Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.040
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-343273

ABSTRACT

Due to the results of the COVID-19 epidemic on mental health, some studies have highlighted the positive effects of nature exposure. Nevertheless, this beneficial role has not yet been explored over time of the pandemic. The current study examines the temporal changes in (a) social isolation, (b) psychological distress, (c) intensity of the effect of social isolation on psychological distress, and (d) moderating effect of nature exposure on the relation between perceived interior crowding, social isolation, and psychological distress. Focusing on six mid-rise housing developments in Mashhad, data were collected from 718 middle-aged women (Mage = 49.63, SD = 12.39) in two waves during the pandemic (wave1 in June 2020 and wave2 in September 2021, before nationwide vaccination). A paired-sample t-test showed increased social isolation and psychological distress after one year of the pandemic. Also, using structural equation modeling and multi-group analysis (wave 1 vs. wave 2) revealed that social isolation has an increasing influence on psychological distress over time. Exposure to nature moderates the effect of perceived interior crowding on psychological distress. However, this moderating role is time-dependent and nature exposure during the time did not necessarily assist in reducing the negative impact of perceived interior crowding. Finally, at any given time, nature exposure mitigated the effect of social isolation on psychological distress.

2.
2022 IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC 2022 ; 2022-May:3052-3057, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2029233

ABSTRACT

The proximity detection mechanism in current automatic exposure notification systems is typically based on the Bluetooth signal strength from the individual's mobile phone. However, there is an underlying error in this proximity detection methodology that could result in wrong exposure decisions i.e., false negatives and false positives. A false negative error happens if a truly exposed individual is mistakenly identified as not exposed. This misidentification could result in further spread of the virus by the exposed (yet undetected) individual. Likewise, when a non-exposed individual is incorrectly identified as exposed, a false positive error occurs. This could lead to unnecessary quarantine of the individual;and therefore, incurring further economic cost. In this paper, using a simulation platform and a notion of proximity detection error, we investigate the performance of the system in terms of false exposure determinations. Knowledge of how the Bluetooth-based proximity detection error impacts such false determinations and identification of methodologies that can reduce this impact will be helpful to enhance the effectiveness of an automatic contact tracing system. Our preliminary results indicate the substantial impact of the proximity estimation error on the exposure detection accuracy. The results also suggest how proper filtering of distance measurements may reduce this impact. © 2022 IEEE.

3.
Annals of Medicine ; 54(1):2477-2485, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028822

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic led to exacerbation of mental health symptoms and deterioration in psychological well-being in individuals suffering from schizophrenia. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients suffering from treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) having undergone virtual reality therapy (VRT) or cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) on their symptomatology. The secondary objective is to identify the differences and similarities in relation to the response to the COVID 19 pandemic between these two groups of patients. METHODS: Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews was conducted with 42 patients suffering from TRS who had previously followed VRT or CBT. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed. RESULTS: Four themes emerged in this study: Psychotherapeutic Interventions, Impact of COVID-19 and Public health and safety policies, Substance use and Psychiatric follow-up. Participants from both groups reported that their therapy was beneficial in controlling AVH. Patients having followed CBT reported more depressive symptoms whereas patients having followed VRT reported more anxious symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers a first qualitative insight in patients suffering from TRS and the impacts of COVID-19 on them and opens the door to the protective factors of CBT and VRT for this specific population.

4.
Infect Dis Now ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2028077

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence rate in healthcare workers (HCWs) from Western France after the first 2020 wave, its determinants and the kinetics of total SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall, 9,453 HCWs responded to a self-questionnaire and underwent a lateral flow immunoassay to assess SARS-CoV-2 IgG presence. For 72 HCWs who tested positive, total anti-nucleocapsid antibodies were assessed at day 0, 30, and 90. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence rate was 1.06% [0.86%-1.27%]. Factors associated with IgG presence were gender, performing upper respiratory tract samples, contact with HCWs or household members diagnosed with COVID-19. Total antibodies decreased between day 0 and day 90, with anosmia or ageusia, and were higher in HCWs older than 50 years. CONCLUSION: We reported a low prevalence rate of IgG and identified several risk factors associated with its presence and persistence of total antibodies. Additional studies are needed to confirm these observations.

5.
Acta Paulista De Enfermagem ; 35, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2026729

ABSTRACT

Objective: To present the development and validation of an application to guide health professionals on Personal Protective Equipment donning and doffing in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the guidelines in this regard that they are able to pass on to patients in home visit. Methods: The application validation was performed with 55 health professionals (nurses, physiotherapists and physicians) who were on the front line to combat COVID-19 in home care, using the Delphi technique. For data analysis, Content Validity Index and Cronbach's alpha coefficient were adopted. Results: Most judges assessed the application from inadequate to fully adequate in the first assessment. After corrections according to suggestions, the application was reassessed as adequate to fully adequate. The mean Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.942, characterizing the instrument's internal consistency. Content Validity Index in the first assessment ranged from 0.935 to 0.939, and in the second assessment it was 1.0. Conclusion: The Orienta COVID-19 application was validated by professionals who were on the front line in the fight against COVID-19 with consensus among judges in the second assessment.

6.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(8): e33309, 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Internet and mobile phones, widely available in Brazil, could be used to disseminate information about HIV prevention and to recruit gay, bisexual, and other cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM) to HIV prevention services. Data evaluating the characteristics of MSM recruited through different web-based strategies and estimating their cost and yield in the country are not available. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe a web-based recruitment cascade, compare the characteristics of MSM recruited to a large HIV prevention service in Rio de Janeiro according to web-based venues, and estimate the cost per participant for each strategy. METHODS: We promoted advertisements on geosocial networking (GSN) apps (Hornet and Grindr) and social media (Facebook and Instagram) from March 2018 to October 2019. The advertisements invited viewers to contact a peer educator to schedule a visit at the HIV prevention service. Performance of web-based recruitment cascade was based on how many MSM (1) were reached by the advertisement, (2) contacted the peer educator, and (3) attended the service. We used chi-square tests to compare MSM recruited through GSN apps and social media. The estimated advertisement cost to recruit a participant was calculated by dividing total advertisement costs by number of participants who attended the service or initiated preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). RESULTS: Advertisement reached 1,477,344 individuals; 1270 MSM contacted the peer educator (86 contacts per 100,000 views)-564 (44.4%), 401 (31.6%) and 305 (24.0%)-through social media, Grindr, and Hornet. Among the 1270 individuals who contacted the peer educator, 36.3% (n=461) attended the service with similar proportion for each web-based strategy (social media: 203/564, 36.0%; Grindr: 152/401, 37.9%; and Hornet: 107/305, 35.1%). MSM recruited through GSN apps were older (mean age 30 years vs 26 years; P<.001), more frequently self-reported as White (111/247, 44.9% vs 62/191, 32.5%; P=.03), and had higher schooling level (postsecondary: 157/254, 61.8% vs 94/194, 48.5%; P=.007) than MSM recruited through social media. GSN apps recruited MSM with higher HIV risk as measured by PrEP eligibility (207/239, 86.6% vs 133/185, 71.9%; P<.001) compared with social media, but there was no difference in PrEP uptake between the two strategies (P=.22). The estimated advertisement costs per participant attending the HIV prevention service were US $28.36 for GSN apps and US $12.17 for social media. The estimated advertisement costs per participant engaging on PrEP were US $58.77 for GSN apps and US $27.75 for social media. CONCLUSIONS: Social media and GSN app advertisements were useful to disseminate information on HIV prevention strategies and to recruit MSM to a large HIV prevention service in Brazil. Compared to GSN apps, social media advertisements were less expensive and reached more vulnerable and younger MSM. Digital marketing campaigns should use different and complementary web-based venues to reach a plurality of MSM.

7.
Toxics ; 10(8):487, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024235

ABSTRACT

There is evidence that PM2.5 could be obesogenic. Lima is one of the most polluted cities in South America, with an increasing prevalence of childhood obesity. This study aimed to determine the association between PM2.5 exposure of children aged 6 to 59 months and being overweight or obese (O/O) in a significant dataset survey. Cases were defined when weight for height Z-score (WHZ) was >2 standard deviations (SD) from the mean, for each sex. A control was defined when WHZ was between ±2 SD. We used a conditional logistic regression model to calculate the odds ratio (OR) between extrauterine and intrauterine PM2.5 exposure and O/O. Extrauterine PM2.5 exposure was evaluated as a 6-month PM2.5 mean prior to the survey. We found a significant association between O/O and extrauterine (OR: 1.57, 1.51–1.63) and intrauterine (OR: 1.99, 1.88–2.12) PM2.5 exposure for an increment of 10 μg/m3. The ORs increased as the quartile increased in both exposures. We observed a higher association in children aged 6–11 months (OR: 3.07, 2.84–3.31). In conclusion, higher levels of PM2.5 in Lima and Callao were associated with cases of O/O in children from 6 to 59 months, with the association higher for prenatal exposure.

8.
Toxics ; 10(8):479, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024234

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the ecotoxicity of polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and polylactic acid (PLA) microplastics (MPs) in two marine zooplankton: the crustacean Artemia franciscana and the cnidarian Aurelia sp. (common jellyfish). To achieve this goal, (i) MP uptake, (ii) immobility, and (iii) behavior (swimming speed, pulsation mode) of crustacean larval stages and jellyfish ephyrae exposed to MPs concentrations (1, 10, 100 mg/L) were assessed for 24 h. Using traditional and novel techniques, i.e., epifluorescence microscopy and 3D holotomography (HT), PVDF and PLA MPs were found in the digestive systems of the crustaceans and in the gelatinous tissue of jellyfish. Immobility was not affected in either organism, while a significant behavioral alteration in terms of pulsation mode was found in jellyfish after exposure to both PVDF and PLA MPs. Moreover, PLA MPs exposure in jellyfish induced a toxic effect (EC50: 77.43 mg/L) on the behavioral response. This study provides new insights into PLA and PVDF toxicity with the potential for a large impact on the marine ecosystem, since jellyfish play a key role in the marine food chain. However, further investigations incorporating additional species belonging to other trophic levels are paramount to better understand and clarify the impact of such polymers at micro scale in the marine environment. These findings suggest that although PVDF and PLA have been recently proposed as innovative and, in the case of PLA, biodegradable polymers, their effects on marine biota should not be underestimated.

9.
Remote Sensing ; 14(16):3887, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024034

ABSTRACT

Human use of oceans has dramatically increased in the 21st century. Sea turtles are vulnerable to anthropogenic stressors in the marine environment because of lengthy migrations between foraging and breeding sites, often along coastal migration corridors. Little is known about how movement and threat interact specifically for male sea turtles. To better understand male sea turtle movement and the threats they encounter, we satellite-tagged 40 adult male sea turtles of four different species. We calculated movement patterns using state-space modeling (SSM), and quantified threats in seven unique categories;shipping, fishing, light pollution, oil rigs, proximity to coast, marine protected area (MPA) status, and location within or outside of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). We found significantly higher threat severity in northern and southern latitudes for green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and Kemp’s ridleys (Lepidochelys kempii) in our study area. Those threats were pervasive, with only 35.9% of SSM points encountering no high threat exposure, of which 47% belong to just two individuals. Kemp’s ridleys were most exposed to high threats among tested species. Lastly, turtles within MPA boundaries face significantly lower threat exposure, indicating MPAs could be a useful conservation tool.

10.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(17):11107, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023724

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the association of vitamin D (VD) knowledge, behavior, and attitude with BMI status among Saudi adults. This cross-sectional online survey included a total of 774 participants (M/F: 239/535). Knowledge about the overall sources of VD was highest in OB participants in correctly identifying sunlight (95.1%;p < 0.001) while significantly more OW participants answered food (83.1%;p = 0.04) and fortified food (66.5%;p = 0.02). However, 18.9% of OB participants also wrongly identified air as a VD source and this was significantly higher than in other groups (p = 0.03). OW participants were 50% less likely to identify salmon and fish oil (odds ratio, OR 0.5 (95% Confidence interval, CI 0.4–0.7);p < 0.01) and 40% more likely to identify chicken (OR 1.4 (1.0–1.9);p < 0.05) as dietary sources of VD than controls. On the other hand, OB participants were almost three times more likely to know that sunlight exposure is the main source of VD than controls (OR 2.65 (1.2–6.0);p < 0.05). In conclusion, while VD knowledge overall was apparently high in Saudi adults regardless of BMI status, the quality of knowledge among OB and OW individuals appear inconsistent, particularly in terms of identifying the right VD sources. Public health awareness campaigns should include the correction of VD misconceptions so that high-risk populations are able to make well-informed decisions in achieving optimal VD levels.

11.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(17):10996, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023718

ABSTRACT

Airborne port noise has historically suffered from a lack of regulatory assessment compared to other transport infrastructures. This has led to several complaints from citizens living in the urban areas surrounding ports, which is a very common situation, especially in countries facing the Mediterranean sea. Only in relatively recent years has an effort been made to improve this situation, which has resulted in a call for and financing of numerous international cooperation research projects, within the framework of programs such as EU FP7, H2020, ENPI-CBC MED, LIFE, and INTERREG. These projects dealt with issues and aspects of port noise, which is an intrinsically tangled problem, since several authorities and companies operate within the borders of ports, and several different noise sources are present at the same time. In addition, ship classification societies have recently recognized the problem and nowadays are developing procedures and voluntary notations to assess the airborne noise emission from marine vessels. The present work summarizes the recent results of research regarding port noise sources in order to provide a comprehensive database of sources that can be easily used, for example, as an input to the noise mapping phase, and can subsequently prevent citizens’ exposure to noise.

12.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(17):10661, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023696

ABSTRACT

In this study, we examined excessive online gaming by adolescents and the resultant effects of their exposure to the online marketing of energy drinks and alcohol, and whether marketing literacy could serve as a mitigating factor. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2020. Data were obtained from a sample of 2613 seventh-grade students from 30 middle schools in Taiwan. A self-administered questionnaire was conducted. The results showed that nearly 18% of the adolescent respondents had used energy drinks, while 75% reported seeing energy-drink advertisements on the internet in the past year. Multiple regression results indicated that factors such as being male, reporting excessive gaming, being exposed to higher levels of online energy-drink marketing, and reporting alcohol use were positively associated with energy-drink consumption. A higher level of online energy-drink marketing-affective literacy, however, was negatively associated with energy-drink consumption. In conclusion, factors that predicted energy-drink consumption among adolescents included excessive gaming and exposure to online energy-drink marketing, but marketing-affective literacy tended to lessen the impact of such advertising.

13.
Foods ; 11(17):2714, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023330

ABSTRACT

South Africa (SA) is a leading exporter of maize in Africa. The commercial maize farming sector contributes to about 85% of the overall maize produced. More than 33% of South Africa’s population live in rural settlements, and their livelihoods depend entirely on subsistence farming. The subsistence farming system promotes fungal growth and mycotoxin production. This review aims to investigate the exposure levels of the rural population of South Africa to dietary mycotoxins contrary to several reports issued concerning the safety of South African maize. A systematic search was conducted using Google Scholar. Maize is a staple food in South Africa and consumption rates in rural and urban communities are different, for instance, intake may be 1–2 kg/person/day and 400 g/person/day, respectively. Commercial and subsistence maize farming techniques are different. There exist differences influencing the composition of mycotoxins in food commodities from both sectors. Depending on the levels of contamination, dietary exposure of South Africans to mycotoxins is evident in the high levels of fumonisins (FBs) that have been detected in SA home-grown maize. Other potential sources of exposure to mycotoxins, such as carryover effects from animal products and processed foods, were reviewed. The combined effects between FBs and aflatoxins (AFs) have been reported in humans/animals and should not be ignored, as sporadic breakouts of aflatoxicosis have been reported in South Africa. These reports are not a true representation of the entire country as reports from the subsistence-farming rural communities show high incidence of maize contaminated with both AFs and FBs. While commercial farmers and exporters have all the resources needed to perform laboratory analyses of maize products, the greater challenge in combatting mycotoxin exposure is encountered in rural communities with predominantly subsistence farming systems, where conventional food surveillance is lacking.

14.
Front Public Health ; 10:930208, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2022957

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Since 2017, HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) care has been provided through an intersectoral collaboration at WIR (Walk-in-Ruhr, Center for Sexual Health and Medicine, Bochum, Germany). The aim of this study was to establish possible impact of COVID-restrictions on the sexual behavior of PrEP users in North Rhine-Westphalia. METHODS: The current PrEP study collected data of individuals using PrEP, their sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) before (each quarter of year 2018) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (each quarter of year 2020). RESULTS: During the first lockdown in Germany from mid-March until May 2020, PrEP-care appointments at WIR were postponed or canceled. Almost a third of PrEP users had discontinued their PrEP intake in the 2(nd) quarter of 2020 due to alteration of their sexual behavior. The number of sexual partners decreased from a median of 14 partners in the previous 6 months in 1(st) quarter of 2020, to 7 partners in 4(th) quarter of 2020. Despite such a significant reduction in partner number during the pandemic in comparison to the pre-pandemic period, a steady rate of STIs was observed among PrEP users in 2020. CONCLUSION: The SARS-CoV-2-pandemic has impacted PrEP-using MSM in North Rhine-Westphalia with respect to their PrEP intake regimen and sexual behavior in 2020. Our study revealed a steady rate of STI among PrEP users even during the pandemic, thus highlighting the importance of ensuring appropriate HIV/STI prevention services in times of crisis.

15.
Frontiers in Psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022892

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe classic debate regarding the complex relationships between personal network, social media use, and mental well-being requires renewed examination in the novel context of pandemic-related social isolation. Data and methodWe present two surveys conducted at (i) the earlier months of the pandemic and (ii) the end of large scale social-lockdown measures in the U.S. to explore the social and behavioral antecedents of mental health states relating to social media use. Study 1 tracked the longitudinal changes of personal network, social media use, and anxiety level of a group of individuals (N = 147) over a three-month period during the pandemic. Study 2 replicated and extended the theoretical model to a race-representative U.S. adult sample (N = 258). ResultsBoth studies consistently show that (1) more time on social media worsens anxiety. It also mediates the relationship between personal network size and anxiety. That is, a small personal network predicts more social media use, which is in turn related to increased anxiety. (2) Moreover, the effect of social media use on anxiety is mainly explained by news consumption on social media, rather than non-news related usage. (3) This link's strength is moderated by one's perception of COVID-19 impact, such that news consumption on social media increases anxiety more when the perceived impact is higher. ConclusionThese results demonstrate communication technologies' increasingly critical and multifaceted role in affecting mental health conditions.

16.
Frontiers in Environmental Science ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022689

ABSTRACT

Between 2018 and 2022, a total of 231 PM2.5 samples were collected in Nantong, China, and analyzed online for 16 US EPA PAHs utilizing a variety of analytical methodologies, including high-performance liquid chromatography data analysis, principal component analysis, and characteristic ratio analysis. The seasonal variation and pollution characteristics of 16 PAHs in PM2.5 over a long period in Nantong, China, were analyzed, and correlations and traceability changes with a variety of emission sources were established. Additionally, health assessment models for BaP equivalent concentration, daily exposure dose, lifetime excess risk of cancer, and life expectancy loss were constructed for various ages and genders. The results indicated that the total number of days with BaP concentrations less than the national limit standard of 1.0 ng/m(3) was 60.17% (139/231), with rates of 25.40%, 35.71%, and 94.05% from 2019 to 2021, respectively;the total concentration range of 16 PAHs demonstrated a downward trend, but pollution was relatively severe in winter. The seasonal variation showed winter > autumn > spring > summer. The detection rates of 4 and 5 rings were generally high and fluctuated between dropping and increasing. Principal factor analysis and characteristic ratio traceability analysis indicated that PAH pollution is primarily caused by local coal-fired sources and traffic emissions, with a new trend of biomass combustion. Furthermore, BaP remains the primary contributor to carcinogenic factors, and the health risk is higher in females than in males, and in adults than in children. A low level of PAHs in the air may have health benefits. Traffic control and flow restrictions, as well as production restrictions, are all part of Nantong's COVID-19 pandemic prevention and control policies. These policies contributed to PAH risk prevention and control, as well as pollution reduction.

17.
PLoS One ; 17(9), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2021884

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic diseases spread through pathogens-infected animal carriers. In the case of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), evidence supports that the main carriers are fruit bats and non-human primates. Further, EVD spread is a multi-factorial problem that depends on sociodemographic and economic (SDE) factors. Here we inquire into this phenomenon and aim at determining, quantitatively, the Ebola spillover infection exposure map and try to link it to SDE factors. To that end, we designed and conducted a survey in Sierra Leone and implement a pipeline to analyze data using regression and machine learning techniques. Our methodology is able (1) to identify the features that are best predictors of an individual’s tendency to partake in behaviors that can expose them to Ebola infection, (2) to develop a predictive model about the spillover risk statistics that can be calibrated for different regions and future times, and (3) to compute a spillover exposure map for Sierra Leone. Our results and conclusions are relevant to identify the regions in Sierra Leone at risk of EVD spillover and, consequently, to design and implement policies for an effective deployment of resources (e.g., drug supplies) and other preventative measures (e.g., educational campaigns).

18.
Public Health Rep ; : 333549221116361, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2020749

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Exposure notification (EN) supplements traditional contact tracing by using proximity sensors in smartphones to record close contact between persons. This ledger is used to alert persons of potential SARS-CoV-2 exposure, so they can quarantine until their infection status is determined. We describe a model that estimates the impact of EN implementation on reducing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and on the workload of public health officials, in combination with other key public health interventions such as traditional contact tracing, face mask wearing, and testing. METHODS: We created an agent-based model, Simulated Automated Exposure Notification (SimAEN), to explore the effectiveness of EN to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2. We varied selected simulation variables, such as population adoption of EN and EN detector sensitivity configurations, to illustrate the potential effects of EN. We executed 20 simulations with SimAEN for each scenario and derived results for each simulation. RESULTS: When more sensitive versus more specific EN configurations were compared, the effective reproductive number, RE, was minimally affected (a decrease <0.03). For scenarios with increasing levels of EN adoption, an increasing number of additional infected persons were identified through EN, and total infection counts in the simulated population decreased;RE values for this scenario decreased with increasing EN adoption (a decrease of 0.1 to 0.2 depending on the scenario). CONCLUSIONS: Estimates from SimAEN can help public health officials determine which levels of EN adoption in combination with other public health interventions can maximize prevention of COVID-19 while minimizing unnecessary quarantine in their jurisdiction.

19.
Facets ; 7:1185-1198, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2020323

ABSTRACT

A media surveillance analysis was conducted to identify COVID-19 workplace outbreaks and associated transmission risk for new and emerging occupations. We identified 1,111 unique COVID-19 workplace outbreaks using the Factiva database. Occupations identified in the media articles were coded to the 2016 National Occupational Classification (V1.3) and were compared and contrasted with the same occupation in the Vancouver School of Economics (VSE) COVID Risk/Reward Assessment Tool by risk rating. After nurse aides, orderlies, and patient service associates (n = 109, very high risk), industrial butchers and meat cutters, and poultry preparers and related workers had the most workplace outbreaks reported in the media (n = 79) but were rated as medium risk for COVID-19 transmission in the VSE COVID Risk Tool. Outbreaks were also reported among material handlers (n = 61) and general farm workers (n = 28), but these occupations were rated medium-low risk and low risk, respectively. Food and beverage services (n = 72) and cashiers (n = 60) were identified as high-risk occupations in the VSE COVID Risk Tool. Differences between the media results and the risk tool point to key determinants of health that compound the risk of COVID-19 exposure in the workplace for some occupations and highlight the importance of collecting occupation data during a pandemic.

20.
Sexually Transmitted Infections ; 98(Suppl 1):A81-A82, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2020311

ABSTRACT

IntroductionThe 2021 SAS Group national audit focused on management of Syphilis, following a previous National Audit Group audit in 2017. The main aim was to assess performance against auditable outcomes specified in 2015 BASHH guidelines, with a secondary aim of assessing the impact of the covid-19 pandemic.MethodsThe audit comprised a survey comparing clinic policy and practice pre- and during the pandemic, anda case-note review of the last 30 adults (≥16) per clinical service diagnosed with syphilis between 1st March and 31st December 2020 or all if fewer than 30.Responses were received from 53 services.Results•In the clinic survey, a minority of services reported changes between pre- and during the pandemic:1. Reduced availability/use of dark field microscopy2. Increased availability/use of rapid antibody testing3. Reductions in follow-up screening4. Shift to doxycycline for early syphilis5. Reduced access to provider referral for PNCase notes review highlighted•91.6% had a pre-treatment quantitative RPR/VDRL.•95.0% adhered fully to a recommended regimen.•Only 80.2% of had agreed contact outcomes, or decision not to contact, documented for each of their contacts.•Of individuals who tested HIV negative at presentation with early syphilis, 68.2% were re-tested 3weeks to 6 months later.DiscussionThere were larger differences between results of this audit and the 2017 one, possibly reflecting the smaller number of participating services.At a national level despite the pandemic management of syphilis was generally good, although recommended 97% standards were missed.Availability of diagnostics 2017 BASHH audit (N=160) Pre-pandemic Mar-Dec 2020 Dark ground microscopy: Available and routinely used in suitable cases Available but not routinely used 36.2% 30.6% 11 (20.8%) 14 (26.4%) 6 (11.3%) 13 (24.5%) Access to treponemal PCR: Available and routinely used in suitable cases Available but not routinely used 53.7% 18.7% 37 (69.8%) 6 (11.3%) 36 (67.9%) 7 (13.2%) Treponemal EIA/CLIA able to detect IgG*: Available and routinely used in suitable cases Available but not routinely used 98.1% 0.0% 50 (94.3%) 0 (0.0%) 48 (90.6%) 3 (5.7%) Treponemal EIA/CLIA able to detect IgM*: Available and routinely used in suitable cases Available but not routinely used 90.6% 8.1% 43 (81.1%) 5 (9.4%) 45 (84.9%) 6 (11.3%) TPPA: Available and routinely used in suitable cases Available but not routinely used 96.9% 0.6% 51 (96.2%) 0 (0.0%) 51 (96.2%) 2 (3.8%) Rapid treponemal antibody testing: Available and routinely used in suitable cases Available but not routinely used 30.0% 9.4% 16 (30.2%) 3 (5.7%) 18 (34.0%) 5 (9.4%) Clinic policy 2017 BASHH audit (N=160) Pre-pandemic Mar-Dec 2020 Repeat syphilis screening 6 weeks after a single high risk exposure: Formal policy Not formal policy but routinely recommended 26.9% 48.8% 13 (24.5%) 21 (39.6%) 11 (20.8%) 19 (35.8%) Repeat syphilis screening 12 weeks after a single high risk exposure: Formal policy Not formal policy but routinely recommended 58.1% 33.7% 36 (67.9%) 16 (30.2%) 36 (67.9%) 16 (30.2%) Three-monthly syphilis screening in individuals with frequent high risk exposure: Formal policy Not formal policy but routinely recommended 46.2% 46.9% 31 (58.5%) 20 (37.7%) 31 (58.5%) 19 (35.8%) Repeat screening two weeks after presentation in those with dark field or PCR negative ulcerative lesions that could be due to syphilis: Formal policy Not formal policy but routinely recommended 26.9% 56.2% 16 (30.2%) 22 (41.5%) 13 (24.5%) 22 (41.5%) Quantitative RPR/VDRL measurement three months after treatment for early syphilis: Formal policy Not formal policy but routinely recommended 80.0% 19.4% 47 (88.7%) 5 (9.4%) 43 (81.1%) 6 (11.3%) Quantitative RPR/VDRL measurement six months after treatment for early syphilis: Formal policy Not formal policy but routinely recommended 79.4% 18.7% 44 (83.0%) 4 (7.55) 38 (71.7%) 6 (11.3%) Follow-up HIV testing after one month for individuals who test HIV negative on presenting with early syphilis: Formal policy Not formal olicy but routinely recommended 39.4% 51.9% 16 (30.2%) 21 (39.6%) 15 (28.3%) 20 (37.7%) Preferred or usual treatment for early syphilis 2017 BASHH audit (N=160) Pre-pandemic Mar-Dec 2020 IM benzathine penicillin 100.0% 52 (98.1%) 47 (88.7%) Doxycycline 0.0% 0 (0.0%) 4 (7.5%) Other 0.0% 1 (1.9%)* 2 (3.8%)** *Based on individual situation;**one both, one based on individual situation.Methods of partner notification available 2017 BASHH audit (N=160) Pre-pandemic Mar-Dec 2020 Patient referral 99.4% 52 (98.1%) 52 (98.1%) Provider referral 97.5% 48 (90.6%) 45 (84.9%) Electronic means of contact 28.7% 15 (28.3%) 15 (28.3%) Stage of syphilis 2017 BASHH audit (N=3017) 2021 SAS Group audit Your service Early asymptomatic/incubating Primary Secondary Early latent Late latent Tertiary Not answered 9.1% 34.6% 25.7% 29.4% NA NA 1.2% 96 (6.6%) 388 (26.7%) 262 (18.0%) 340 (23.4%) 341 (23.5%) 16 (1.1%) 11 (0.8%) RPR or VDRL titre obtained pre-treatmentKey outcome: The percentage of confirmed syphilis cases having a record of a RPR or VDRL titre obtained pre-treatment (standard 97% confirmed syphilis cases) 2017 BASHH audit (N=3017) 2021 SAS Group audit Your service Pre-treatment quantitative RPR/VDRL obtained: Of which, on day of starting treatment Not done Not answered 94.8% 56.4% 2.7% 2.6% 1332 (91.6%) 1011 (69.5%) 28 (1.9%) 94 (6.5%) Key outcome: The percentage of confirmed syphilis cases having fully adhered to a recommended treatment (standard 97% confirmed syphilis cases) 2017 BASHH audit (N=3017) 2021 SAS Group audit 2021 SAS Group audit (early syphilis only) Your service Excluded from outcome because treated elsewhere/previously treated Denominator for this outcome 14 3003 (100.0%) 10 1444 (100.0%) 4 1082 (100.0%) Single dose stat regimen Fully adhered to other regimen Subtotal: outcome met 85.0% 11.6% 96.7% 900 (62.3%) 472 (32.7%) 1372 (95.0%) 889 (82.2%) 166 (15.3%) 1055 (97.5%) Did not fully adhere Suitable regimen not reported Not treated Not documented/not known/not answered 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 2.3% 26 (1.8%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.1%) 45 (3.1) 5 (0.5%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 22 (2.0%) Partner notificationNumber of contacts within relevant lookback period: 2021 SAS Group audit Your service 0 1 2 3 4 5 6-10 11-20 21 or more Not answered 81 (5.6%) 583 (40.1%) 368 (25.3%) 134 (9.2%) 73 (5.0%) 54 (3.7%) 80 (5.5%) 23 (1.6%) 21 (1.4%) 37 (2.5%) Key outcome: The percentage of cases having the outcome of (an) agreed contact action(s), or the decision not to contact, documented for all contacts, within the appropriate look back interval (standard 97% confirmed syphilis cases) 2017 BASHH audit (N=3017) 2021 SAS Group audit 2021 SAS Group audit (early syphilis only) Your service Done Not done Not sure Not answered 73.8% 17.6% 5.6% 2.9% 1166 (80.2%) 183 (12.6%) 75 (5.2%) 30 (2.1%) 876 (80.7%) 138 (12.7%) 48 (4.4%) 24 (2.2%)

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL