the nCounter platform and host response panel with 785 genes across more than 50 pathways, we compared transcriptomic profiles on RNA samples obtained from the peripheral blood leukocytes of these 162 CCD and 40 HD. Additionally, in 69 of the 162 CCD samples, we evaluated transcriptomic trends at more than one-time point during the convalescent period. Results Age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index distributions were similar among the CCD and HD. With respect to baseline complete blood counts, hemoglobin, platelets, and absolute basophil and eosinophil counts, all were similar among CCD and HD (Table 1). However, despite sample collections occurring several days after convalescence, mean counts for absolute neutrophil counts, absolute monocyte counts, and absolute lymphocyte counts were significantly higher among CCD compared to HD. 30-90 days after diagnosis, 19 of 773 genes differed (FDR < 0.05) between the average CCD and HD samples. Up-regulated genes included MAFB, CTLA4, PTGS2, and the chemokine signaling genes CXCR4, CXCL5, CXCL2 and CCR4. Down-regulated genes included PTGER2, CASP8, and the interleukins IL36A, IL31, IL20 and IL21 (Figure 1 a,b). Differential gene expression persisted for months. At 90-120 days, 13 genes were differentially regulated, including again MAFB CXCR4, PTGS2, CXCL2 and PTGER2, plus SMAD4. At 120-150 days post-diagnosis, 58 genes were differentially expressed (FDR < 0.05) compared to HD. Pathways with up-regulated genes included Treg differentiation, type III interferon signaling and chemokine signaling. 150-360 days post-diagnosis, 4 genes remained up-regulated on average (FDR < 0.05): PTGS2, PIK3CR, CXCL1 and SMAD4 (Figure 1 c,d). Individual patients varied considerably from the mean trend. Scoring samples by their similarity to the gene expression profile of the mean HD sample, 21 CCD samples from 20 unique patients (12%) were identified as highly perturbed from HD. 84% of these highly perturbed samples were collected > 90 days post-diagnosis. Of these 21 samples, 6 were distinguished by > 2-fold up-regulation of a cluster of interleukin and type-1 interferon genes (Figure 2). Conclusions Overall, our study identified important gene expression trends in CCD compared to HD in the post-acute period. The changes varied with time and among donors. As the expression of T-cell inhibitory molecule CTLA4 fell, the number of differentially expressed increased with the most marked changes occurring 120 to 150 days post-diagnosis in genes in chemokine signaling, type III interferon signaling and Treg pathways. Persistent alterations in inflammatory pathways and T-cell activation/exhaustion markers for months after active infection may help shed light on the pathophysiology of a prolonged post-viral syndrome observed in individuals following recovery from COVID-19 infection. Our data may serve as the basis for risk modification strategies in the period of active infection. Future studies may inform the ability to identify druggable targets involving these pathways to mitigate the long-term effects of COVID-19 infection. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Danaher: NanoString Technologies: Current Employment, Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company.

20.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 76(SUPPL 110):465-466, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1570398

ABSTRACT

Background: Dupilumab has been recently approved for treatment in patients with severe AD in Portugal-until now there is no published data regarding Portuguese experience in Allergy centers. Method: Cross sectional clinical and laboratory assessment of 33 patients (pts) with moderate to severe AD treated with dupilumab (dupi) for at least 16 weeks (W): prospective evaluation of severity scores (SCORAD-Scoring Atopic Dermatitis, EASI-Eczema Area and Severity Index, P-VAS-Pruritus Visual Analogic Scale), report of adverse events up to 52 weeks of treatment. SCORAD and EASI were assessed in 23 pts at W52, P-VAS in 21 pts at W52. Results: Of the 33 pts, 18 were female (55%) with a mean age (SD, range) of 35.3 years (13.2, 15-60). In 16 pts the age of onset was before 2 years old, mean (SD) disease duration 28.1 years (12);94% patients had a diffuse pattern of skin lesions;97% of pts had allergic rhinitis, 82% asthma, 52% conjunctivitis and 30% food allergy. Median total IgE at baseline was of 6313 U/ml (P25-P75: 2842-12491) with a 76% reduction at W52 in 16 pts. Median eosinophil count at baseline was 520 eosinophils/mm3 (P25-P75: 270-740). Before starting dupi 29 pts had been treated with cyclosporine. At the beginning, 15 pts were under oral corticosteroids, 14 under oral systemic immunosuppressive drugs (all pts but two stopped both until W12 of dupi) and 5 switched from omalizumab. At baseline, median SCORAD and EASI were 69.3 and 24.2 points. At W16, W36 and W52, median SCORAD was 27.4, 22.3 and 21.5, and median EASI 5.3, 4.1 and 2.1. At W16, the EASI-50, EASI-75 and EASI-90 were achieved by 91%, 61% and 18% pts, and at W52, by 87%, 70% and 52% pts. The mean percentage of SCORAD reduction at W16 and W52 was 55% and 73%;and of EASI was 76% and 82%. At W16 and W52, an improvement of ≥4 points in P-VAS was achieved by 77% and 95% pts. There was a mean reduction of P-VAS at W2, W4, W16 and W52 of 2.6;3.6;4.7 and 6.3 points, respectively. Conjunctivitis was reported in 10 (30%) pts, two of them with keratoconjunctivitis and blepharitis, without needing to interrupt treatment;two pts also had facial erythema. One patient had COVID, and dupilumab scheme treatment was maintained. Conclusion: The majority of AD patients had a significant and consistent improvement in all the severity scores, after one year of treatment with dupilumab. No relevant adverse events were reported.

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