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1.
Cells ; 11(14)2022 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963754

ABSTRACT

The recent development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has contributed to research into various biological processes. These novel NGS technologies have revealed the involvement of epigenetic memories in trained immunity, which are responses to transient stimulation and result in better responses to secondary challenges. Not only innate system cells, such as macrophages, monocytes, and natural killer cells, but also bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been found to gain memories upon transient stimulation, leading to the enhancement of responses to secondary challenges. Various stimuli, including microbial infection, can induce the epigenetic reprogramming of innate immune cells and HSCs, which can result in an augmented response to secondary stimulation. In this review, we introduce novel NGS technologies and their application to unraveling epigenetic memories that are key in trained immunity and summarize the recent findings in trained immunity. We also discuss our most recent finding regarding epigenetic memory in aged HSCs, which may be associated with the exposure of HSCs to aging-related stresses.


Subject(s)
Epigenesis, Genetic , Immunity, Innate , Epigenomics , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Monocytes
2.
Epigenomes ; 6(2)2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847281

ABSTRACT

Although few in number, studies on epigenome of the heart of COVID-19 patients show that epigenetic signatures such as DNA methylation are significantly altered, leading to changes in expression of several genes. It contributes to pathogenic cardiac phenotypes of COVID-19, e.g., low heart rate, myocardial edema, and myofibrillar disarray. DNA methylation studies reveal changes which likely contribute to cardiac disease through unknown mechanisms. The incidence of severe COVID-19 disease, including hospitalization, requiring respiratory support, morbidity, and mortality, is disproportionately higher in individuals with co-morbidities. This poses unprecedented strains on the global healthcare system. While their underlying conditions make patients more susceptible to severe COVID-19 disease, strained healthcare systems, lack of adequate support, or sedentary lifestyles from ongoing lockdowns have proved detrimental to their underlying health conditions, thus pushing them to severe risk of congenital heart disease (CHD) itself. Prophylactic vaccines against COVID-19 have ushered new hope for CHD. A common connection between COVID-19 and CHD is SARS-CoV-2's host receptor ACE2, because ACE2 regulates and protects organs, including the heart, in various ways. ACE2 is a common therapeutic target against cardiovascular disease and COVID-19 which damages organs. Hence, this review explores the above regarding CHDs, cardiovascular damage, and cardiac epigenetics, in COVID-19 patients.

3.
Cell ; 184(15): 3915-3935.e21, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283262

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence indicates a fundamental role for the epigenome in immunity. Here, we mapped the epigenomic and transcriptional landscape of immunity to influenza vaccination in humans at the single-cell level. Vaccination against seasonal influenza induced persistently diminished H3K27ac in monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), which was associated with impaired cytokine responses to Toll-like receptor stimulation. Single-cell ATAC-seq analysis revealed an epigenomically distinct subcluster of monocytes with reduced chromatin accessibility at AP-1-targeted loci after vaccination. Similar effects were observed in response to vaccination with the AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 pandemic influenza vaccine. However, this vaccine also stimulated persistently increased chromatin accessibility at interferon response factor (IRF) loci in monocytes and mDCs. This was associated with elevated expression of antiviral genes and heightened resistance to the unrelated Zika and Dengue viruses. These results demonstrate that vaccination stimulates persistent epigenomic remodeling of the innate immune system and reveal AS03's potential as an epigenetic adjuvant.


Subject(s)
Epigenomics , Immunity/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcription, Genetic , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antigens, CD34/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cellular Reprogramming , Chromatin/metabolism , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Drug Combinations , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Male , Myeloid Cells/metabolism , Polysorbates/pharmacology , Squalene/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism , Transcription Factor AP-1/metabolism , Transcriptome/genetics , Young Adult , alpha-Tocopherol/pharmacology
4.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-71940

ABSTRACT

The biologically active form of vitamin D3, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), modulates innate and adaptive immunity via genes regulated by the transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR). In order to identify the key vitamin D target genes involved in these processes, transcriptome-wide datasets were compared, which were obtained from a human monocytic cell line (THP-1) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) treated in vitro by 1,25(OH)2D3, filtered using different approaches, as well as from PBMCs of individuals supplemented with a vitamin D3 bolus. The led to the genes ACVRL1, CAMP, CD14, CD93, CEBPB, FN1, MAPK13, NINJ1, LILRB4, LRRC25, SEMA6B, SRGN, THBD, THEMIS2 and TREM1. Public epigenome- and transcriptome-wide data from THP-1 cells were used to characterize these genes based on the level of their VDR-driven enhancers as well as the level of the dynamics of their mRNA production. Both types of datasets allowed the categorization of the vitamin D target genes into three groups according to their role in (i) acute response to infection, (ii) infection in general and (iii) autoimmunity. In conclusion, 15 genes were identified as major mediators of the action of vitamin D in innate and adaptive immunity and their individual functions are explained based on different gene regulatory scenarios.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Receptors, Calcitriol/physiology , Vitamin D/genetics , Vitamin D/immunology , Activin Receptors, Type II , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides , Autoimmunity/genetics , Autoimmunity/immunology , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta , Datasets as Topic , Fibronectins , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors , Membrane Glycoproteins , Receptors, Complement , THP-1 Cells/immunology , Transcriptome
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