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1.
Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing ; JOUR(5), 6.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2099609

ABSTRACT

Direct Digital Manufacturing (DDM) is considered by many as one of the most promising approaches towards cost- and time-efficient mass customization. Compared to conventional manufacturing systems, DDM systems are not as common and incorporate several distinctive features, such as higher flexibility in product form and structure, lower economies of scale and higher potential for decentralized production network. The initial design phase of a DDM production system, where very important in term of efficiency and quality, decisions are made, is a relatively unexplored topic in the relevant literature. In the present study, the corresponding issues are investigated through a case study involving the direct digital production of a customized reusable face mask (respirator) for medical use. Investigated system design aspects include product, process, and facility design. Based on data generated through manufacturing tests, a preliminary cost analysis is performed and several scenarios regarding production throughput and facility planning are examined. According to the results, DDM of custom-made face masks is, to a large extent, technically and economically feasible. Interestingly, considering the whole process, a large part of production cost is associated with labor and materials. Finally, evidence for a fundamental trade-off between manufacturing cost and speed/flexibility is identified, implying that different implementations of DDM systems can be realized depending on strategic operational objectives.

2.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105580, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095613

ABSTRACT

Face mask wearing was an important preventative strategy for the transmission of the COVID-19 virus. However, the effects that occluding the mouth and nose area with surgical masks could have on young children's language processing and emotion recognition skills have received little investigation. To evaluate the possible effects, the current study recruited a sample of 74 children from the North West of England (aged 4-8 years). They completed two computer-based tasks with adults wearing or not wearing surgical face masks to assess (a) language processing skills and (b) emotion recognition ability. To control for individual differences, age, sex, receptive vocabulary, early reading skills, and parent-reported social-emotional competence were included in analyses. The findings from the study highlighted that although younger children were less accurate than older children, face masks did not significantly impair basic language processing ability. However, they had a significant effect on the children's emotion recognition accuracy-with masked angry faces more easily recognized and masked happy and sad faces less easily recognized. Children's age and social-emotional skills also played a role. The findings suggest that the effects of face masks should continue to be evaluated.

3.
Medical Science ; JOUR(125), 26.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2091788

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of facemasks is a key preventive measure against the COVID-19 pandemic. Wearing a facemask for long periods can cause mask-associated dry eyes. This study explored the prevalence of facemask-related dry eyes (MADE) and associated factors. Methods: This study was cross-sectional, carried out on healthcare workers in Primary Healthcare Centers (PHCs) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Descriptive statistics were performed. Chi-Square was used to evaluate the association between determinant and outcome variables. P-value < 0.05 was considered for significance. Regression analysis was applied to identify the contribution of independent factors to the outcomes. Results: Our study got a 91% response rate. The prevalence of mask-associated dry eyes was 70.9%. Participants aged 31-40 years had almost three times more likelihood to develop MADE (OR: 2.98;95% CI: 1.493-5.947), and those aged 41-50 years had 2.54 odds of developing MADE (OR: 2.54;95% CI: 1.090-5.924). Time spent on digital screens (> 4 hours) was 2.38 times more associated with MADE, while radiology staff, medical specialists, medical consultants and managerial team were less likely (OR=0.097, OR= 0.257, OR=0.222, and OR=0.290, respectively) of developing MADE. There was no statistically significant association of MADE with pre-existing eye problems (p>0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of mask-associated dry eyes was high. Increased age and screen time were significant independent factors associated with risks for MADE, while being a radiology staff and managerial team member, medical specialists, and medical consultants were associated with lower risks for MADE than other healthcare workers.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; : 159880, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086716

ABSTRACT

The global scope of pollution from plastic waste is a well-known phenomenon associated with trade, mass consumption, and the disposal of plastic products, including personal protective equipment (PPE), viral test kits, and vacuum-packaged food. Recently, however, the scale of the problem has been exacerbated by increases in indoor livelihood activities during lockdowns imposed in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The present study describes the effects of increased plastic waste on environmental footprint and human health. Further, the technological/regulatory options and life cycle assessment (LCA) approach for sustainable plastic waste management are critically dealt in terms of their implications on energy resilience and circular economy. The abrupt increase in health-care waste during pandemic worsens environmental quality, hampers the development of renewable energy projects, socio-economic systems, and undermines sustainability in general. In addition, weathered plastic particles from PPE, including microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) adsorb chemical and microbial contaminants, which pose a risk to ecosystems, biota, occupational safety, and human health. PPE-derived plastic pollution during the pandemic also jeopardizes sustainable development goals, energy resilience, and climate control measures. However, it is revealed that the pandemic can be regarded as an opportunity for explicit LCA to better address the problems associated with environmental footprints of plastic waste and focus on sustainable management technologies such as circular bio-economies, biorefineries, and thermal gasification. Future researches in the energy-efficient clean technologies and circular bio-economies (or biorefineries) in concert with a "nexus" framework can help reduce plastic waste volume during the pandemic. As such, such efforts can help put humankind on a pathway toward a sustainable future, economic resilience, and improved 'climate-smart health care'.

5.
Multimed Tools Appl ; : 1-19, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085469

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an ongoing pandemic and the WHO recommends at least one-meter social distance, and the use of medical face masks to slow the disease's transmission. This paper proposes an automated approach for detecting social distance and face masks. Thus, it aims to help the reduction of diseases transferred by respiratory droplets such as COVID-19. For this system, a two-cascaded YOLO is used. The first cascade detects humans in the environment and computes the social distance between them. Then, the second cascade detects human faces with or without a mask. Finally, red bounding boxes encircle the people's images that did not follow the rules. Also, in this paper, we propose a two-part feature extraction approach used with YOLO. The first part of the proposed feature extraction method extracts general features using the transfer learning approach. The second part extracts better features specific to the current task using the LBP layer and classification layers. The best average precision for the human detection task was obtained as 66% using Resnet50 in YOLO. The best average precision for the mask detection was obtained as 95% using Darknet19+LBP with YOLO. Also, another popular object detection network, Faster R-CNN, have been used for comparison purpose. The proposed system performed better than the literature in human and mask detection tasks.

6.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; JOUR(12-B):No Pagination Specified, 83.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2083802

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to measure the correlation between knowledge of viral disease and disease risk perception, disease severity perception, and mask wearing during the COVID-19 pandemic by level of education, age, and gender at a community college in Phoenix, Arizona. Participants were recruited by an email sent to all students, faculty, and staff at PVCC using an all-college email distribution list. Disease risk and severity perception were assessed with the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire 5, which was modified to include questions measuring participant age, education level, and whether they had ever taken a college biology course. Two additional question sets measured compliance of willingness to wear a face mask. Analysis showed a significant relationship between gender and mask wearing behavior and between knowledge of viral disease in combination with education level and the combined variables of disease risk perception, disease severity perception, and mask wearing behavior. No significant difference from having taken a biology course was found in risk perception, disease severity perception, and mask wearing behavior by age. The results suggest that formal higher education that includes a knowledge of viral disease influences how individuals perceive the severity and risk of COVID-19 and modify their mask wearing behavior accordingly. Gender influences people's willingness to wear a mask, even though it has no effect of risk perception or severity perception. The results can be used to modify existing health education strategies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

7.
SSRN;
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-346160

ABSTRACT

During the COVID 19 pandemic, wearing certified face masks provided important means of protection against direct and indirect infections caused by virus-laden aerosols. Assessing the mask performance associated with infection prevention in standardised certification tests, however, faces drawbacks, such as the representativeness of the test aerosols used, the protection of third parties during exhalation or the effect of facial leaks. To address these drawbacks, we designed a novel test bench to measure the mask performance, namely the number based total efficiency, size-segregated fractional filtration efficiency and net pressure loss, for 11 types of certified surgical masks and Filtering Face Pieces dependent on breathing mode and facial fit. To be representative for the context of potentially infectious particles, we use a test aerosol based on artificial saliva that is in its size distribution similar to exhaled aerosols. In inhalation mode excluding facial leaks, all investigated samples deposit by count more than 85% of artificial saliva particles, which suggests a high efficiency of certified mask filter media related to these particles. In exhalation mode most masks tend to have similar efficiencies but lower pressure losses. This deviation tends to be significant primarily for the masks with thin filter layers like surgical masks or Filtering Face Pieces containing nanofibers and may depend on the masks shape. Both the filtration efficiency and pressure loss are strongly inter-dependent and significantly lower when masks are naturally fitted including facial leaks, leading to a wide efficiency range of approximately 30 – 85%. The results indicate a much greater influence of the facial fit than the filter material itself. Furthermore, masks tend be more effective in self-protection than in third-party protection, which is inversely correlated to pressure loss. Comparing different types of masks, the pressure loss partially differs at similar filtration efficiencies, which points out the influence of the material and the filter area on pressure loss.

8.
Gac Med Mex ; 158(4): 196-201, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081416

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 superspreader events have occurred when symptomatic individuals without wearing face masks boarded buses. OBJECTIVE: To report the risk of superspreader events when presymptomatic individuals boarded buses to-gether with unvaccinated passengers, but with non-pharmacological preventive interventions being maintained. METHODS: Prospec-tive study of health personnel transported in buses to a COVID-19 vaccination center for two weeks. Open windows, correct use of face masks and exclusion of symptomatic individuals were mandatory. Prospective surveillance identified workers with COVID-19 within 14 days after vaccination. Each asymptomatic passenger of buses where cases were identified was monitored for a similar time period. Voluntary screening results were available for workers who were tested in the month before or after vaccination. RESULTS: 1,879 workers boarded 65 buses. On-board time ranged from three to eight hours. Twenty-nine cases of COVID-19 and four asymptomatic cases were identified among 613 passengers of 21 buses. Median time between vaccina-tion and COVID-19 symptoms onset was six days. One case of suspected transmission on a bus was identi-fied. CONCLUSIONS: Strict nonpharmacological preventive interventions substantially reduced the risk of COVID-19 super-spreader events in buses boarded by presymptomatic individuals.


ANTECEDENTES: Ha ocurrido superpropagación de COVID-19 cuando individuos sintomáticos sin uso de cubrebocas abordaron autobuses. OBJETIVO: Reportar el riesgo de superpropagación cuando individuos presintomáticos abordaron autobuses junto con pasajeros no vacunados pero se mantuvieron intervenciones preventivas no farmacológicas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio prospec­tivo de personal de salud transportado durante dos semanas en autobuses a un centro de vacunación contra COVID-19. Fue obligatorio llevar ventanas abiertas, uso correcto de cubrebocas y exclusión de personas con síntomas. La vigilancia prospectiva identificó a trabajadores con COVID-19 los 14 días siguientes a la vacunación. Cada pasajero asintomático de autobuses donde se detectaron casos fue vigilado durante un periodo de tiempo similar. Los resultados de tamizaje voluntario estuvieron disponibles para los trabajadores que se realizaron prueba el mes previo o el siguiente a la vacunación. RESULTADOS: 1879 trabajadores abordaron 65 autobuses. El tiempo a bordo varió de tres a ocho horas. Veintinueve casos de COVID-19 y 4 casos asintomáticos fueron identificados entre 613 pasajeros de 21 autobuses. La mediana de tiempo entre la vacunación y el inicio de síntomas en casos de COVID-19 fue de seis días. Fue identificado un caso de transmisión sospechada en autobús. CONCLUSIONES: Las intervenciones preventivas no farmacológicas estrictas redujeron sustancialmente el riesgo de superpropagación de COVID-19 en autobuses ocupados por individuos presintomáticos.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Spectinomycin , COVID-19 Vaccines , Motor Vehicles
9.
13th Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility and Technical Exhibition, APEMC 2022 ; : 210-212, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2078166

ABSTRACT

Since face masks may help slow the spread of diseases, a patient may wear a face mask for an MRI exam during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, metal parts, like nose or face clips within the mask, may burn the patient during an MRI. In this numerical study, we investigated the two-channel RF shimming effect on the RF-induced local SAR of a face mask with a metal strip. With the parallel transmission RF field exposure to the virtual adult male model with a face mask, the RF-induced local SAR1g is calculated for each excitation condition. Under the exposure limit of a whole-body averaged SAR of 2 W/kg and head averaged SAR of 3.2 W/kg, the peak SAR1g is 178 W/kg and 62 W/kg occurs at the nose touching the metal strip. The SAR1g value is higher on the skin area close to the metal strip than at other locations. The metal strip within the face mask could cause a potential RF-induced heating hazard. © 2022 IEEE.

10.
Int J Environ Health Res ; : 1-17, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077382

ABSTRACT

Synthetic polymers with additives are used in the manufacturing of face masks (FMs); hence, FMs could be a potential source of exposure to phthalic acid esters (PAEs). India stands second in the world in terms of the FMs usage since the beginning of Covid-19 pandemic. However, little is known about the PAEs content of FMs used in India. Some PAEs, such as DEHP and DBP are suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs); hence, wearing FM may increase the risk of exposure to these EDCs. In this study, we collected 91 samples of FMs from eight Indian cities and analyzed for five PAEs viz. DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, and DEHP. The PAEs contents in FMs ranged from 101.79 to 27,948.64 ng/g. The carcinogenic risk of N 95 with filter, N-95, and cloth masks was higher than the threshold levels. The findings indicate the need to control PAEs in FMs through regulatory actions.

11.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071651

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, face masks have been introduced in the complex strategy of infection prevention and control. Face masks consist of plastic polymers and additives such as phthalates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the migration of microplastics (MP) and phthalates from face masks to water. Four types of masks including FFP2 masks and surgical were studied. Masks were first characterized to determine the different layers and the material used for their fabrication. Then, masks were cut into 20 pieces of 0.5 cm2, including all their layers, placed in water, and the migration of MP and phthalates was evaluated according to the conditions stated in EU Regulation No 10/2011 on plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food. For MP, the morphological analysis (shape, dimension, particle count) was performed using a stereomicroscope, while the identification of both masks and MP released was conducted using µ-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (µ-FT-IR). Migration of phthalates was assessed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). Face masks analyzed in the present study were made of atactic polypropylene (PP) as stated by the manufacturer. The µ-FT-IR confirmed that PP and polyamide (PA) were released as fragments, while both PP and polyester (PES) were released as fibers. In addition, 4 phthalates were identified at concentrations between 2.34 and 21.0 µg/mask. This study shows that the migration study can be applied to evaluate the potential release of MP and phthalates from face masks to water and could give a hint for the potential impact of their incorrect disposal on the aquatic resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microplastics , Humans , Plastics/chemistry , Masks , Water , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Polypropylenes/analysis , Nylons , Chromatography, Liquid , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Polyesters/analysis
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071406

ABSTRACT

Since the year 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as the dominant topic of discussion in the public and research domains. Intensive research has been carried out on several aspects of COVID-19, including vaccines, its transmission mechanism, detection of COVID-19 infection, and its infection rate and factors. The awareness of the public related to the COVID-19 infection factors enables the public to adhere to the standard operating procedures, while a full elucidation on the correlation of different factors to the infection rate facilitates effective measures to minimize the risk of COVID-19 infection by policy makers and enforcers. Hence, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive and analytical review of different factors affecting the COVID-19 infection rate. Furthermore, this review analyses factors which directly and indirectly affect the COVID-19 infection risk, such as physical distance, ventilation, face masks, meteorological factor, socioeconomic factor, vaccination, host factor, SARS-CoV-2 variants, and the availability of COVID-19 testing. Critical analysis was performed for the different factors by providing quantitative and qualitative studies. Lastly, the challenges of correlating each infection risk factor to the predicted risk of COVID-19 infection are discussed, and recommendations for further research works and interventions are outlined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Masks
13.
International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications ; 13(7):92-97, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068219

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 pandemic on 12 Mar, 2020, due to the growth in the number of cases worldwide. WHO advises wearing a face mask and practicing social distancing, which has played a crucial role in prevention and control measures that can prevent the spread of COVID-19. Thus, this paper presents the process through which face mask box is equipped with a voice reminder and sensor. It is made with the help of an Arduino Uno board to give awareness or reminder whenever a person is alerted with a voice reminder to wear a face mask before going outside. It can be helpful, especially in the pandemic era, as a new norm of practice in wearing a mask.

14.
Studia Socjologiczne ; 2022(3):137-157, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2067546

ABSTRACT

Is there a cause-and-effect relationship between the application of the personal protection equipment and strong social ties? We look at face-masks wearing in Dagestan republic in southern Russia. The social context of Covid-19 in Russia has not been exhaustively analyzed yet and medical landscapes in the post-Soviet context differ significantly from the Western models. We believe that such artifacts as face-masks are good for tracing relations between people, the virus, and the state. Contrary to the research based on data from the United States and China, our research reveals that there is not necessarily a cause-and--effect relationship between mask wearing and strong social ties. Face masks in Dagestan never became embodied artifacts despite strong social ties in the republic. Cultural and political context needs to be considered when thinking about the relationship between the strength of social ties and application of PPE. © 2022, Polska Akademia Nauk. All rights reserved.

15.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(11):3694-3704, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067341

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 is an emerging respiratory infection and pandemic disease that caused by a virus called the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the WHO rename as Covid-19. The government of Malaysia implemented Movement Control Order (MCO) to control the spreading of the disease. The citizens play an important role to curb Covid-19 by giving cooperation and compliant to Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) implemented by the government. Therefore, this study is to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices towards Covid-19 among UOC (University of Cyberjaya) MBBS students during the rapid rise period during the Covid-19 outbreak. A cross sectional study was conducted. The respondents that took part in this study were medical students from University of Cyberjaya. Our result shows that 143 out of 150 participants (95.3%) had good knowledge. 3 questions were asked to evaluate attitude towards COVID-19. For the first question, 58% of the participants had positive attitude, second question 83.3% and third question 33.3% executively. In terms of practice, 79.3% of the participants reported they avoided crowded places in the week before MCO was implemented, 76.7% of them wear face masks when they leave home and 88.0% practiced proper hand hygiene. Lastly, our findings confirmed that there is no significant association between sociodemographic factors and knowledge. Copyright © 2022, Anka Publishers. All rights reserved.

16.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(9):4900-4906, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067296

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of COVID-19 (Coronavirus 2019) around the globe has just brought about a serious public health emergency. The World Health Organization (WHO) has distributed a number of different guidelines in an effort to limit the spread of COVID-19. If a someone is concerned about getting COVID-19, the World Health Organization advises that they wear a mask whenever they are in a public or crowded place. This recommendation applies to both adults and children. Simply looking at someone makes it hard to tell if they are concealing their identity with a mask. In this study, we conduct a comprehensive analysis of the data that was collected and the performance is being measured with deep learning architectures.In this research work, each and every one of the prerequisites for such a model was investigated. The suggested approach uses a deep learning technique-CNN in order to differentiate between labels in an image that have masks and labels that do not have masks. The results of the experiments show that the proposed system achieves 99.77% accuracy on the benchmark datasets, exceeding previous systems and datasets that are considered state-of-the-art in a real-time setting. Copyright © 2022, Anka Publishers. All rights reserved.

17.
EWHA Medical Journal ; 45(2):46-54, 2022.
Article in Korean | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067252

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Public health risks and anxiety have been increasing since the outbreak of Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). The public expresses questions related to the COVID-19 issue through the web base. The aim of this study was to analyze public perception and sentiments of COVID-19 Pandemic in South Korea. Methods: We collected the text data (questions: 252, 181) related to COVID-19 from Naver Knowledge-iN during January 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020. The search keywords included related to COVID-19 using Korean words for “SARS-Cov-2”, “COVID19”, “COVID-19”, “Wuhan pneumonia”, “Coronavirus”, “Corona”. A topic modeling analysis was used to investigate and search trends of public perception. The sentiment analysis was conducted to analyze of public emotions in the questions related to COVID-19. We performed the Pearson's correlation analysis between daily number of COVID-19 cases and daily proportion of negative sentiment in documents related to COVID-19 by COVID-19 outbreak period. Results: A total of 241, 776 documents used in this study. The most frequent words in the documents to appear cough, symptoms, tests, confirmed patients, mask and etc. Twenty topics (COVID-test, Economy, School, Hospital/Diagnose, Travel/Overseas, Health, Social issue, Symptom 1 (respiratory), Relationships, Symptom 2 (e.g., fever), Workplace, Mask/Social distancing, infection/Vaccine, Stimulus Package, Family, Delivery Service, Unclassified, Region, Study/Exam, Worry, Anxiety) were extracted using the topic modeling. There was a positive association between the daily counts of COVID-19 patients and proportion of negative sentiment. By COVID-19 period, Stage 4 had the highest correlation. Conclusion: This study identified the South Korean public's interest and emotions about COVID-19 during the prolonged pandemic crisis.

18.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26(10):1159-1160, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066997
19.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 10:217-221, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066680

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The first data for COVID-19 in pregnancy showed mild-to-moderate forms of the disease while the current data speak of severe forms in these subjects. Here, we present a case of a severe form of COVID-19 in a gemelar pregnant woman complicated with pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax, during her hospital stay, in a late stage of disease. CASE PRESENTATION: A 38-year-old multiparous woman was referred to university hospital at 25 weeks of gemelar pregnancy. On admission, the patient presented with signs of moderate respiratory insufficiency, which after 12 h progressed further to severe ARDS. She tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Under these conditions, it was decided that the patient undergoes a cesarean section for termination of pregnancy. Remdesivir 200 mg/day and tocilizumab 8 mg/kg were administered, based on national guidelines. The patient’s fever subsided, but her SpO2 remained at 94%, even with a 15 L/min oxygen mask. After 12 days, the patient complains of a severe back pain and her respiratory condition rapidly worsened and reduced saturations up to 80% being under O2 therapy with facial mask with 15 l/min. Chest CT findings confirmed pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax, which deteriorated the patient’s status. Thereafter, tube thoracostomy was performed. There was a clinical and ABG analysis parameter’s improvement. The patient was discharged 34 days after cesarean delivery with a proper general health. CONCLUSION: Our case highlights even more convincingly the fact that, in pregnancy, can be severe to life-threating forms of COVID-19. Pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum are complications that can be encountered even in the late stages of severe forms cases with COVID-19 in pregnancy. Early diagnosis of these complications is essential in adequate management and treatment to avoid fatal outcome.

20.
Interact J Med Res ; 11(2): e39366, 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although a critical safety measure, preliminary studies have suggested that the use of a face mask may pose a problem for some users with disabilities. To date, little is known about how the wearing of a traditional face mask may pose a barrier to individuals with visual impairments who draw on auditory cues and echolocation techniques during independent travel. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to document the difficulties, if any, encountered during orientation and mobility due to the use of a face mask during the COVID-19 pandemic and the strategies used to address these barriers. METHODS: In total, 135 individuals aged 18 years and older who self-identified as being blind, being deafblind, or having low vision and who could communicate in either English or French completed an anonymous cross-sectional online survey between March 29 and August 23, 2021. RESULTS: In total, 135 respondents (n=52, 38.5%, men; n=83, 61.5%, women) between the ages of 18 and 79 (mean 48.22, SD 14.48) years participated. Overall, 78 (57.7%) self-identified as blind and 57 (42.3%) as having low vision. In addition, 13 (9.6%) identified as having a combined vision and hearing loss and 3 (2.2%) as deafblind. The most common face coverings used were cloth (n=119, 88.1%) and surgical masks (n=74, 54.8%). Among the barriers raised, participants highlighted that face masks made it more difficult to locate people (n=86, 63.7%), communicate with others (n=101, 74.8%), and locate landmarks (n=82, 60.7%). Although the percentage of those who used a white cane before the pandemic did not substantially change, 6 (14.6%) of the 41 participants who were guide dog users prior to the pandemic reported no longer working with a guide dog at the time of the survey. Moreover, although guide dog users reported the highest level of confidence with independent travel before the pandemic, they indicated the lowest level of confidence a year after the pandemic began. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that participants were less able to draw on nonvisual cues during independent travel and social interactions due to the use of a facemask, contributing to a reduction in perceived self-confidence and independence. Findings inform the development of evidence-based recommendations to address identified barriers.

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