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2.
Health Equity ; 6(1):696-707, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2037362

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Bereavement and grief are social phenomena influenced by a multitude of cultural factors. Prior studies of bereavement adjustment have primarily focused on bereaved survivors who identify racially as white;knowledge of the experience of grief and bereavement among racial/ethnic and other minority groups, particularly among Latino/a groups, in the United States is limited. Objective: The purpose of this review is to synthesize the literature documenting the bereavement experiences of the Latino/a community, evaluate the strength of the current evidence, and provide recommendations to guide future research. Method: A narrative review of research on grief and bereavement in the Latino/a community published between 1990 and 2021. Two authors used a thematic, deductive approach to categorize emergent prevalent themes from the literature and used The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) and The Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine—Evidence Quality Rating Scale (OCEBM) approaches to evaluate the strength of the qualitative and quantitative reports reviewed. Results: Searches revealed 26 reports that were categorized into six themes: cultural values, mourning rituals, immigration, spirituality, disparities related to the COVID-19 pandemic, and the effects of COVID-19 on Latino/a communities. Our evaluation concludes that the evidence in this area is weak, with limited methodologically rigorous research examining the influence of culture on bereavement among Latino/a groups. Conclusion: Research is needed to identify Latino/a groups' mental health, cultural, social, and family needs and how fulfillment of mourning rituals and other cultural factors may promote or impede bereavement adjustment. Investigation into factors that may protect bereaved survivors against adverse mental health outcomes is also needed. A better understanding of Latino/a grief and bereavement is a step toward the development of culturally competent interventions designed to promote the mental health and psychosocial adjustment of Latino/a mourners.

3.
Journal of Clinical and Translational Science ; 6(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2036661

ABSTRACT

Introduction:Social unrest tied to racism negatively impacted half of NIH-funded extramural researchers underrepresented (UR) in science. UR early-career scientists encounter more challenges in their research careers, but the impact of social unrest due to systemic racism in this group is unclear. We used mixed methods to describe the impact of social unrest due to systemic racism on mentoring relationships, research, and psychological well-being in UR post-doctoral fellows and early-career faculty.Methods:This is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in September 2021–January 2022 from 144 UR early-career researchers from 25 academic medical centers in the Building Up Trial. The primary outcomes were agreement on five-point Likert scales with social unrest impact statements (e.g., “I experienced psychological distress due to events of social unrest regarding systemic racism”). Thematic analysis was conducted on responses to one open-ended question assessing how social unrest regarding systemic racism affected participants.Results:Most participants were female (80%), non-Hispanic Black (35%), or Hispanic (40%). Over half of participants (57%) experienced psychological distress as a result of social unrest due to systemic racism. Participants described direct and indirect discrimination and isolation from other persons of color at their institutions. Twice as many participants felt their mentoring relationships were positively (21%) versus negatively (11%) impacted by social unrest due to systemic racism.Conclusions:Experiences with racial bias and discrimination impact the career and well-being of UR early-career researchers. Mentoring relationships and institutional support play an important role in buffering the negative impact of racial injustice for this population.

4.
The Lancet ; 400(10357):993-995, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2036630

ABSTRACT

Previous UK data have reported on inequalities of COVID-19 vaccination coverage, with considerably lower uptake among some groups.4 Notably, although increasing age and presence of comorbidities are among the most widely recognised risk factors for COVID-19 mortality,5–7 people with a substantial number of comorbidities remained at increased risk of being unvaccinated. The limitations of our approach include a lack of ethnicity data, which are important because variations in vaccine uptake among different ethnic groups are known.8 Additionally, although our approach minimises false inflation of the number of unvaccinated people, some of these individuals will have had no recent interaction with the health-care system and so will remain undetected. The funding source had no involvement in data collection, study design, data analysis, interpretation of findings, or the decision to publish this Correspondence.

5.
Annals of Emergency Medicine ; 78(4 Suppl):S161-S162, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2035743

ABSTRACT

Study Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated that social determinants of health (SDOH) are profoundly linked to the spread and outcomes of COVID-19. However, the relationships between these SDOH and COVID-19 spatial outbreaks have yet to be determined. We conducted spatial analyses with geographic information systems (GIS) mapping of county-level SDOH and regional COVID-19 infection outbreaks to demonstrate the most impactful SDOH and to provide a pragmatic visual guide to prevent future outbreaks.

6.
Annals of Emergency Medicine ; 78(4 Suppl):S147-S148, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2035740

ABSTRACT

Study Objective: As a consequence of the opioid epidemic, overall Hepatitis C (HCV) infections have increased in the United States. HCV mortality now surpasses more than 60 other infections (eg, HIV, and TB). The CDC now recommends universal HCV screening, for all adults aged =18 years. Several reports highlight the success of large urban EDs to provide screening and linkage to care for HCV but the ability to utilize rural EDs has not been explored. Our objective was to highlight results of an electronic health record (EHR) driven "opt-out," universal HCV screening program in a small rural community ED that serves the economically disadvantaged, rural/mountainous area of SC, including parts of Appalachia.

7.
Annals of Emergency Medicine ; 78(4 Suppl):S81-S81, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2035718

ABSTRACT

Study Objective: The duration of unsuccessful resuscitation attempts in the emergency department (ED) following out-of- hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) may be influenced by many factors. Factors known to be associated with a decreased likelihood of survival may influence providers to consider resuscitative efforts futile sooner, and may include: whether the arrest was witnessed, if bystander CPR was performed, duration of CPR in the pre-hospital setting, and the presence of a shockable rhythm. More subtle, and potentially sub-conscious factors may also influence the duration of unsuccessful resuscitation efforts, as well. We sought to determine if there is an association between patient race, ethnicity, or sex and the duration of unsuccessful resuscitative efforts performed in the emergency department following OHCA.

8.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(10):1368-1369, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2033857

ABSTRACT

In AJPH and elsewhere, a steady stream of research articles, blogs, and opinion pieces have been published supporting the expansion of the community health worker (CHW) workforce.1 As frontline public health workers, CHWs have played an important role in COVID-19 response and prevention.2 Moreover, there is ever-increasing evidence of their effectiveness in promoting access to primary and preventive care, building bridges between communities and health care systems, and improving health outcomes for chronic conditions, particularly in underserved communities.3 Workforce growth is predicated upon sustainable, dedicated financing mechanisms. In the United States, CHW employment often relies on grants and other short-term resources.1,4 Long-term flexible funding models are important for both workforce development and program continuity.5 Medicaid coverage for CHW services has been identified as a potential solution for the constraints to CHW program sustainability.4 Similarly, occupational certification for CHWs provides a pathway for career development and higher earning potential while encouraging workforce growth and integration.6 Although Medicaid coverage and certification are commonly touted as enablers of workforce growth, we actually know very little about how these two policies affect the CHW labor force. Jones et al. state that low wages are the main predictor of resignations among frontline health workers, but they did not examine how wages affect turnover. Because of data limitations, turnover in this study was narrowly defined as leaving the CHW workforce altogether;job transitions within the field were not captured.

9.
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental ; 62(2):260-265, 2022.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033757

ABSTRACT

The response to vaccination is not only a health problem and its epidemiological characterization cannot only respond to an exclusively biomedical perspective but also to social, educational and economic scopes with deep cultural roots. The objective of this study was to know the attitudes and beliefs in four indigenous communities of the Cotopaxi province, regarding the vaccination process. The results of the sampled were stratified in order to explore whether indigenous communities with a higher educational level or greater attendance at educational talks on vaccination differed from others in terms of their attitudes and erroneous beliefs about this process. The Zq1 community proved to be the one with the lowest educational level, the lowest percentage of attendance at educational talks and had the highest percentage of acceptance of vaccination (75.0%). The median rate of erroneous beliefs was higher for beliefs such as "Vaccines are not safe" (Aq3, Cq4: 9.4 +or- 1.1, Gq2: 9.3 +or- 1.2, Zq1: 8.8 +or- 1.3) and "Vaccines have a hidden purpose" (Aq3: 8.6 +or- 1.5, Cq4: 8.7 +or- 1.4, Gq2: 9.0 +or- 1.3, Zq1: 8.4 +or- 1, 8).

10.
The International Journal of Organizational Diversity ; 22(2):1-20, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2030489

ABSTRACT

This paper captures the current critical moment in journalism’s history, in which racialized and Indigenous journalists are forcing an unprecedented “reckoning” of the systemic racism enshrined in the ethical canon and normative structure of the fourth estate. It comes as the police killing of George Floyd has triggered a global Black Lives Matter movement demanding justice for people of color;when the COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately ravaged Black, Latino, and Indigenous communities;at a time of profound distrust of mainstream news media;and in an era when news organizations stare down the additional crisis of economic sustainability exacerbated by the pandemic. Racialized journalists have called out their own employers and industry for news content that lacks context, plays to stereotypes, and all too often fails to grasp the lived experiences of non-white people in society. They have pointed out the hypocrisy of journalism’s central ethics—objectivity, balance, public service—that have always privileged white voices over other perspectives. They describe a work environment that fails to take into account their value as journalists, and their insights as First Peoples, or people of color. These are the findings of a content analysis of the op-eds, columns, social media posts, podcasts, and other published media accounts by Indigenous and racialized journalists in the United States and Canada in the six months following George Floyd’s death. This study takes their experiences, concerns, and calls for reform and puts them in the context of previous research on diversity and inclusion in journalism, demonstrating how journalistic practice and ethics are deeply entrenched in white dominance.

11.
Pediatric Annals ; 51(9):e370-e372, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2030117

ABSTRACT

The obesity epidemic remains a major public health issue worldwide, and it is pronounced in the United States. As rates of obesity continue to increase, children now experience obesity at younger ages, which predisposes them to early-onset obesity-related diseases. Of note, Black and Hispanic children experience obesity at higher rates compared with their White counterparts. Although there are many factors that contribute to higher rates of obesity, the increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is one such contributor. Despite the dire state of obesity in these populations, sugar-sweetened beverage companies continue to increase their advertisements to Black and Hispanic children, which can negatively influence the childhood obesity epidemic. This article discusses the effect that sugar-sweetened beverages and their advertisements have on children in underrepresented communities. [Pediatr Ann. 2022;51(9):e370–e372.]

12.
Interactions ; 29(5):63, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2029552

ABSTRACT

The community of Jane and Finch (also known as Black Creek) is a high-density, multicultural, low-income neighborhood in northwest Toronto, Ontario. Home to people from more than 70 countries, with 100 languages spoken, the area has been described as having more immigrants, more single-parent households, higher rates of unemployment, a higher percentage of the population without a high school diploma, and higher rates of low-income families than the rest of Toronto. The Toronto City Summit Alliance's Strong Neighbourhoods Task Force identified the Jane and Finch neighborhood as one of 13 priority neighborhoods in the city.

13.
Science Scope ; 45(4):36-42, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2026945

ABSTRACT

In teams, students made presentations to the various groups explaining why they wanted to attend the EY program and how they might benefit from such an experience. Because of the school district's high Native American population, students also made a presentation to the Intertribal Council. [...]when COVID vaccinations became available and travel bans were lifted, the Bluejacket school board invited me to serve as their group's Yellowstone education field guide. Because I frequent Yellowstone, teach a Yellowstone Science for Educators college course, and even conducted my sabbatical in Yellowstone with the EY program, I felt qualified to lead the group. While I could not mirror the EY education program, I could provide Team Bluejacket with their own personal Yellowstone place-based learning experience. Because we were not participating in the EY program, we did not stay in the designated EY Buffalo Ranch cabins. Day 1 As the itinerary reveals, we visited multiple places each day (see Yellowstone Place-Based Travel Itinerary in Supplemental Materials);however, this article highlights only some of the science learning adventures. Because team Bluejacket entered Yellowstone from the south entrance, our first stop was to the Upper Geyser Basin, which contains the largest concentration of hot springs in the world, and we arrived just in time to see the eruption of Old Faithful Geyser.

14.
Practice Nursing ; 33(9):380-382, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2025630

ABSTRACT

Optimisation of hypertension identification and treatment is key to reducing health inequalities. Kate Phillips and Luke Evans highlight the role practice nurses can play in implementing the national Blood Pressure Optimisation Programme

15.
The British Journal of General Practice : The Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners ; 72(722):444, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024379

ABSTRACT

Routen et al discuss the lack of diversity in health research. High-quality health research is central to evidence-informed health care. By assessing evidence on treatments, initiatives, and different ways of delivering services and changing practice where appropriate, health outcomes are improved. A survey of Wellcome Trust data found that people of White British ethnicity were 64% more likely than ethnic minority groups to have participated in health research, even when accounting for socioeconomic status, age, and sex. There has also been underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in COVID-19 research, including randomized trials of potential treatments, and vaccination and vaccine research, despite the greater COVID-19 burden experienced by ethnic minorities.

16.
Journal of Personalized Medicine ; 12(8):1233, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023822

ABSTRACT

Precision prevention for T1D considers the individual’s unique T1D risk profile (genetic susceptibility given from human leukocyte antigen HLA and non-HLA loci) to predict the individual response to the preventive agents (immune therapy or dietary intervention);however, we need to learn more about the role of environment in the onset of T1D, considering urban versus rural setting, the contribution of virus as SARS-COV2, life stressors or traumatic events, and food [6,7,8]. Precision prevention for T2D does not consider intervening in everyone with prediabetes, because it is not cost-effective [17], but on a subset of prediabetic patients chosen on the basis of other relevant risk factors (lifestyle, socioeconomic status, family history of diabetes, ethnicity, overweight–obesity, signs of insulin resistance, genetics). Unfortunately most cases of monogenic diabetes remain misdiagnosed, mainly due to the cost of performing genetic testing [3];other limits in implementing precision medicine in diabetes include epidemiological differences among varied populations (ethnic and racial barriers) and that some ethnic groups are underrepresented in clinical trials [20]. [...]the application of precision medicine in diagnosis and in treatment of monogenic diabetes is a standard of care [3].

17.
JMIR Formative Research ; 6(8), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2022402

ABSTRACT

Background: Black college-aged men are less likely than their peers to use formal, therapeutic in-person services for mental health concerns. As the use of mobile technologies and social media platforms is steadily increasing, it is important to conduct work that examines the future utility of digital tools and technologies to improve access to and uptake of mental health services for Black men and Black men in college. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify and understand college-attending Black men’s needs and preferences for using digital health technologies and social media for stress and mental health symptom management. Methods: Interviews were conducted with Black male students (N=11) from 2 racially diverse universities in the Midwestern United States. Participants were asked questions related to their current mental health needs and interest in using social media platforms and mobile-based apps for their mental health concerns. A thematic analysis was conducted. Results: Four themes emerged from the data: current stress relief strategies, technology-based support needs and preferences (subthemes: mobile-based support and social media–based support), resource information dissemination considerations (subthemes: information-learning expectations and preferences and information-sharing preferences and behaviors), and technology-based mental health support design considerations (subtheme: relatability and representation). Participants were interested in using social media and digital technologies for their mental health concerns and needs, for example, phone notifications and visual-based mental health advertisements that promote awareness. Relatability in the context of representation was emphasized as a key factor for participants interested in using digital mental health tools. Examples of methods for increasing relatability included having tools disseminated by minority-serving organizations and including components explicitly portraying Black men engaging in mental health support strategies. The men also discussed wanting to receive recommendations for stress relief that have been proven successful, particularly for Black men. Conclusions: The findings from this study provide insights into design and dissemination considerations for future work geared toward developing mental health messaging and digital interventions for young Black men.

18.
PLoS One ; 17(8), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2021943

ABSTRACT

Background Stature is one of the significant parameters to confirm a biological profile besides sex, age, and ancestry. Sabah is in the Eastern part of Malaysia and is populated by multi-ethnic groups. To date, limited studies on stature estimation have been conducted in Sabah. Hence, this study aims to construct population-specific stature estimation equations for the large ethnic groups in Sabah, Malaysia. Objective The aim is to propose linear models using different hand dimensions (hand span, handbreadth, hand length, middle finger length, and the second inter-crease in the middle finger) for the young adult male and females of the major ethnic groups in Sabah. Materials & methods This cross-sectional study framework used stratified random sampling on 184 male and 184 female young adults. An unpaired t-test and a one-way ANOVA were used to assess the differences in the mean between sex and ethnicities, respectively. The link between the response variable and explanatory variables was initially investigated using simple linear regression, followed by multiple linear regression. Result The present study demonstrated the highest association for the quantitative explanatory variables among hand length and stature (right side: r = 0.833;left side: r = 0.842). Simple equations were specifically developed without sex indicators, and ethnic and multiple linear regression was developed with sex and ethnic indicators. Multiple linear regression provided good estimation r2 = 0.7886 and adjusted r2 = 0.7853. The stature of 18 to 25 year old large ethnic groups in Sabah can be estimated using the developed models 90.218 + 3.845 LHL -5.950 Sex—2.308 Bajau -1.673 KadazanDusun + 2.676 L2ICL. While, formula for each ethnic and sex KadazanDusun Male: Stature = 88.545 + 3.845 LHL+ 2.676 L2ICL, KadazanDusun Female: Stature = 82.595 + 3.845 LHL+ 2.676 L2ICL, Bajau Male: Stature = 87.910 + 3.845 LHL+ 2.676 L2ICL, Bajau Female: Stature = 81.960 + 3.845 LHL+ 2.676 L2ICL, Malay Male: Stature = 90.218 + 3.845 LHL+ 2.676 L2ICL, Malay Female: Stature = 84.268 + 3.845 LHL+ 2.676 L2ICL, Chinese Male: Stature = 90.218 + 3.845 LHL+ 2.676 L2ICL, and Chinese Female: Stature = 84.268 + 3.845 LHL+ 2.676 L2ICL. Conclusion The study reports anthropometric data and formulas for measuring the stature of major ethnic groups in Sabah, which can be used to compare future work.

19.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(6), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2021490

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has placed the use of evidence for policy-making high up on the international agenda. To fight the pandemic, Governments around the world have publicly stressed the need to draw on evidence by engaging scientific advisors and advisory bodies [1]. Furthermore, the increased demand for evidence has led to a global push for innovative solutions such as the scaling-up of living evidence syntheses [2]. At the same time, COVID-19 revealed fatal structural and systemic weaknesses in the production and use of evidence-flaws which have cost lives [3]. In many cases, institutional mechanisms and capacities to systematically mobilize and contextualize the best available evidence for rapid decision-making were missing [4]. As a consequence, policy-makers, practitioners and citizens alike were confronted with a deluge of competing claims and misinformation, severely limiting suitable decisionmaking and taking action [5]. The related surge of vaccine hesitancy has disproportionally impacted ethnic minorities and deprived communities, with the lowest vaccine uptake, worryingly, to be seen among the most vulnerable people-the older, the more clinically vulnerable, and those living in the most deprived areas-worsening pre-existing disparities in vaccine use, health inequalities and socio-economic marginalization [6, 7]. To assess different institutional responses in terms of the evidence-policy-society nexus and to learn lessons on how to build equity-centred, agile and responsive evidence-informed decision- making mechanisms, WHO convened its first Global Evidence-to-Policy Summit [8] in late 2021. The Summit, organized by the newly created Evidence to Policy Unit at WHO headquarters in collaboration with the corresponding teams in WHO regional offices, brought together more than 2,500 policy-makers, knowledge brokers, health actors, civil society representatives and researchers from around the world.

20.
J Transcult Nurs ; : 10436596221119484, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2020943

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has an amplified impact on vulnerable populations. Also, aspects related to health inequalities are insufficiently taught in higher education. This study aims to promote reflection in nursing students on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on vulnerable populations affected by health inequities. METHODOLOGY: A photovoice method was used. Undergraduate nursing students (Spain and United Kingdom) took and explained photographs using SHOWED models. RESULTS: 108 students participated. Two-domain summary themes were created: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted ethnic minorities and socioeconomically vulnerable groups, and Proposals to respond to the negative impact on ethnic minorities and socioeconomically vulnerable groups. DISCUSSION: The students identified negative health scenarios by linking COVID-19 with aspects of work, salary, and housing of these two specific populations. Holistic actions were also proposed to protect their health. As future health professionals, they must recognize these communities and work to eliminate inequalities.

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