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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1):361, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1840965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the advancement of information technology, teachers have become able to overcome the limitations of time and room capacity by carrying out teaching activities online. This practice, however, also presents new challenges. The present study explores how to fully capitalize on the advantages of online and offline teaching and improve the quality and impact of the teaching delivered. This article presents an analysis of the planning, implementation, evaluation, and reflection process of reforming the Fujian Medical University (FJMU) medical ethics course. METHODS: After early attempts using the Small Private Online Course (SPOC) and flipped classroom formats, this paper focuses on the comprehensive active implementation of blended teaching practice. In terms of teaching practice, this research makes targeted improvements to overcome the known shortcomings of SPOCs and flipped classrooms, including the significant preparatory workload and lacking enthusiasm for classroom participation, by redesigning the course and evaluation method and changing the role of the teacher in blended teaching. Subsequently, the study used a stratified sampling method to select 20 students enrolled in the clinical medicine course at Fujian Medical University (FJMU). Their course experience was investigated using a semi-structured interview. Interview content related to evaluating teaching effect was extracted and encoded for subsequent qualitative analysis. RESULTS: A qualitative analysis of the student evaluation of blended teaching as implemented on the medical ethics course showed that the main factors influencing student engagement are the method of assigning tasks and that of testing learning outcomes. Student participation in class is influenced by the richness of the curriculum resources available and the role played by the teacher. CONCLUSION: This research presents a discussion of blended teaching and suggests improvements that can be made to address low student engagement and poor classroom participation. This round of blended teaching was shown to improve learning autonomy and classroom participation and to support students in the development of their clinical abilities and higher-order thinking skills. These findings provide a reference for the implementation of online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
IEEE Access ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1840232

ABSTRACT

The field of artificial intelligence has gained a significant attention in the media. Some counties claim to be the leaders in the field, other countries claim to be winning in the race for leadership in artificial intelligence. This article conducts a statistical (i.e., bibliometric) analysis of research data records on artificial intelligence by year, country, language, and organisation. The results are clearly in favour of the USA on a national level, and English is clearly the dominant language for disseminating results. But in terms of leading organisation in the field of artificial intelligence creates more confusing result -between the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the University of California -in the leadership race. Author

3.
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes ; 14(3):210-220, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1840226

ABSTRACT

Purpose>Employees in the hospitality industry have to adapt to a fast-paced and rapidly changing environment. Furthermore, employees must be able to handle a high volume of work and be willing to work long hours. In this context, the question is how can people work and cope with the pressures of hospitality businesses and at the same time, improve their QoL?Design/methodology/approach>Outlines the various theories of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and reviews the meaning of the term quality of life (QoL). Thereafter, the article analyses three examples of hospitality companies (Radisson, Scandic and Peninsula Hotels) that have implemented CSR practices and the extent to which they align with the dimensions of QoL.Findings>Concludes that well-conceived, multidimensional corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies, combined with transparent reporting tend to enhance employee job satisfaction and quality of work life (QWL). It draws on the literature and case study examples from three companies with a reputation for sustainable thinking and practice.Originality/value>Currently the links between CSR, QWL and QoL are not well understood, nor the role of CSR initiatives in achieving QoL outcomes and so the paper adds value by providing an explanation of QoL, CSR linked to case study examples.

4.
European Journal of Training and Development ; 46(3/4):281-284, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1840140

ABSTRACT

[...]the core concerns of human resource development (HRD) – organisation, training and career development – must be given renewed consideration in order to build up organisational, group and individual aptitude during challenging times. [...]this special issue aims to provide insights on several relevant issues and recommendations for HRD practice on how to address opportunities and challenges of HRD in today’s dynamic and complex environment. Organisations are increasingly dependent on knowledge workers as they compete through their employees’ know-how. Since knowledge becomes a prominent source for organisational competitive advantage in an uncertain environment, organisations should create a supportive culture for knowledge sharing.

5.
The New England Journal of Medicine ; 386(19):1777-1779, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1839613

ABSTRACT

UnmuteEarly in the Covid pandemic, the lead staffer on a state ventilator allocation committee follows the group’s virtual deliberations, while attending to the constant needs of her children and trying to avert exposure from her husband who’s caring for patients in the ICU.

6.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-336098

ABSTRACT

The research paper focuses on the evidence based on preliminary study conducted on how the COVID-19 outbreak might affect the evolution of business obligations to discharge the activities which could uplift the society and marketing. Ironically, it is true that the pandemic has provided an excellent opportunity for corporations to redirect their focus points and to comprehend the newer dimension of customer’s ethical decision-making process. This outbreak has a significant impact on marketing and magnifies the approach towards the strategic marketing efforts drawn by firms as opposed to content marketing. We conclude the study by outlining a number of research issues and areas that have the potential to be productive.

8.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):5620, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837996

ABSTRACT

Nine Ski mountaineering (Ski-Mo), ten Nordic-Cross Country (NCC) and twelve world elite biathlon (Bia) athletes were evaluated for cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) performance as the primary aim of our descriptive preliminary report. A multicenter retrospective analysis of CPET data was performed in 31 elite winter sports athletes, which were obtained in 2021 during the annual medical examination. The matched data of the elite winter sports athletes (14 women, 17 male athletes, age: 18–32 years) were compared for different CPET parameters, and athlete’s physique data and sport-specific training schedules. All athletes showed, as estimated in elite winter sport athletes, excellent performance data in the CPET analyses. Significant differences were revealed for VE VT2 (respiratory minute volume at the second ventilatory threshold (VT2)), highest maximum respiratory minute volume (VEmaximum), the indexed ventilatory oxygen uptake (VO2) at VT2 (VO2/kg VT2), the oxygen pulse at VT2, and the maximum oxygen pulse level between the three professional winter sports disciplines. This report provides new evidence that in different world elite winter sport professionals, significant differences in CPET parameters can be demonstrated, against the background of athlete’s physique as well as training control and frequency.

9.
Applied Sciences ; 12(9):4459, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837579

ABSTRACT

The lack of justification of the results obtained by artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms has limited their usage in the medical context. To increase the explainability of the existing AI methods, explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) is proposed. We performed a systematic literature review, based on the guidelines proposed by Kitchenham and Charters, of studies that applied XAI methods in X-ray-image-related tasks. We identified 141 studies relevant to the objective of this research from five different databases. For each of these studies, we assessed the quality and then analyzed them according to a specific set of research questions. We determined two primary purposes for X-ray images: the detection of bone diseases and lung diseases. We found that most of the AI methods used were based on a CNN. We identified the different techniques to increase the explainability of the models and grouped them depending on the kind of explainability obtained. We found that most of the articles did not evaluate the quality of the explainability obtained, causing problems of confidence in the explanation. Finally, we identified the current challenges and future directions of this subject and provide guidelines to practitioners and researchers to improve the limitations and the weaknesses that we detected.

10.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):5414, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837435

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigate the relationship between ethical leadership (EL), work engagement (WE), well-being, and innovative work behavior (IWB). The significance of these variables has increased in the current era when the influence of technology is exponentially increasing in the education sector. We investigate the role of ethical leadership in determining innovative work behavior. Moreover, we investigate the moderating effect of WB in the relationship between EL and WE. We also examine the mediating impact of WE in the relationship between EL and IWB. We used a questionnaire survey approach to collect data. The target population of this study was the academic personnel, i.e., senior professors, lecturers, and supporting staff associated with the higher education sector located in Zhejiang Province, China. Data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, we sent 300 research questionnaires and received 251 responses. In the second phase, after a three-month interval, we sent 200 questionnaires and received 162 responses. However, over the two phases, we collected a total of 413 questionnaires;43 were discarded. Therefore, for analysis, we used 370 questionnaires. The data were analyzed using the structural equation modeling through SmartPLS 3.2.2. First, in the direct relationship, results confirm that EL positively influences the IWB. Secondly, WB has a positive and moderating relationship between EL and IWB. Thirdly, we address the relationship between EL and WE. The outcome indicates that there is a positive and significant relationship. Fourth, the results of this study indicate that there is positive and significant relationship between WE and IWB. Finally, the outcomes imply that WE positively mediates between EL and IWB. Ethical leadership and well-being are important for innovative work behavior that supports managers in introducing a supportive workplace environment that promotes good interpersonal relationships with subordinates. Therefore, a good interpersonal relationship between managers and subordinates enhances the work quality. So, ethical leaders provide a supportive work environment to all subordinates regarding their work.

11.
Animals ; 12(9):1173, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837399

ABSTRACT

Simple SummaryThe use of animals in research has been the subject of significant public debate and concern. Some argue that animal experiments are essential to medical progress, while others believe that this practice is unethical and does not produce results that can be reliably translated to people. A growing range of modern techniques can replace the use of animals and provide results that are more relevant to human patients. These include the use of human cells and tissues, and computer-based methods. Our work aimed to explore the societal benefits of accelerating the replacement of animals with these new research methods. We found that this approach would benefit animal welfare, public health and the economy. We also found that the British public is generally in favor of efforts to replace animals, and that focusing on this area would help to support the British Government’s policy and economic goals. We suggest that the British Government could greatly expedite the replacement of animal experiments by appointing a new minister to take responsibility for this transition.In the context of widespread public and political concern around the use of animals in research, we sought to examine the scientific, ethical and economic arguments around the replacement of animals with New Approach Methodologies (NAMs) and to situate this within a regulatory context. We also analyzed the extent to which animal replacement aligns with British public and policymakers’ priorities and explored global progress towards this outcome. The global context is especially relevant given the international nature of regulatory guidance on the safety testing of new medicines. We used a range of evidence to analyze this area, including scientific papers;expert economic analysis;public opinion polls and the Hansard of the UK Parliament. We found evidence indicating that replacing animals with NAMs would benefit animal welfare, public health and the economy. The majority of the British public is in favor of efforts to replace animals and focusing on this area would help to support the British Government’s current policy priorities. We believe that this evidence underlines the need for strong action from policymakers to accelerate the transition from animal experiments to NAMs. The specific measure we suggest is to introduce a new ministerial position to coordinate and accelerate the replacement of animals with NAMs.

12.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):4972, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837279

ABSTRACT

The entire tourism and hospitality industry has witnessed a considerable increase in the number of ethical difficulties that occur in the workplace. It has been discovered that unethical organizational behavior (UOB) is the most significant category in tourists’ unpleasant experiences, driving them to switch and spread unfavorable word-of-mouth information. This study aims to explore the effects of three contextual factors on UOB (i.e., work intensification, job insecurity, and an unethical company-profit climate) and to investigate its possible employee-related consequences, including the feeling of guilt, emotional exhaustion, and customer-oriented citizenship behavior. A total of 970 employees working in hotels (5-star and 4-star) and travel agencies (Category A) participated, and the obtained data were analyzed by structural equation modeling. The results asserted that work intensification, job insecurity, and an unethical company-profit climate stimulate unethical organizational behavior, and unethical organizational behavior leads to feelings of guilt, emotional exhaustion, and customer-oriented citizenship behavior. Significant insights into theoretical and practical implications were further discussed.

13.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):5172, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837070

ABSTRACT

Background: The relevance of growth determination in orthodontics is driving the search for the most precise and least invasive way of tracking the pubertal growth spurt. Objectives: The aim was to explore whether minimally invasive salivary estimation of biomarkers Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) could be used to estimate skeletal maturity with diagnostic accuracy, especially in children and adolescent age groups. Subjects and methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted on 105 participants aged 6–25 years from the out-patient Department of Preventive Dental Science at Majmaah University between the period 2 January 2021 and 12 July 2021. Each subject’s lateral cephalogram radiograph was categorized based on skeletal maturity, and saliva samples were estimated for IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 using the respective ELISA kits. Two-way ANOVA with interaction was applied to examine the main effects due to cervical vertebral maturation staging (CVS), Sex and interaction effect due to CVS, and Sex on study parameters. Karl Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was calculated for finding a significant association between IGF, IGFBP3, and the IGF-1/IGFBP3 molar ratio. Results: Highest mean salivary IGF-1 was observed in the pubertal peak stage, which coincides with cervical vertebral maturity stages 3 and 4 (CVS3 and CVS4) for both males (2.57 ng/mL) and females (1.57 ng/mL) and the lowest mean level of IGF-1 for females (0.85 ng/mL) and males (1.22 ng/mL) was observed during the prepubertal stage. There exists a significant variation in IGF-1 between males and females in the pubertal stage (p < 0.01), but the difference is very narrow in the prepubertal and post-pubertal groups (p > 0.05). There was no significant interaction effect of different skeletal stages and gender on the IGFBP3 and the IGF-1/IGFBP3 molar ratio (p > 0.05), but there exists a significant interaction effect on IGF-1 (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Estimation of the IGF-1 and the IGF-1/IGFBP3 molar ratio in saliva, being a non-invasive biological marker, could serve as an adjunctive tool along with radiographic assessment in estimating growth maturity in the adolescence age group. By initiating orthodontic treatment during the mandibular growth peak in adolescence, a positive outcome is ensured in managing skeletal deformities within the craniofacial complex.

14.
Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research ; 38(2):75-85, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1837060

ABSTRACT

Background: Amongst all other educational institutions, medical schools suffered the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. Medical education requires a great deal of interaction between instructors and students, and in the final years, patients as well. In response to the pandemic, the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences at the Arabian Gulf University has applied virtual teaching/ learning since March 2020 as an alternative to face-to-face teaching. The college used Moodle and Zoom as online methods for education. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual medical education by comparing students' performance in final exams in face-to-face and virtual settings.

15.
International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education ; 37(1):1-30, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1836720

ABSTRACT

Résumé: Cet article a cherché à déterminer dans quelle mesure les droits légitimes des utilisateurs sont sauvegardés dans les plateformes de gestion de l'apprentissage (LMS) et, plus précisément, dans la plateforme Blackboard utilisée pour l'enseignement à l'Université Sorbonne, Abu Dhabi (SUAD). Tout d'abord, les droits légitimes des utilisateurs qui doivent être protégés ont été identifiés. Ensuite, les garanties de sécurité et de confidentialité offertes par Blackboard ont été évaluées. Enfin, les lacunes politiques et les déficiences technologiques qui compromettent la protection des droits légitimes des utilisateurs ont été identifiées. L'étude a été réalisée selon une approche qualitative d'étude de cas. Les données ont été recueillies par le biais d'une analyse de contenu, d'un examen des documents et d'entretiens. La recherche a révélé que, dans une large mesure, la plateforme Blackboard protège la plupart des droits légitimes des utilisateurs. Cependant, la plateforme ne donne pas d'indication concernant certains droits légitimes, tels que la limitation du stockage et les accords de partage des données. En outre, des informations ont révélé que les pratiques de Blackboard en matière de confidentialité sont largement influencées par les établissements d'enseignement qui utilisent ses produits. L'étude a conclu que la sauvegarde des droits légitimes des utilisateurs est une responsabilité collective entre les fournisseurs de services de gestion de l'apprentissage et les établissements d'enseignement. Il est donc nécessaire que les établissements d'enseignement qui utilisent Blackboard et d'autres plateformes de gestion de l'apprentissage élaborent de solides régimes de protection des données.Alternate :This paper sought to establish the extent to which users' legitimate rights are safeguarded in Learning Management Systems (LMS);specifically, on the Blackboard system used for teaching at Sorbonne University, Abu Dhabi (SUAD). First, the users' legitimate rights that required protection were identified. Second, the security and privacy guarantees afforded by Blackboard were assessed. Finally, policy gaps and technological deficiencies that undermine the protection of users' legitimate rights were identified. The study adopted a qualitative research approach and a case study research design. Data was collected through content analysis, document review and interviews. The research revealed that to a large extent the Blackboard LMS safeguarded most of the users' legitimate rights. However, the system is silent on some legitimate rights, such as storage limitation and data sharing arrangements. Further, information emerged that revealed Blackboard's privacy practices are largely informed by educational institutions using its products. The study concluded that safeguarding user's legitimate rights is a collective responsibility between the learning management services providers and the educational institutions. As such, there is need for educational institutions using Blackboard and other learning management systems to craft robust data protection regimes.

16.
Turkish Journal of Public Health ; 20(1):138-151, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1836211

ABSTRACT

Objective: Examining websites is critical to combat infodemia at the central of the COVID-19 response. It is aimed to examine the information circulating in digital media about the 10 myth subjects tackled in the COVID-19 pandemic within the spectrum of information irregularity.

17.
Gates Open Research ; 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1835895

ABSTRACT

Background: A potential explanation for the fact that the high rate of infection of SARS-CoV-2 in South Africa did not translate into high rates of severe illness and death may be the presence of cross-reactive immunity induced by common cold coronaviruses (CCoV). Methods: We used SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools and whole virus antigen to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected pre-2020 from South African women. Dual-colour FluoroSpot assay was used to measure interferon gamma (IFNγ) and interleukin 2 (IL2) production. Results: Among the 97 study participants, IFNγ responses were observed in 29.9% of the women and IL2 among 39.2%. Overall, 51.6% of women demonstrated response to at least one stimulant. Conclusion: We demonstrate the presence of cross-reactive immunity to SARS-CoV-2, which might have been induced by past exposure to CCoV.

18.
Gates Open Research ; 5, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1835890

ABSTRACT

Background: There remains a need for an effective and affordable outpatient treatment for early COVID-19. Multiple repurposed drugs have shown promise in treating COVID-19. We describe a master protocol that will assess the efficacy of different repurposed drugs as treatments for early COVID-19 among outpatients at a high risk for severe complications. Methods: The TOGETHER Trial is a multi-center platform adaptive randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Patients are included if they are at least 18 years of age, have a positive antigen test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and have an indication for high risk of disease severity, including co-morbidities, older age, or high body mass index. Eligible patients are randomized with equal chance to an investigational product (IP) or to placebo.The primary endpoint is hospitalization defined as either retention in a COVID-19 emergency setting for greater than 6 hours or transfer to tertiary hospital due to COVID-19. Secondary outcomes include mortality, adverse events, adherence, and viral clearance. Scheduled interim analyses are conducted and reviewed by the Data and Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC), who make recommendations on continuing or stopping each IP. The platform adaptive design go-no-go decision rules are extended to dynamically incorporate external evidence on COVID-19 interventions from ongoing independent randomized clinical trials. Discussion: Results from this trial will assist in the identification of therapeutics for the treatment of early diagnosed COVID-19. The novel methodological extension of the platform adaptive design to dynamically incorporate external evidence is one of the first of its kind and may provide highly valuable information for all COVID-19 trials going forward. Clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT04727424 (27/01/2021)

19.
Nursing Standard ; 36(8):19-20, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1835704

ABSTRACT

The pandemic has revealed serious shortcomings in countries’ healthcare systems, with many in danger of being overrun with patients who have COVID-19.

20.
PeerJ ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1835683

ABSTRACT

Background The continuous spreading of the respiratory coronavirus disease, COVID-19, has been a threat to global health, especially among those fighting directly against it. Nurses who work in critical care have reported very high levels of stress during these extreme circumstances. It is very important to measure the level of stress and resilience among these nurses in order to diminish further psychological distress. This study aims to assess the levels of perceived stress and resilience among critical care nurses. Methodology In this correlational cross-sectional study, critical care nurses (n = 139) were recruited by gatekeepers in a governmental university hospital in Riyadh City between 12 March and 8 April 2021 to complete an online questionnaire. The measurement tools used in this study were the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 10 (CD-RISC-10) and the Perceived Stress Scale of COVID-19 (PSS-10 items). Data were analyzed using a descriptive and inferential analysis to calculate frequencies to determine the distribution of stress and resilience, and multiple regression was applied to assess the relationship between them. Results One hundred and thirty-nine critical care nurse (64%) responded. The perceived levels of stress reported were: no stress (8%;n = 12), mild stress (14%;n = 21), moderate stress (38%;n = 55), high stress (22%;n = 32), and severe stress (18%;n = 26). The levels of resilience reported were: very low (8%;n = 11), low (18%;n = 26), moderate (42%;n = 62), and high (32%;n = 47). The level of stress and resilience reported by the majority of critical care nurses was moderate;there was no significant correlation between COVID-19-related stress and resilience among the critical care nurses. Severe levels of stress were mostly reported among critical care nurses working in the NICU and high levels of stress were reported among those working in the emergency department. The nurses reported being highly confident that they were able to handle personal epidemic related problems with a mean score of 2.36. This reflects having a high level of resilience (42%;n = 62) and was significantly associated with years of experience as a nurse (p < 0.0027). Conclusion Although COVID-19 cases had declined significantly during the study period in Saudi Arabia, the majority of nurses were still experiencing moderate to high levels of stress about the epidemic, but were, at the same time, moderately resilient. Continued monitoring of the stress levels of this high-risk group is highly essential. Conducting more research is needed to measure the effectiveness of psychosocial support interventions.

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