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1.
Public Integrity ; JOUR: 1-15,
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2107023

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the world witnessed the worst pandemic in more than a century that continues to impact and stigmatize minorities and immigrants disproportionately. During this time Asian Americans in the United States (US) have been subject to racist tropes, xenophobic attacks, and widespread hate crimes. The xenophobia and racism experienced by this group are not new, as demonstrated in this study. The injustices experienced by Asians in the US are embedded within the historical, social, political, and cultural structures that discriminate and are present throughout minority history. Unfortunately, scholars in the US Public Administration often underutilize a historical lens to study oppression, racism, and xenophobia. This essay provides key historical accounts of how Asian Americans experience othering while at the same time are perceived as model minorities. We will examine the history of "otherness" experienced by Asian Americans in the US from two key lenses: (1) disease and the other (2) labor and immigration policies.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 3): 159929, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105901

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen pollution is one of the main reasons for water eutrophication. The difficulty of nitrogen removal in low-carbon wastewater poses a huge potential threat to the ecological environment and human health. As a clean biological nitrogen removal process, solid-phase denitrification (SPD) was proposed for long-term operation of low-carbon wastewater. In this paper, the progress, hotspots, and challenges of the SPD process based on different solid carbon sources (SCSs) are reviewed. Compared with synthetic SCS and natural SCS, blended SCSs have more application potential and have achieved pilot-scale application. Differences in SCSs will lead to changes in the enrichment of hydrolytic microorganisms and hydrolytic genes, which indirectly affect denitrification performance. Moreover, the denitrification performance of the SPD process is also affected by the physical and chemical properties of SCSs, pH of wastewater, hydraulic retention time, filling ratio, and temperature. In addition, the strengthening of the SPD process is an inevitable trend. The strengthening measures including SCSs modification and coupled electrochemical technology are regarded as the current research hotspots. It is worth noting that the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic has led to the increase of disinfection by-products and antibiotics in wastewater, which makes the SPD process face challenges. Finally, this review proposes prospects to provide a theoretical basis for promoting the efficient application of the SPD process and coping with the challenge of the COVID-19 epidemic.

3.
Profesorado ; JOUR(2):125-140, 26.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2100915

ABSTRACT

As a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, the digital competence of teachers has become the backbone of education. Despite this, the studies carried out on it in Primary Education Teachers are still a minority. In order to fill the observed gap, this research examines the perceptions, beliefs and uses of 281 Primary Education Teachers aged between 21 and 51 years of age, from public, private and subsidized schools in the national territory, about the use of ICT, participating through the completion of an ad hoc online questionnaire, the CDMEP. The results show that digital competence is inversely correlated with age, as well as its development being conditioned by years of professional experience, at the same time that statistically significant differences are evidenced based on gender. In the light of these findings, the limitations are discussed, and new lines of future research are proposed. © 2022 Grupo de Investigacion FORCE. All rights reserved.

4.
The International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2098239

ABSTRACT

This paper describes an integrated, data-driven operational pipeline based on national agent-based models to support federal and state-level pandemic planning and response. The pipeline consists of (i) an automatic semantic-aware scheduling method that coordinates jobs across two separate high performance computing systems;(ii) a data pipeline to collect, integrate and organize national and county-level disaggregated data for initialization and post-simulation analysis;(iii) a digital twin of national social contact networks made up of 288 Million individuals and 12.6 Billion time-varying interactions covering the US states and DC;(iv) an extension of a parallel agent-based simulation model to study epidemic dynamics and associated interventions. This pipeline can run 400 replicates of national runs in less than 33 h, and reduces the need for human intervention, resulting in faster turnaround times and higher reliability and accuracy of the results. Scientifically, the work has led to significant advances in real-time epidemic sciences.

5.
Ir J Psychol Med ; 38(3): 192-207, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096536

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic. Adolescence and early adulthood are peak times for the onset of mental health difficulties. Exposure to a pandemic during this vulnerable developmental period places young people at significant risk of negative psychological experiences. The objective of this research was to summarise existing evidence on the potential impact of a pandemic on the mental health of 12-25 year olds. METHODS: A rapid review of the published peer-reviewed literature, published between 1985 and 2020, using PsycINFO (Proquest) and Medline (Proquest) was conducted. Narrative synthesis was used across studies to identify key themes and concepts. RESULTS: This review found 3,359 papers, which was reduced to 12 papers for data extraction. Results regarding the prevalence of psychological difficulties in youth were mixed, with some studies finding this group experience heightened distress during an infectious disease outbreak, and others finding no age differences or higher distress among adults. Gender, coping, self-reported physical health and adoption of precautionary measures appear to play a role in moderating the psychological impact of an infectious disease outbreak. Most studies were conducted after the peak of an epidemic/pandemic or in the recovery period. CONCLUSIONS: More longitudinal research with young people, particularly adolescents in the general population, before and during the early stages of an infectious disease outbreak is needed to obtain a clear understanding of how best to support young people during these events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Health Policy Plan ; 2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097349

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the literature on public health interventions and health outcomes in the context of epidemic and pandemic response has grown immensely. However, relatively few of these studies have situated their findings within the institutional, political, organizational, and governmental (IPOG) context in which interventions and outcomes exist. This conceptual mapping scoping study synthesized the published literature on the impact of IPOG factors on epidemic and pandemic response and critically examined definitions and uses of the terms IPOG in this literature. This research involved a comprehensive search of four databases across the social, health, and biomedical sciences as well as multi-level eligibility screening conducted by two independent reviewers. Data on the temporal, geographic, and topical range of studies were extracted, then descriptive statistics were calculated to summarize these data. Hybrid inductive and deductive qualitative analysis of the full-text articles was conducted to critically analyze the definitions and uses of these terms in the literature. The searches retrieved 4,918 distinct articles; 65 met the inclusion criteria and were thus reviewed. These articles were published from 2004 to 2022, were mostly written about COVID-19 (61.5%), and most frequently engaged with the concept of governance (36.9%) in relation to epidemic and pandemic response. Emergent themes related to the variable use of the investigated terms, the significant increase in relevant literature published amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as a lack of consistent definitions used across all four terms: institutions, politics, organizations, and governance. This study revealed opportunities for health systems researchers to further engage in interdisciplinary work with fields such as law and political science, to become more forthright in defining factors which shape responses to epidemics and pandemics, and to develop greater consistency in using these IPOG terms in order to lessen confusion among a rapidly growing body of literature.

7.
Sci Afr ; : e01408, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096006

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has caused several damages to the world, especially in public health sector. This study considered a simple deterministic SIR (Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered) model to characterize and predict future course of the pandemic in the West African countries. We estimated specific characteristics of the disease's dynamics such as its initial conditions, reproduction numbers, true peak, reported peak with their corresponding times, final epidemic size and time-varying attack ratio. Our findings revealed a relatively low proportion of susceptible individuals in the region and in the different countries (1.2 % across West Africa). The detection rate of the disease was also relatively low (0.9 % for West Africa as a whole) and < 2 % for most countries, except for Gambia (12.5 %), Cape-Verde (9.5 %), Mauritania (5.9 %) and Ghana (4.4 %). The reproduction number varied between 1.15 (Burkina-Faso) and 4.45 (Niger) and the peak time of the pandemic was between June and July for most countries. Most generally, the peak time of reported cases came a week (7-8 days) after the true peak time. The model predicted 222,100 actual active cases in the region at peak time while the final epidemic size accounted for 0.6 % of the West African population (2,526,700 individuals). Results obtained showed that the COVID-19 pandemic has not severely affected West Africa as noticed in other regions of the world, but current control measures and standard operating procedures should be maintained over time to ensure trends observed and even accelerate the declining trend of the pandemic.

8.
Physica A ; 608: 128284, 2022 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095891

ABSTRACT

In the post-epidemic era, people's lives are gradually returning to normal, and travel is gradually resuming. The safe evacuation of cross-regional travelers in railway station has also attracted more and more attention, especially the evacuation behavior of college students in railway station. In this paper, considering the pedestrian dynamics mechanism in the emergency evacuation process during the COVID-19 normalized epidemic prevention and control, an Agent-based social force model was established to simulate the activities of college students in railway station. Combined with the virus infection transmission model, Monte Carlo simulation was used to calculate the total exposure time and the number of high-risk exposed people in the railway station evacuation process. In addition, sensitivity analysis was conducted on the total exposure time and the number of high-risk exposed people under 180 combinations of the number of initial infections, social distance, and the proportion of people wearing masks incorrectly. The results show that with the increase of social distances, the total exposure time and the number of high-risk exposures do not always decrease, but increase in some cases. The presence or absence of obstacles in the evacuation scene has no significant difference in the effects on total exposure time and the number of high-risk exposures. During the evacuation behavior of college students in railway station, choosing the appropriate number of lines can effectively reduce the total exposure time and the number of high-risk exposures. Finally, some policy suggestions are proposed to reduce the risk of virus transmission in the railway station evacuation process, such as choosing dynamic and reasonable social distance and the number of queues, and reducing obstacles.

9.
J Theor Biol ; : 111337, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095715

ABSTRACT

During the SARS-CoV2 pandemic, epidemic models have been central to policy-making. Public health responses have been shaped by model-based projections and inferences, especially related to the impact of various non-pharmaceutical interventions. Accompanying this has been increased scrutiny over model performance, model assumptions, and the way that uncertainty is incorporated and presented. Here we consider a population-level model, focusing on how distributions representing host infectiousness and the infection-to-death times are modelled, and particularly on the impact of inferred epidemic characteristics if these distributions are misspecified. We introduce an SIR-type model with the infected population structured by 'infected age', i.e. the number of days since first being infected, a formulation that enables distributions to be incorporated that are consistent with clinical data. We show that inference based on simpler models without infected age, which implicitly misspecify these distributions, leads to substantial errors in inferred quantities relevant to policy-making, such as the reproduction number and the impact of interventions. We consider uncertainty quantification via a Bayesian approach, implementing this for both synthetic and real data focusing on UK data in the period 15 Feb-14 Jul 2020, and emphasising circumstances where it is misleading to neglect uncertainty. This manuscript was submitted as part of a theme issue on "Modelling COVID-19 and Preparedness for Future Pandemics".

10.
2021 25th International Conference on System Theory, Control and Computing (Icstcc) ; JOUR: 372-377,
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2088043

ABSTRACT

In this paper an optimal control design approach is used to compute optimal strategies of intervention in terms of the combined actions of vaccination and social distancing. The aim is to define times and modalities of reduction of the individual limitations compatibly with a cost associated to the epidemic effects on the population healthy, to the social and economic consequences of the containment measures and to the vaccination campaign. A mathematical model, obtained adapting and improving a previously proposed and validated one, is introduced to this control design aim. Simulation results obtained for different choices of costs and constraints are also reported and discussed.

11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 125: 170-176, 2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086294

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: An unusual increase in Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A infection rate in Japanese travelers returning from Myanmar was observed in 2015. METHODS: We analyzed epidemiologic data of returned travelers with enteric fever from 2005-2019. We also analyzed 193 Salmonella Paratyphi A isolates, including 121 isolates with published genomes. RESULTS: Annual notification trends showed a rapid increase in Salmonella Paratyphi A infection in travelers returning from Myanmar in 2015: 2-4 cases/100,000 travelers in 2012-2014 and 13 cases/100,000 travelers in 2015 (P <0.001). The genomic analyses revealed that 11 Myanmar-related isolates in 2015 formed a tight cluster in clade 3 with a single nucleotide variant (SNV) distance of 0-11 (primarily 0-7), yielding a wider SNV range than outbreak-associated isolates from Cambodia in 2013 (0-6 SNVs) or China in 2010 (0-5 SNVs). Although all Cambodia-related isolates in 2013 harbored the wild-type gyrA sequence, all Myanmar-related isolates in 2015 had a single, identical mutation (Ser83Phe) in the gyrA gene. CONCLUSION: The epidemiologic and molecular investigations suggested an increase in the infection rate with genetically closely related Salmonella Paratyphi A in travelers returning from Myanmar in 2015. Careful monitoring of the infection in Myanmar as an endemic country is warranted, considering the resumption of cross-border travel during the COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
Biosaf Health ; 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085979

ABSTRACT

We analyzed variations in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome during a flight-related cluster outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Shenzhen, China, to explore the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and intra-host single nucleotide variations (iSNVs) in a confined space. Thirty-three patients with COVID-19 were sampled, and 14 were resampled 3-31 days later. All 47 nasopharyngeal swabs were deep sequenced. iSNVs and similarities in the consensus genome sequence were analyzed. Three SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, Delta (n=31), Beta (n=1), and C.1.2 (n=1), were detected among the 33 patients. The viral genome sequences from 30 Delta-positive patients had similar SNVs; 14 of these patients provided two successive samples. Overall, the 47 sequenced genomes contained 164 iSNVs. Of the 14 paired (successive) samples, the second samples (T2) contained more iSNVs (median: 3; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 2.77-10.22) than did the first samples (T1; median: 2; 95%CI: 1.63-3.74; Wilcoxon test, P=0.021). 38 iSNVs were detected in T1 samples, and only seven were also detectable in T2 samples. Notably, T2 samples from two of the 14 paired samples had additional mutations than the T1 samples. The iSNVs of the SARS-CoV-2 genome exhibited rapid dynamic changes during a flight-related cluster outbreak event. Intra-host diversity increased gradually with time, and new site mutations occurred in vivo without a population transmission bottleneck. Therefore, we could not determine the generational relationship from the mutation site changes alone.

13.
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences ; JOUR(15):5581-5586, 26.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083037

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the COVID-19 anxiety level in pregnant women who presented to an outpatient clinic during the COVID-19 pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study including 203 of 310 pregnant women who presented to the outpatient clinic of a training and research hospital of the Ministry of Health between 29 September-1 October, 2020. The level of anxiety was assessed with the COVID-19 Anxiety Inventory (CAS) using a face-to-face survey method. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 28.15 +/- 5.95 years. In the study, while 6.2% of women over 30 years old was identified to have psychological problems, 0.7% of those under 30 years old had such problems. The rate of diagnosis of COVID-19 in the family/acquaintances of those with an educational level of high school or high-er was 56.9%, and those who had an education-al level under high school had a corresponding rate of 39.5%. The rate of COVID-19 diagnosis in the family/acquaintances of those with an educational level of high school or higher was significantly higher (p < 0.05). The mean COVID-19 anxiety scale score was 0.18 +/- 0.47;COVID-19 anxiety was not observed in pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS: This study detected no anxiety in pregnant women. Therefore, it can be said that pregnant women do not need immediate psycho-social support.

14.
Applied Mathematics and Computation ; JOUR:127601, 439.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2082768

ABSTRACT

In the situation of insufficient vaccines and rapid mutation of the virus, detection and contact tracing have been argued to be effective interventions in the containment of emergent epidemics. However, most of previous studies are devoted to data-driven, leading to insufficient understanding of quantifying their effectiveness, especially when individuals’ interactions evolve with time. Here, we aim at quantifying the effectiveness of detection and contact tracing interventions in suppressing the epidemic in time-varying networks. We propose the Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Removed-Dead-Hospitalized (SEIRDH) model with detection and contact tracing. Under the framework of time-varying networks and with a mean-field approach, we analyze the epidemic thresholds under different situations. Experimental results show that detection can effectively suppress the epidemic spread with an increased epidemic threshold, while the role of tracing depends on the characteristics of the epidemic. When an epidemic is infectious in the incubation period, contact tracing has an obvious effect in suppressing the epidemic spread, but not when the epidemic is not infectious in the incubation. Thus, we apply this framework in real networks to explore possible contact tracing measures by taking use of individuals’ properties. We find that contact tracing based on activity and historical information is more efficient than random contact tracing. Moreover, individuals’ attractiveness and aging effects also affect the efficiency of detection and contact tracing. In conclusion, making full use of individuals’ properties can remarkably improve the effectiveness of detection and contact tracing. The proposed method is expected to provide theoretical guidance for coping with the COVID-19 or other emergent epidemics.

15.
2022 Ieee International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (Fuzz-Ieee) ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082518

ABSTRACT

In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is an open challenge and critical practical problem to find a optimal way to dynamically prescribe the best policies that balance both the governmental resources and epidemic control in different countries and regions. To solve this multi-dimensional tradeoff of exploitation and exploration, we formulate this technical challenge as a contextual combinatorial bandit problem that jointly optimizes a multi-criteria reward function. Given the historical daily cases in a region and the past intervention plans in place, the agent should generate useful intervention plans that policy makers can implement in real time to minimizing both the number of daily COVID-19 cases and the stringency of the recommended interventions. We prove this concept with simulations of multiple realistic policy making scenarios and demonstrate a clear advantage in providing a pareto optimal solution in the epidemic intervention problem. (1)

16.
Chaos Solitons Fractals ; 165: 112790, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2083115

ABSTRACT

It is well established that COVID-19 incidence data follows some power law growth pattern. Therefore, it is natural to believe that the COVID-19 transmission process follows some power law. However, we found no existing model on COVID-19 with a power law effect only in the disease transmission process. Inevitably, it is not clear how this power law effect in disease transmission can influence multiple COVID-19 waves in a location. In this context, we developed a completely new COVID-19 model where a force of infection function in disease transmission follows some power law. Furthermore, different realistic epidemiological scenarios like imperfect social distancing among home-quarantined individuals, disease awareness, vaccination, treatment, and possible reinfection of the recovered population are also considered in the model. Applying some recent techniques, we showed that the proposed system converted to a COVID-19 model with fractional order disease transmission, where order of the fractional derivative ( α ) in the force of infection function represents the memory effect in disease transmission. We studied some mathematical properties of this newly formulated model and determined the basic reproduction number ( R 0 ). Furthermore, we estimated several epidemiological parameters of the newly developed fractional order model (including memory index α ) by fitting the model to the daily reported COVID-19 cases from Russia, South Africa, UK, and USA, respectively, for the time period March 01, 2020, till December 01, 2021. Variance-based Sobol's global sensitivity analysis technique is used to measure the effect of different important model parameters (including α ) on the number of COVID-19 waves in a location ( W C ). Our findings suggest that α along with the average transmission rate of the undetected (symptomatic and asymptomatic) cases in the community ( ß 1 ) are mainly influencing multiple COVID-19 waves in those four locations. Numerically, we identified the regions in the parameter space of α and ß 1 for which multiple COVID-19 waves are occurring in those four locations. Furthermore, our findings suggested that increasing memory effect in disease transmission ( α → 0) may decrease the possibility of multiple COVID-19 waves and as well as reduce the severity of disease transmission in those four locations. Based on all the results, we try to identify a few non-pharmaceutical control strategies that may reduce the risk of further SARS-CoV-2 waves in Russia, South Africa, UK, and USA, respectively.

17.
Embase; 23.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-346595

ABSTRACT

The first step in SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance is testing to identify infected people. However, global testing rates are falling as we emerge from the acute health emergency and remain low in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (mean = 27 tests/100,000 people/day). We simulated COVID-19 epidemics in a prototypical LMIC to investigate how testing rates, sampling strategies, and sequencing proportions jointly impact surveillance outcomes and showed that low testing rates and spatiotemporal biases delay time-to-detection of new variants by weeks-to-months and can lead to unreliable estimates of variant prevalence even when the proportion of samples sequenced is increased. Accordingly, investments in wider access to diagnostics to support testing rates of ~100 tests/100,000 people/day could enable more timely detection of new variants and reliable estimates of variant prevalence. The performance of global SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance programs is fundamentally limited by access to diagnostic testing. Copyright The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under a CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.

18.
SSRN;
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-346215

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we study the traveling wave solutions of a discrete diffusive epidemic model with constant treatment and external supplies. In terms of the basic reproduction number R0 and the critical wave speed c∗ > 0, we establish the existence of traveling wave solutions for R0 > 1 and c ≥ c, which accounts for phase transitions between the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic steady state. In addition, we show the nonexistence of epidemic waves for R0 > 1 and c ≥ c (including negative values). Finally, numerical simulations and discussions are also provided to illustrate the theoretical results. We also investigate the effects of external supply, the proportion of treatment and the reduction factor in infectiousness due to the antiviral treatment on the basic reproduction number and critical wave speed. Our results generalize some known ones and indicate that the effective treatment can reduce the spread of the disease while the external supplies could encourage the spread of disease. The approach developed in this work might provide some insights into the dynamics (especially for the boundedness and asymptotic behavior of solutions) for the discrete diffusive system with nonmonotone structure.

19.
Pediatriya - Zhurnal im G.N ; Speranskogo. 101(5):69-75, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2081378

ABSTRACT

The morbidity of the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in the Russian Armed Forces is decreasing thanks to the sanitary and preventive anti-epidemic measures, the most effective of which is mass vaccination. The purpose of this research was to study the peculiarities of the formation of herd immunity among adolescent students of the Russian Ministry of Defense (MoD) colleges against the background of the COVID-19 epidemic. Materials and methods of the research: according to the epidemic indications, a two-stage seroepidemiological multicenter prospective study of herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2 was carried out in Dec. 2021 - May 2022, against the background of vaccination, among adolescent students of the Russian Defense Ministry colleges. 515 adolescents aged 11 to 17 years old (median age 13 [12;15] years old) from the two Russian MoD schools located in the city of Saint Petersburg, of which 292 (57%) girls and 223 (43%) boys, were involved in the study. The adolescents were divided into groups based on gender and previous COVID-19 illness e.g., those who already had COVID-19 and those who had not prior to the study. In the second stage of the study the number of samples from boys and girls decreased by 74.3% and 34.4%, respectively, due to the lack of parents' consent to the vaccination. The assessment of the immunity intensity was carried out using the Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels in blood serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Result(s): the initially high levels of seroprevalence to SARS-CoV-2 were established among both girls and boys (90.4% and 91.5%, respectively, p=0.09) that indicated a latent course of the epidemic process in the studied groups of teenagers. In adolescent girls and boys vaccinated against the background of a previous COVID-19 illness, the combined immunity is formed in 62.3% and 68.1%, respectively (p=0.11). Conclusion(s): the epidemic process of COVID-19 tends to be latent in organized adolescent groups, being realized in inapparent forms of the infection. Those adolescents who've been vaccinated after COVID-19 illness develop the immunity with positive seroconversion dynamics. Copyright © 2022, Pediatria Ltd. All rights reserved.

20.
Chinese Medical Ethics ; 35(8):925-931, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2080953

ABSTRACT

The great anti-epidemic spirit is the spirit of the times formed by all Chinese people in the great struggle against COVID-19 under the leadership of the Communist Party of China. The reason for the spatial transformation of the integration of anti-epidemic spirit education is that the great anti-epidemic spirit is the product of specific space environment. Modern space theory provides a new perspective for the integration of anti-epidemic spirit education.and With the end of the epidemic, the era of the epidemic has changed from the anti-epidemic space to the anti-epidemic spirit education space. The principle of spatial dimension of anti-epidemic spirit education lies in the environment creats people, the anti-epidemic spirit and the spatial environment are mutually embedded and mutually constructed, and the formation of the anti-epidemic spirit is the unity of perceptual cognition and rational cognition.education, and the formation of the anti-epidemic spirit is the unity of perceptual cognition and rational cognition. At the practical level, considering the integration of anti epidemic spirit education from the spatial dimension, we should not only integrate the anti epidemic spirit elements into the multi dynamic spatial environment, but also give full play to the role of multi spatial collaborative education and the supervision role of multi subjects in the spatial environment. © 2022, Editorial department of Chinese Medical Ethics. All rights reserved.

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