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1.
Journal of Political Institutions and Political Economy ; 2(1):1-21, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1963120

ABSTRACT

For potential immigrants, the COVID-19 pandemic has reduced economic opportunities and increased risks both at home and abroad. We seek to understand how COVID-19 has impacted the calculations that govern one's decision to emigrate. Leveraging a unique panel survey of Guatemalans recently deported from the U.S., we explore how COVID-19 has affected deportees' economic well-being and the intent to re-migrate. We find that while COVID-19 does not measurably decrease deportees' (already poor) current economic conditions, the pandemic increases expectations of being worse off in the next year and uncertainty about future economic conditions. Furthermore, the pandemic also increases uncertainty about whether deportees intend to re-migrate in the coming year. This increase in uncertainty reflects the increased difficulty potential migrants face in weighing relative opportunities and risks during a transnational crisis, even as one's expectations about economic well-being in the home country become more pessimistic.

2.
Athletic development: A psychological perspective ; : 202-213, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1958038

ABSTRACT

The postponement of the 2020 Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games as a result of the global COVID-19 pandemic threw national governing bodies, performance directors, coaches, and athletes into a situation that had not been experienced in the modern Olympic Games. It was an adversity that challenged the toughest of athletes, shattered their dreams and expectations, and catapulted them into a period of uncertainty. At the time of writing this chapter, we cannot envisage the full emotional, performance-related, and financial consequences of the global pandemic and what it has meant for domestic and international sport at all levels. What we can surmise is that the experiences and decisions made in light of the pandemic will have been perceived as a negative event or an adversity by many of the athletes who had been training for the 2020 Olympic/Paralympic Games for a significant proportion of their lives, and for those at the start of their athletic journey. Furthermore, we know that the research tells us that there are some of those athletes who will have bounced back from such an adversity and who will have come back psychologically and physically stronger than they were before. This bounceback capability is conceptualised in the academic literature and in the public understanding as resilience. An athlete's resilience, that is the extent to which they can use their personal qualities to withstand pressure, will perhaps be key to determining whether the situation in which they find themselves in is facilitative or detrimental to their ongoing journey through sport. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

3.
Empir Econ ; : 1-32, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941513

ABSTRACT

This paper proposes a two-stage approach to parametric nonlinear time series modelling in discrete time with the objective of incorporating uncertainty or misspecification in the conditional mean and volatility. At the first stage, a reference or approximating time series model is specified and estimated. At the second stage, Bayesian nonlinear expectations are introduced to incorporate model uncertainty or misspecification in prediction via specifying a family of alternative models. The Bayesian nonlinear expectations for prediction are constructed from closed-form Bayesian credible intervals evaluated using conjugate priors and residuals of the estimated approximating model. Using real Bitcoin data including some periods of Covid 19, applications of the proposed method to forecasting and risk evaluation of Bitcoin are discussed via three major parametric nonlinear time series models, namely the self-exciting threshold autoregressive model, the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model and the stochastic volatility model. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00181-022-02255-z.

4.
Applied Economics Letters ; : 1-5, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1937572

ABSTRACT

We investigate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on students' perception of future economic conditions. Our results show that students' perception of the current situation is a strong predictor of future expectations. Moreover, students whose parents are self-employed seem to be more concerned about the future. We also detect that an increase in anxiety due to the pandemic and lockdown leads to negative expectations. We find that students seem to anticipate the long run effects of the pandemic by having increasingly pessimistic expectations about the future. This appears to be in line with both rational expectation theory, in which they consider the current situation as a signal for long-run decrease of future expectations, and at the same time, with adaptive expectation schemes anchored by their knowledge on historical pandemic situations.

5.
Shared trauma, shared resilience during a pandemic: Social work in the time of COVID-19 ; : 127-133, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1930220

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has radical implications for how we perceive our environment. Worldwide, people have been asked or required to limit close proximity with others not of their household, and to wear masks in public. In my practice with gay men, I have seen clients present with feelings of guilt triggered by the current public health crisis, with its prolonged physical distance from others and authorities' warnings about the dangers of physical closeness. This chapter briefly explores the history of the HIV/AIDS crisis in America in relation to the current pandemic, the resurgence of shame and guilt about identity, and the return to complex relational roles, with particular regard to violation of expectations as it relates to lack of or poor responsiveness from caregivers. The role of resilience in marginalized communities' response to government neglect will be addressed. Brief case vignettes of diverse gay and queer identifying men will be presented to illustrate the effects of the slow burn of isolation stress on men who lived through the HIV/AIDS crisis and now live with the coronavirus pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

6.
J Econ Dyn Control ; : 104460, 2022 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907279

ABSTRACT

This paper explores the robustness of laboratory expectation formation and public signal credibility to external uncertainty shocks and online experimentation. We exploit the recent pandemic as a source of exogenous background uncertainty in a New Keynesian learning-to-forecast experiment (LtFE) where participants receive projections of varying precision about future inflation. We compare results from identical LtFE completed immediately before the onset of the pandemic, soon after (online), and well after (online and in-person). Baseline LtFEs with no communication are robust to both factors. However, both background uncertainty and online experimentation impact how subjects use public signals. The pandemic led to a decreased appetite for and tolerance of overly precise communication while increasing the efficacy of projections that also convey uncertainty. Subjects became more averse to central bank forecast errors after the onset of the pandemic if the central bank conveyed a precise outlook but not if it conveyed forecast uncertainty.

7.
Curr Res Ecol Soc Psychol ; : 100052, 2022 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906926

ABSTRACT

Quantitative analysis in this special issue (Greenfield, Brown, & Du, 2021) showed that the COVID-19 pandemic has led most parents to report greater expectations for their children to help with family subsistence. This familistic development exemplifies the shifts in behavior and values predicted by Greenfield's Theory of Social Change, Cultural Evolution, and Human Development when survival concerns rise and the social world retracts. Here, we use qualitative analysis to uncover the psychological processes behind the quantitative shift. Our California sample consisted of 109 parents with at least one child between age 7 and 18 living at home during the pandemic when they answered the survey. Forty-six of these parents provided qualitative data concerning expectations for their children's household responsibilities during COVID-19. An open-ended question asked parents to explain why their expectations of their children to help around the house and to carry out self-maintenance had changed or remained the same. Prominent themes in the qualitative responses manifest a shift from a mindset found in a large-scale urban society toward that found in a small-scale subsistence community: Before the pandemic, parents focused on increasing their children's competitiveness in society through extracurricular activities like tutoring, but that transitioned into a focus on household duties such as cooking and cleaning.

8.
Bus Strategy Environ ; 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905809

ABSTRACT

The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has seriously impacted the performance of all types of businesses. It has given a tremendous structural boost to e-commerce enterprises by forcing customers to online shopping over visiting physical stores. Moreover, customer expectations of the digital and operational capabilities of e-commerce firms are also increasing globally. Thus, it has become crucial for an e-commerce enterprise to reassess and realign its business practices to meet evolving customer needs and remain sustainable. This paper presents a comprehensive performance evaluation framework for e-commerce enterprises based on evolving customer expectations due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The framework comprises seven primary criteria, which are further divided into 25 sub-criteria, including two sustainability factors, namely, environmental sustainability and carbon emissions. The evaluation approach is then practically demonstrated by analyzing the case of three Indian e-commerce firms. The results are obtained using a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method, namely, Fuzzy VIKOR, to capture the fuzziness of the inherent decision-making problem. Further, numerical analysis is conducted to evaluate and rank various e-commerce enterprises based on customer expectations and satisfaction benchmarks. The findings explain the most important criteria and sub-criteria for e-commerce businesses to ensure customer expectations along with their economic and environmental sustainability.

9.
Wirtschaftsdienst ; 102(6):434-437, 2022.
Article in German | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1906111

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic massively interrupted economic activity all over the world. Governments responded by running huge fiscal deficits (financed via central banks) to support firms and consumers, thereby injecting purchasing power into the private sector on a large scale. With no corresponding production of goods and services, these phantom incomes are by their very nature inflationary. This explains the root cause of the post-pandemic price pressure. New fiscal programs created to compensate resulting losses of purchasing power only prolong the inflationary phase. Anchored inflation expectations are key to keeping the inflation process temporary. While this clearly falls under the responsibility of the monetary authorities, fiscal policymakers should support central banks by quickly ending the crisis mode. This is particularly important for the euro area where the problem of fiscal dominance would otherwise continue to increase.

10.
PALAWAN SCIENTIST ; 14(1):43-50, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1905399

ABSTRACT

Innovation allows learners to cope with changes and discover new opportunities. This study aimed to investigate the students' level of innovativeness in learning mathematics amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. A non-probabilistic sampling of 132 students enrolled in Mathematics from Visayas State University were the respondents. Descriptive measures were used to summarize the results, and econometric modeling was constructed to determine significant determinants affecting students' innovativeness. On average, it was found that students considered themselves as "late majority adopters" during the pandemic. This implies that students during the pandemic are considered to have a low level of innovativeness in adopting the new normal activities in distance learning. Result revealed that household assets, monthly household expense, submission of outputs, and health significantly influence students' innovativeness in learning mathematics. Hence, the government must support the students with regard to learning technologies, and teachers should motivate students to adapt to the new setup of classes with an appropriate platform and meaningful activities. Furthermore, the government must prioritize the health of students as they learn during the pandemic.

11.
9th International KES Conference on Smart Education and e-Learning, SEEL 2022 ; 305 SIST:127-137, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1899105

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between class attendance and the student's expected grade. Based on various theoretical frameworks such as expectancy, attribution, and achievement goal theories, in this study, we test the simultaneous effect of attendance on students’ overall academic performance using the expected average exam grade as the outcome. We employed data from an online survey of bachelor and master students attending several programs in 26 Faculties of 12 Albanian Universities during the lockdown period following the Covid-19 pandemic when teaching was switched almost immediately from face-to-face to synchronous online modality. 2SLS regression results show a robust positive relationship between attendance and grade expectations and validate the proposed reverse causality. The study’s theoretical and practical implications are discussed, emphasizing the role of expected grades as an essential predictor of class attendance, and suggesting instructors’ actions to manage student expectations and increase attendance. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

12.
Forum Scientiae Oeconomia ; 10(1):49-66, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1893597

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic has had an unprecedented im- pact on the global economy, and has significantly increased the uncertainty inherent in the external environment. The factor of possible lockdown is added to the parameters of uncertainty of macroeconomic indicators of domestic and foreign markets. If companies could predict inflation dy- namics or consumer sentiment in some way, it is nonethe- less difficult to predict another outbreak of the pandemic. The negative effects of the pandemic have had a highly significant impact on the economic situation of business- es, which makes this factor especially important for the development of economic strategies. The aim of the study is to determine the impact of changes in macroeconomic variables due to crises on the development of a company’s economic strategy. The study was conducted through lin- ear regression models, which were tested by means of the least squares method. The COVID-19 pandemic effect was introduced into the models through the use of a dummy variable. The results of the study showed that companies ex- pect a decrease in sales, a reduction in the wages of employ- ees and indeed the number of employees themselves. The expectations of businesses regarding the volume of foreign investment and their own investment costs have worsened. Businesses are changing their economic strategies from de- velopment strategies to survival strategies accompanied by cost reductions. At the same time, macroeconomic indica- tors, including the inflation index and the exchange rate, are expected to deteriorate. The results obtained can be used to assess the impact of COVID-19 on business strategies and the economic expectations of businesses. The study opens new areas for further research, in particular the sec- toral impact of the pandemic on the development of compa- nies’ economic strategies. The methodological limitation is that the industry specifics of companies were not taken into account. In addition, the pandemic impact data available for analysis are currently limited to the four quarters of 2020. The limitation pertaining to implementation is that the im- pact of the pandemic on the company’s strategy may differ depending on the field of the company’s activity. © 2022, WSB University. All rights reserved.

13.
Handbook of research on remote work and worker well-being in the post-COVID-19 era ; : 221-242, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1893058

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic forced many organizations to abruptly introduce remote working, without an accurate analysis of organizational processes and employees' expectations about work flexibility. Thus, remote working has been implemented without a rational plan of interventions based on remote work- enabling technologies, managerial practices, and resources. This chapter aims at understanding the role of "supporting" structures and practices in driving the effective implementation of remote working in the post-COVID era. The authors rely on a case study of a multi-national IT company with a long experience with remote work arrangements, focusing on mobile work and virtual teams and looking at expectations and actions of remote workers in relation to organizational support. Findings revealed the importance to adopt a holistic approach to organizational support to remote working based on formal procedures, adequate evaluation systems, tools for self-management, blended training programs, supportive leadership style, along with a collaborative work environment and a remote culture. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

14.
Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) in Bariatric Surgery ; : 1-19, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1887705

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a challenge for the patient itself, the family’s patients the clinical approach, and the surgery team. Also for the society economically, politically, and as a health pandemic illness. Nothing statically has been more for sure in the obesity ill than the complications related. And now in the settings of these new contexts that imply the SARS-COV 19 pandemic complications which means a new wide window that we need to close trying to avoid the fatalities that would be a high cost to pay for everyone. For these reasons and others well known the patients seeking an obesity surgery must be more than ever well informed and with a highly accurate psychological profiling looking the best treatment for each patient in their settings. And avoid cooking recipes. Now it is a challenge for everyone. In this chapter, we are going to boarding the basic information pre-op for those patients, like expectations, possible risk, and complications, and at the same time an accurate psychologist profile for the best surgical bariatric alternatives. This is a revisional literature chapter looking for the different knowledge among the data published around the world and time. © 2021 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

15.
Human Resource Management Journal ; : 22, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1883162

ABSTRACT

The changing nature of employment has led to increased awareness of leaveism, a practice involving employees using allocated time off when unwell, taking work home, and picking up work when on annual leave. However, there are theoretical, methodological, and policy/practice-related weaknesses, apparent in current understandings. The main article aim is to develop, theoretically, the emergent notion of leaveism, drawing on concepts related to work intensification (WI) and ideal worker norms (IWNs), concepts underpinned by reference to information communication technologies (ICTs), then exploring such ideas via an electronic questionnaire (n = 959), aimed at UK-based employees performing leaveism. The main argument is leaveism is more than a lacuna between presenteeism and sickness absence;it is an unsustainable employer-driven social phenomenon sitting at the intersection of WI, IWNs and ICTs. The findings have policy/practice implications for human resource management (HRM) professionals, trade unions and governments. Recommendations for future research including exploring leaveism in an international context, and in a Covid-19 pandemic-defined era.

16.
The Journal of Academic Librarianship ; : 102564, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1881590

ABSTRACT

This paper discusses the results of a 2021 survey in which 402 academic library employees shared their expectations for post-pandemic collections, remote work arrangements, and staffing and hiring in cataloging, electronic resources, and metadata—areas involved in resource description and discovery work. Their responses indicate that, during the next several years, some pandemic trends are expected to continue in academic libraries including an acceleration of the trend to phase out physical resources for electronic ones as well as trends in remote work options. The majority of participants also expect staffing levels for cataloging, electronic resources, and metadata to remain the same with about one-fifth of participants expecting increases in electronic resources staffing and smaller numbers expecting permanent decreases in cataloging staffing due to lack of either funding or need. Moreover, participant responses shed light on expectations for the hiring of faculty and staff positions in cataloging, electronic resources, and metadata. In sum, the study provides insights into aspects of academic libraries which may be of interest to academic library administrators, graduate students and programs in library and information science, publishers and providers of educational content, and academic library employees working in related areas.

17.
Ensuring adult and non-traditional learners' success with technology, design, and structure ; : 59-70, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1879526

ABSTRACT

The chapter will be divided into three sections. The first section provides a brief look at the history and inception of online degree programs, supporting technology, learning platforms, and the early demographics of the typical online degree seeking student. The second section will address the changing online degree student demographics of the past five years, organizational expectations of graduating students, and the stagnant online learning model that is less than effective in student skills acquisition and knowledge retention. The third will address the COVID-19 effect on online learning, degree-student demographics, the cultural shifts that are emerging in the student population, and the need for new interactive online models to engage the student. This section will also address the need for new models of online training for faculty to provide a quality educational environment for the online student. The chapter will close with assumptions about the future of online degree programs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

18.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-337964

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has imposed changes to the educational system shifting from conventional classroom setting to online learning. Assessing students’ proficiency with technology and expectations for online learning are vital for their success. Hence, this study explores the perceived proficiency with technology and online learning expectations of graduate students employing descriptive-correlational design. The study utilized survey questionnaires to examine their proficiency with technology and expectations for online instructor, course content, social interaction and course navigation. The findings suggest that the graduate students are proficient with technology. Likewise, the data gathered revealed that students have a very high expectations for online instructor, course content and social interaction. In addition, there is a moderately high expectation as to course navigation. Moreover, a significant relationship exists between proficiency with technology and online expectations of graduate students. Bridging the gap between students’ expectations and the actual experiences offered to them play a crucial role in ensuring that teaching and learning outcomes are achieved. Intensive understanding and awareness of their expectations could aid higher educational institutions in planning, designing and modifying online courses that responds to students’ needs. It is recommended that the sources of expectations be further explored.

19.
JMIR Ment Health ; 9(5): e35048, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, exposure to potentially traumatic events is extremely common, and many individuals develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) along with other disorders. Unfortunately, considerable barriers to treatment exist. A promising approach to overcoming treatment barriers is a digital mental health intervention (DMHI). However, engagement with DMHIs is a concern, and theoretically based research in this area is sparse and often inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: The focus of this study is on the complex issue of DMHI engagement. On the basis of the social cognitive theory framework, the conceptualization of engagement and a theoretically based model of predictors and outcomes were investigated using a DMHI for trauma recovery. METHODS: A 6-week longitudinal study with a national sample of survivors of trauma was conducted to measure engagement, predictors of engagement, and mediational pathways to symptom reduction while using a trauma recovery DMHI (time 1: N=915; time 2: N=350; time 3: N=168; and time 4: N=101). RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis of the engagement latent constructs of duration, frequency, interest, attention, and affect produced an acceptable model fit (χ22=8.3; P=.02; comparative fit index 0.973; root mean square error of approximation 0.059; 90% CI 0.022-0.103). Using the latent construct, the longitudinal theoretical model demonstrated adequate model fit (comparative fit index 0.929; root mean square error of approximation 0.052; 90% CI 0.040-0.064), indicating that engagement self-efficacy (ß=.35; P<.001) and outcome expectations (ß=.37; P<.001) were significant predictors of engagement (R2=39%). The overall indirect effect between engagement and PTSD symptom reduction was significant (ß=-.065; P<.001; 90% CI -0.071 to -0.058). This relationship was serially mediated by both skill activation self-efficacy (ß=.80; P<.001) and trauma coping self-efficacy (ß=.40; P<.001), which predicted a reduction in PTSD symptoms (ß=-.20; P=.02). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study may provide a solid foundation for formalizing the nascent science of engagement. Engagement conceptualization comprised general measures of attention, interest, affect, and use that could be applied to other applications. The longitudinal research model supported 2 theoretically based predictors of engagement: engagement self-efficacy and outcome expectancies. A total of 2 task-specific self-efficacies-skill activation and trauma coping-proved to be significant mediators between engagement and symptom reduction. Taken together, this model can be applied to other DMHIs to understand engagement, as well as predictors and mechanisms of action. Ultimately, this could help improve the design and development of engaging and effective trauma recovery DMHIs.

20.
Proceedings on Engineering Sciences ; 3(3):247-254, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1876407

ABSTRACT

E commerce has transformed the way of doing business globally. But still offline businesses have majority stake in the major economies of the world. With the arrival of covid 19, things have changes tremendously. E commerce companies have seen an exponential growth rate in these times due to government guidelines, health concerns and technological changes. This paper discusses, recent trends in e-commerce industry in India, the positive and negative impact of Covid 19 on ecommerce activities. Also, opportunities grabbed by e commerce players due to covid 19’s impact on its consumers and business scenario. The paper also critically analyses pre and post covid scenario in Indian e commerce industry on various parameters. It also discusses how the business organizations have transformed their business models as per the new normal conditions and customer expectations. © 2021 Published by Faculty of Engineeringg.

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