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1.
International Research Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Technology ; 6(3):120-131, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1836655

ABSTRACT

Throughout history, there are always descriptive moments in different generations. The rapid migration of digital technology driven by the epidemic has gripped the world by 2020. The global COVID-19 epidemic will affect all generations and especially consumers of Generation Y which is the main focus of this study. Considering the recent challenges, the role of messenger services and social media relationships becomes a life-changing issue. Companies understand that building customer relationships through a social media platform and the way these channels are managed is an important factor in product success. Therefore, the study attempts to determine how the 23-35-year-olds perceive social networking sites, by examining the combined use of popular SNS lists, including Facebook, Twitter, Myspace, Instagram, Tumblr, LinkedIn, and Google Plus. Sixty participants, ages 20 to 35, participated in an online study that used open-ended questions to ask how participants described and used different SNSs. To achieve this goal, the research uses a variety of methods that include descriptive/interpretive studies of literature and previous studies by academics and industry institutions. It also uses the quantitative survey taken from participants. The findings of this study suggest that researchers should consider how people use SNS collectively as this affects the decisions people make about which SNS accounts they use and how they present themselves on these sites.

2.
African Renaissance ; 2022(si1):237-237–257, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1836509

ABSTRACT

Although the COVID-19 pandemic, its ensuing lockdowns, and the accelerated rate of pandemic outbreaks in the last six (6) years have resulted in burdening household realities for all. There seems to be an increasing and bruising reality for the feminine role. Therefore, this article examined the extent of the increasing realities, vulnerabilities and burden on women and girls during the COVID-19 pandemic globally. The radical feminist theorisation was found most suitable in analysing some of the experiences women and girls encountered during other epidemics and the COVID-19 pandemic. Using the systematic review of articles on the PubMed and ScienceDirect databases between 2014-2020;findings showed that the COVID-19 and other epidemics outbreaks have heightened the roles of women and girls within and outside households and have resulted in increased economic realities, increased vulnerabilities to infections, increased mortality rates due to conflicts, violence and displacements;the inability of the girl-child to focus on home-schooling via the e-learning platforms as a result of the increased burden of household activities amongst others. These gendered roles and stereotypes accrued to women and girls took another dimension during the COVID-19 outbreak, especially as the world experienced partial and total lockdown. Hence, this study recommended the dire need for community engagement and sensitisation to better educate women and men about possible risk factors and shared responsibility for preventive actions against future pandemics. Finally, data disaggregation on these gender demands and realities in the household is important to create platforms to generate further discussions.

3.
Polska Akademia Nauk. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences ; 69(4), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1836358

ABSTRACT

We analyze the Google-Apple exposure notification mechanism designed by the Apple-Google consortium and deployed on a large number of Corona-warn apps. At the time of designing it, the most important issue was time-to-market and strict compliance with the privacy protection rules of GDPR. This resulted in a plain but elegant scheme with a high level of privacy protection. In this paper we go into details and propose some extensions of the original design addressing practical issues. Firstly, we point to the danger of a malicious cryptographic random number generator (CRNG) and resulting possibility of unrestricted user tracing. We propose an update that enables verification of unlinkability of pseudonymous identifiers directly by the user. Secondly, we show how to solve the problem of verifying the “same household” situation justifying exempts from distancing rules. We present a solution with MIN-sketches based on rolling proximity identifiers from the Apple-Google scheme. Thirdly, we examine the strategies for revealing temporary exposure keys. We have detected some unexpected phenomena regarding the number of keys for unbalanced binary trees of a small size. These observations may be used in case that the size of the lists of diagnosis keys has to be optimized.

4.
Peer Community Journal ; 2(e6), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1836344

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in France has focused a lot of attention as it has had one of the largest death tolls in Europe. It provides an opportunity to examine the effect of the lockdown and of other events on the dynamics of the epidemic. In particular, it has been suggested that municipal elections held just before lockdown was ordered may have helped spread the virus. In this manuscript we use Bayesian models of the number of deaths through time to study the epidemic in 13 regions of France. We found that the models accurately predict the number of deaths 2 to 3 weeks in advance, and recover estimates that are in agreement with recent models that rely on a different structure and different input data. In particular, the lockdown reduced the viral reproduction number by 80%. However, using a mixture model, we found that the lockdown had had different effectiveness depending on the region, and that it had been slightly more effective in decreasing the reproduction number in denser regions. The mixture model predicts that 2.08 (95% CI: 1.85-2.47) million people had been infected by May 11, and that there were 2567 (95% CI: 1781-5182) new infections on May 10. We found no evidence that the reproduction numbers differ between week-ends and week days, and no evidence that the reproduction numbers increased on the election day. Finally, we evaluated counterfactual scenarios showing that ordering the lockdown 1 to 7 days sooner would have resulted in 19% to 76% fewer deaths, but that ordering it 1 to 7 days later would have resulted in 21% to 266% more deaths. Overall, the predictions of the model indicate that holding the elections on March 15 did not have a detectable impact on the total number of deaths, unless it motivated a delay in imposing the lockdown.

5.
Peer Community Journal ; 1(e70), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1836343

ABSTRACT

Estimating the date at which an epidemic started in a country and the date at which it can end depending on interventions intensity are important to guide public health responses. Both are potentially shaped by similar factors including stochasticity (due to small population sizes), superspreading events, and memory effects (the fact that the occurrence of some events, e.g. recovering from an infection, depend on the past, e.g. the number of days since the infection). Focusing on COVID-19 epidemics, we develop and analyse mathematical models to explore how these three factors may affect early and final epidemic dynamics. Regarding the date of origin, we find limited effects on the mean estimates, but strong effects on their variances. Regarding the date of extinction following lockdown onset, mean values decrease with stochasticity or with the presence of superspreading events. These results underline the importance of accounting for heterogeneity in infection history and transmission patterns to accurately capture early and late epidemic dynamics.

6.
Chronic Diseases Journal ; 10(1):13-19, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1836310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) disease had a negative impact on adolescents' physical and psychological health. This study aimed to investigate the association between coronavirus anxiety and self-care with psychological distress among Iranian adolescents during the coronavirus epidemic. METHODS: This was a descriptive-correlational study conducted on 419 Iranian adolescents in March 2021, in which the convenience method was adopted for sampling. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used, which included Corona Disease Anxiety Scale (CDAS), Corona Self-Care Questionnaire (CSCQ), and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). The data were analyzed using the SPSS software and also Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise regression tests. RESULTS: The results showed that there was a significant relationship between coronavirus anxiety (r = 0.279, P < 0.001) and self-care (r = -0.265, P < 0.001) with self-care. The results also indicated that coronavirus anxiety and self-care could predict approximately 17% of the variance in psychological distress (R2 = 0.168;F = 13.55;P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Due to the role of coronavirus anxiety and self-care in predicting the psychological distress among Iranian adolescents during the coronavirus epidemic, it is suggested to design interventions to improve psychological distress.

7.
Journal of Landscape Research ; 14(2):16-24, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1836067

ABSTRACT

From the perspective of COVID-19's prevention and control, to test effectiveness of existing control measures for shopping center buildings, taking Weilaishi Shopping Center of Handan City as an example, Anylogic software is used for analogue simulation of the whole shopping process. According to existing control means of Weilaishi Shopping Center, the model sets three different simulation conditions: "no control state", "restricting entrance and exit opening" and "increasing epidemic prevention distance". The epidemic prevention effects of different control methods are intuitively displayed through the simulated output thermal diagram and the statistical diagram of the number of infected people. The results show that restricting the opening of entrances and exits can reduce the number of infected people by 36%, and increasing the epidemic prevention distance can reduce the number of infected people by 89.8%. Both control methods can play a certain epidemic prevention effect. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Landscape Research is the property of WuChu (USA - China) Science & Culture Media Corporation and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

8.
China Tropical Medicine ; 22(2):171-176, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1835963

ABSTRACT

With the spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus worldwide, mutant strains are constantly emerging. The Delta strain has quickly become the dominant strain because of its powerful transmission, high viral load, and strong pathogenicity. It has brought new challenges to the global epidemic prevention and control, and the effectiveness of the existing vaccines have also been significantly reduced. The single-strand RNA characteristics of the virus mean that the mutation will continue to occur, and how to deal with the prevalence of mutant strains has also become a widespread concern. More stringent protection and control strategies have been developed for Delta strains at home and abroad. At the same time, it has progressed in the research and development of specific drugs and variant vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 virus and its mutant strains, which will provide more references for the future dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 virus and its variant strains. In this paper, we summarized the prevention and control measures of Delta at home and abroad, and reviewed the research progress on the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 virus and its mutant strains, in order to provide a scientific basis for formulating more scientific and perfect prevention and control strategies.

9.
Gates Open Research ; 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1835876

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 may not have the same direct effects on children as it does on older adults, but its indirect effects still pose a threat to child health, by disrupting delivery of routine health services like immunizations. This has happened during previous crises, and early indications point towards similar disruptions due to the coronavirus pandemic. To mitigate this, countries need to build resilient health systems capable of maintaining essential maternal and child health interventions, while also responding to COVID. How can this be accomplished? To find some answers, we can learn from countries in the past who improved health outcomes in the face of challenging circumstances. Specific to child health, countries with positive-outlier performance in reducing under-five mortality provide helpful strategies. These lessons include a clear national plan that drives rapid response, leveraging existing data systems to inform decision-making, engaging communities via community health workers, and focusing on equity. Today, countries around the world are facing the challenge of responding to the pandemic while building resilient health systems that continue to deliver invaluable maternal and child health services. Studying lessons from previous success stories can help inform the road ahead.

10.
Gates Open Research ; 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1835873

ABSTRACT

Similar to previous outbreaks, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic will have both direct and indirect effects on perinatal outcomes, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Limited data on the direct impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during pregnancy shows women who are Black, obese and with co-morbidities are at higher risk of hospitalisation due to COVID-19. Younger age groups in Africa and South Asia have shown increased COVID-19 mortality. Indigenous pregnant women in Pacific Island countries are likely to be high risk for severe outcomes from COVID-19 due to high rates of diabetes and obesity. It is important to involve pregnant women in research, especially with regards to vaccine development and therapeutics.

11.
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering ; 12(3):2900-2910, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1835811

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic has spread massively to almost all countries including Indonesia, in just a few months. An important step to overcoming the spread of the COVID-19 is understanding its epidemiology through mathematical modeling intervention. Knowledge of epidemic dynamics patterns is an important part of making timely decisions and preparing hospitals for the outbreak peak. In this study, we developed the susceptible-infected-recovered-dead (SIRD) model, which incorporates the key epidemiological parameters to model and estimate the long-term spread of the COVID-19. The proposed model formulation is data-based analysis using public COVID-19 data from March 2, 2020 to May 15, 2021. Based on numerical analysis, the spread of the pandemic will begin to fade out after November 5, 2021. As a consequence of this virus attack, the cumulative number of infected, recovered, and dead people were estimated at ≈ 3,200,000, ≈ 3,437,000 and ≈ 63,000 people, respectively. Besides, the key epidemiological parameter indicates that the average reproduction number value of COVID-19 in Indonesia is 7.32. The long-term prediction of COVID-19 in Indonesia and its epidemiology can be well described using the SIRD model. The model can be applied in specific regions or cities in understanding the epidemic pattern of COVID-19.

12.
PeerJ ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1835683

ABSTRACT

Background The continuous spreading of the respiratory coronavirus disease, COVID-19, has been a threat to global health, especially among those fighting directly against it. Nurses who work in critical care have reported very high levels of stress during these extreme circumstances. It is very important to measure the level of stress and resilience among these nurses in order to diminish further psychological distress. This study aims to assess the levels of perceived stress and resilience among critical care nurses. Methodology In this correlational cross-sectional study, critical care nurses (n = 139) were recruited by gatekeepers in a governmental university hospital in Riyadh City between 12 March and 8 April 2021 to complete an online questionnaire. The measurement tools used in this study were the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 10 (CD-RISC-10) and the Perceived Stress Scale of COVID-19 (PSS-10 items). Data were analyzed using a descriptive and inferential analysis to calculate frequencies to determine the distribution of stress and resilience, and multiple regression was applied to assess the relationship between them. Results One hundred and thirty-nine critical care nurse (64%) responded. The perceived levels of stress reported were: no stress (8%;n = 12), mild stress (14%;n = 21), moderate stress (38%;n = 55), high stress (22%;n = 32), and severe stress (18%;n = 26). The levels of resilience reported were: very low (8%;n = 11), low (18%;n = 26), moderate (42%;n = 62), and high (32%;n = 47). The level of stress and resilience reported by the majority of critical care nurses was moderate;there was no significant correlation between COVID-19-related stress and resilience among the critical care nurses. Severe levels of stress were mostly reported among critical care nurses working in the NICU and high levels of stress were reported among those working in the emergency department. The nurses reported being highly confident that they were able to handle personal epidemic related problems with a mean score of 2.36. This reflects having a high level of resilience (42%;n = 62) and was significantly associated with years of experience as a nurse (p < 0.0027). Conclusion Although COVID-19 cases had declined significantly during the study period in Saudi Arabia, the majority of nurses were still experiencing moderate to high levels of stress about the epidemic, but were, at the same time, moderately resilient. Continued monitoring of the stress levels of this high-risk group is highly essential. Conducting more research is needed to measure the effectiveness of psychosocial support interventions.

13.
Chung-Hua Yu Fang i Hsueh Tsa Chih [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine] ; 56(4):401-404, 2022.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834948

ABSTRACT

Despite the fact that our cognition towards infectious disease prevention, the advanced technology and the economic status of the whole society has made a great progress in the last decade, the outbreak of COVID-19 pneumonia has again enabled the public to acquire more about super-challenges of infectious diseases, epidemics and the relevant preventive measurements. In order to identify the epidemic signals in early stage or even before the onset of epidemic, the data research and utilization of a series of factors related to the occurrence and transmission of infectious diseases have played a significant role in research of prevention and control during the whole period of surveillance and early warning. Laboratory-based monitoring for the etiology has always been an important part of infectious disease warning system due to pathogens as the direct cause of such diseases. China has initially established a laboratory-based monitoring and early warning system for bacterial infectious diseases based on the Chinese Pathogen Identification Network with an aim to identify pathogens, outbreaks and sources. This network has played an essential role in early detection, tracking and precise prevention and control of bacterial infectious diseases, such as plague, cholera, and epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis. This issue focuses on the function of laboratory-based monitoring during the period of early warning, prevention, and control of bacterial infectious diseases, and conducted a wide range of researches based on the analysis of the epidemic and outbreak isolates, together with field epidemiological studies and normal monitoring systems. All of these could illustrate the effect of laboratory surveillance in the infectious disease risk assessment and epidemic investigation. At the same time, we have put forward our review and expectation of scenarios about laboratory-based monitoring and early warning technologies to provide innovative thoughts for promoting a leapfrog development of infectious disease monitoring and early warning system in China.

14.
Encyclopedia ; 1(4):1200, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834760

ABSTRACT

DefinitionWhile the precise conceptualization of the term misinformation remains a subject of debate, the current entry defines misinformation as any type of information which is misleading or false, regardless of intent. The COVID-19 pandemic has seen the rapid and widespread sharing of misinformation on a global scale, which has had detrimental effects on containment efforts and public health. This entry offers psychological insights to better our understanding of what makes people susceptible to believing and sharing misinformation and how this can inform interventions aimed at tackling the issue.

15.
Encyclopedia ; 1(2):496, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834748

ABSTRACT

DefinitionDentistry is a healthcare profession requiring close contacts between the dental practitioner and the patient. In particular, many dental procedures generate aerosols and droplets which are proved to be the major transmission route for COVID-19.

16.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10:763490, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834635

ABSTRACT

Aim: Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, China adopted community isolation management measures. During the "lockdown" period, urban communities were the most basic prevention and control unit for the epidemic. The effectiveness of community epidemic prevention directly affects the spread of the virus and social stability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the status quo and influencing factors of psychological distress. Methods: For this study, 1,430 community households were randomly selected in key cities affected by the epidemic, and a questionnaire survey was administered during the lockdown period. A structural equation model was used to analyse the influencing factors of community epidemic prevention effects. A total of 1,326 valid questionnaires were collected, with a valid response rate of 92.73%. Results: In this study, the differences in psychological distress among different community types were statistically significant (t = 58.41, P < 0.01). The results showed that epidemic prevention capability played a mediating role. The results of the high-order structural equation model analysis showed that perceived social support (beta = -0.275, P = 0.000) and community social network (beta = -0.296, P < 0.01) were significantly negatively correlated with psychological distress. Conclusions: Community social support indirectly relieves psychological anxiety and improves the effect of epidemic prevention by enhancing residents' ability to prevent epidemics. The community social network help residents reduce the risk of outbreaks and indirectly alleviate psychological distress.

17.
Regions and Cohesion ; 12(1):25-53, 2022.
Article in French | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834282
18.
Complexity ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1832709

ABSTRACT

The spread of epidemics, especially COVID-19, is having a significant impact on the world. If an epidemic is not properly controlled at the beginning, it is likely to spread rapidly and widely through the coexistence relationship between natural and social systems. A university community is a special, micro-self-organized social system that is densely populated. However, university authorities in such an environment seem to be less cautious in the defence of an epidemic. Currently, there is almost no quantitative research on epidemic spreading and response strategies in universities. In this paper, a case study of a university community is considered for a simulation of an infection evolving after an epidemic outbreak based on the method of system dynamics of the three stages. The results show the following: (1) By improving the speed of the initial emergency response, the total number of patients can be effectively controlled. (2) A quarantine policy helps to slow down the evolution of infection. The higher the isolation ratio, the higher the cost;therefore, the isolation ratio should be optimized. (3) It is important to make emergency plans for controlling epidemic spreading and carry out emergency drills and assessments regularly. According to the results of this study, we suggest an emergency management framework for public health events in university communities.

19.
Complexity ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1832704

ABSTRACT

In this work, we study a stochastic SIS epidemic model with Lévy jumps and nonlinear incidence rates. Firstly, we present our proposed model and its parameters. We establish sufficient conditions for the extinction and persistence of the disease in the population using some stochastic analysis background. We illustrate our theoretical results by numerical simulations. We conclude that the white noise and Lévy jump influence the transmission of the epidemic.

20.
Complexity ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1832678

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we study the dynamics of COVID-19 in the UAE with an extended SEIR epidemic model with vaccination, time-delays, and random noise. The stationary ergodic distribution of positive solutions is examined, in which the solution fluctuates around the equilibrium of the deterministic case, causing the disease to persist stochastically. It is possible to attain infection-free status (extinction) in some situations, in which diseases die out exponentially and with a probability of one. The numerical simulations and fit to real observations prove the effectiveness of the theoretical results. Combining stochastic perturbations with time-delays enhances the dynamics of the model, and white noise intensity is an important part of the treatment of infectious diseases.

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