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1.
J Ambient Intell Humaniz Comput ; : 1-14, 2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238227

ABSTRACT

Law offenders take advantage of face masks to conceal their identities and in the present time of the COVID-19 pandemic wearing face masks is a new norm which makes it a daunting task for the investigation agencies to identify the offenders. To address the issue of detection of people wearing face masks using surveillance cameras, we propose a novel face mask vision system that is based on an improved tiny YOLO v4 object detector. The face masks detection network of the proposed vision system is developed by integrating tiny YOLO v4 with spatial pyramid pooling (SPP) module and additional YOLO detection layer and tested and validated on a self-created face masks detection dataset consisting of more than 50,000 images. The proposed tiny YOLO v4-SPP network achieved a mAP (mean average precision) value of 64.31% on the employed dataset which was 6.6% higher than tiny YOLO v4. Specifically, for detection of the presence of a small object like a face mask on the face region, the proposed tiny YOLO v4-SPP based vision system achieved an AP (average precision) of 84.42% which was 14.05% higher than the original tiny YOLO v4 thus, ensuring that the proposed network is capable of accurate detection of a mask on the face region in real-time surveillance applications where visibility of complete face area is a guideline.

2.
Crim Law Philos ; : 1-21, 2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234723

ABSTRACT

Over the past decade, countries such as France, Belgium, Denmark, Austria, Latvia, and Bulgaria have banned face-coverings from public spaces. These bans are popularly known as 'burqa bans' as they seem to have been drafted with the aim of preventing people from wearing burqas and niqabs specifically. The scholarly response to these bans has been overwhelmingly negative, with several lawyers and philosophers arguing that they violate the human right to freedom of religion. While this article shares some of the concerns that have been raised, it argues that banning face-coverings in public is morally justified under certain conditions with the exception of facemasks that are necessary for the containment of infectious diseases, such as COVID-19. The reason for this is that those who publicly cover their face make it very difficult for other members of society to socially interact with them, especially for those who are deaf or hard-of-hearing, which is problematic in an age where many people are chronically lonely or at risk of becoming chronically lonely. As such, this article can be understood as a more elaborate, and arguably more sophisticated, defence of the justification that France offered for its face-covering ban before the European Court of Human Rights, namely that covering one's face undermines the conditions for 'living together'.

3.
Hosp Top ; : 1-10, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233131

ABSTRACT

This study reviewed state and District of Columbia (DC) health department guidelines for the use of face masks by healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic via an October 2020 internet search and compared these guidelines to those from the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Guidelines varied between states and DC with respect to N95 face mask and surgical mask use, as well as to extended use and re-use of N95 masks. Uniform guidance based on emerging evidence should be required for creating policy and procedures for healthcare workers during this and future pandemics.

4.
J Clin Aesthet Dermatol ; 16(5): 22, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244230
5.
Polymers (Basel) ; 15(11)2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243692

ABSTRACT

There is an ever-growing interest in recovering and recycling waste materials due to their hazardous nature to the environment and human health. Recently, especially since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, disposable medical face masks have been a major source of pollution, hence the rise in studies being conducted on how to recover and recycle this waste. At the same time, fly ash, an aluminosilicate waste, is being repurposed in various studies. The general approach to recycling these materials is to process and transform them into novel composites with potential applications in various industries. This work aims to investigate the properties of composites based on silico-aluminous industrial waste (ashes) and recycled polypropylene from disposable medical face masks and to create usefulness for these materials. Polypropylene/ash composites were prepared through melt processing methods, and samples were analyzed to get a general overview of the properties of these composites. Results showed that the polypropylene recycled from face masks used together with silico-aluminous ash can be processed through industrial melt processing methods and that the addition of only 5 wt% ash with a particle size of less than 90 µm, increases the thermal stability and the stiffness of the polypropylene matrix while maintaining its mechanical strength. Further investigations are needed to find specific applications in some industrial fields.

6.
Front Chem Sci Eng ; : 1-11, 2023 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242761

ABSTRACT

The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has resulted in the widespread use of personal protective equipment, particularly face masks. However, the use of commercial disposable face masks puts great pressure on the environment. In this study, nano-copper ions assembled cotton fabric used in face masks to impart antibacterial activity has been discussed. To produce the nanocomposite, the cotton fabric was modified by sodium chloroacetate after its mercerization, and assembled with bactericidal nano-copper ions (about 10.61 mg·g-1) through electrostatic adsorption. It demonstrated excellent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli because the gaps between fibers in the cotton fabric allow the nano-copper ions to be fully released. Moreover, the antibacterial efficiency was maintained even after 50 washing cycles. Furthermore, the face mask constructed with this novel nanocomposite upper layer exhibited a high particle filtration efficiency (96.08% ± 0.91%) without compromising the air permeability (28.9 min·L-1). This green, economical, facile, and scalable process of depositing nano-copper ions onto modified cotton fibric has great potential to reduce disease transmission, resource consumption, and environmental impact of waste, while also expanding the range of protective fabrics.

7.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242696

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, face masks have been among the cornerstones of COVID-19 prevention. Therefore, evaluating their preventive effects against COVID-19 is crucial. This review aimed to systematically search for the systematic review articles that explored the role of various types of face masks in preventing COVID-19. METHODS: We browsed the keywords of this study in the online databases of Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and Cochrane on 10th January 2023 and retrieved all the relevant systematic review articles. The records were downloaded into an Endnote file, and the duplicates were removed. A two-step screening process consisting of title/abstract and full-text screenings was conducted to select the most relevant articles. To ensure the validity and reliability of the results, this study adhered to the PRISMA protocol. RESULTS: A total of 28 systematic reviews were included in this review. Most studies found that face masks are beneficial against viral respiratory infections, such as COVID-19. Different types of masks were evaluated in included studies. It appeared that mask efficacy depends on the material, layers, fitting on the face and user compliance. N 95 respirator had maximum efficacy, especially when used continuously. CONCLUSION: Face masks have a beneficial effect against COVID-19. Home masks are less protective than surgical masks or N95 personal breathing masks. Besides, the use of masks may elicit a false sense of security in people, which may lead to poor hand hygiene and violation of social distancing. Therefore, the necessary training should be provided to the public to increase awareness and encourage the right practice of using the mask, emphasizing the preventive effects of washing hands, social distancing, and using a face mask against COVID-19.

8.
Pediatr Investig ; 7(2): 75-85, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240043

ABSTRACT

Importance: Despite the high burden of respiratory infections among children, the production of exhaled particles during common activities and the efficacy of face masks in children have not been sufficiently studied. Objective: To determine the effect of type of activity and mask usage on exhaled particle production in children. Methods: Healthy children were asked to perform activities that ranged in intensity (breathing quietly, speaking, singing, coughing, and sneezing) while wearing no mask, a cloth mask, or a surgical mask. The concentration and size of exhaled particles were assessed during each activity. Results: Twenty-three children were enrolled in the study. Average exhaled particle concentration increased by intensity of activity, with the lowest particle concentration during tidal breathing (1.285 particles/cm3 [95% CI 0.943, 1.627]) and highest particle concentration during sneezing (5.183 particles/cm3 [95% CI 1.911, 8.455]). High-intensity activities were associated with an increase primarily in the respirable size (≤ 5 µm) particle fraction. Surgical and cloth masks were associated with lower average particle concentration compared to no mask (P = 0.026 for sneezing). Surgical masks outperformed cloth masks across all activities, especially within the respirable size fraction. In a multivariable linear regression model, we observed significant effect modification of activity by age and by mask type. Interpretation: Similar to adults, children produce exhaled particles that vary in size and concentration across a range of activities. Production of respirable size fraction particles (≤ 5 µm), the dominant mode of transmission of many respiratory viruses, increases significantly with coughing and sneezing and is most effectively reduced by wearing surgical face masks.

9.
Pharmaceutics ; 15(5)2023 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Using face masks is one of the protective measures to reduce the transmission rate of coronavirus. Its massive spread necessitates developing safe and effective antiviral masks (filters) applying nanotechnology. METHODS: Novel electrospun composites were fabricated by incorporating cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) into polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospun nanofibers that can be used in the future in face masks. The effects of the polymer concentration, applied voltage, and feeding rate during the electrospinning were studied. The electrospun nanofibers were characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR, and tensile strength testing. The cytotoxic effect of the nanofibers was evaluated in the Vero cell line using the MTT colorimetric assay, and the antiviral activity of the proposed nanofibers was evaluated against the human adenovirus type 5 (ADV-5) respiratory virus. RESULTS: The optimum formulation was fabricated with a PAN concentration of 8%, w/v loaded with 0.25%, w/v CeO2 NPs with a feeding rate of 26 KV and an applied voltage of 0.5 mL/h. They showed a particle size of 15.8 ± 1.91 nm and a zeta potential of -14 ± 0.141 mV. SEM imaging demonstrated the nanoscale features of the nanofibers even after incorporating CeO2 NPs. The cellular viability study showed the safety of the PAN nanofibers. Incorporating CeO2 NPs into these fibers further increased their cellular viability. Moreover, the assembled filter could prevent viral entry into the host cells as well as prevent their replication inside the cells via adsorption and virucidal antiviral mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: The developed cerium oxide nanoparticles/polyacrylonitrile nanofibers can be considered a promising antiviral filter that can be used to halt virus spread.

10.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1131, 2023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234561

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the content and face validity index of the development of the understanding, attitude, practice and health literacy questionnaire on COVID-19 (MUAPHQ C-19) in the Malay language. METHODS: The development of the MUAPHQ C-19 was conducted in two stages. Stage I resulted in the generation of the instrument's items (development), and stage II resulted in the performance of the instrument's items (judgement and quantification). Six-panel experts related to the study field and ten general public participated to evaluate the validity of the MUAPHQ C-19. The content validity index (CVI), content validity ratio (CVR) and face validity index (FVI) were analysed using Microsoft Excel. RESULTS: There were 54 items and four domains, namely the understanding, attitude, practice and health literacy towards COVID-19, identified in the MUAPHQ C-19 (Version 1.0). The scale-level CVI (S-CVI/Ave) for every domain was above 0.9, which is considered acceptable. The CVR for all items was above 0.7, except for one item in the health literacy domain. Ten items were revised to improve the item's clarity, and two items were deleted due to the low CVR value and redundancy, respectively. The I-FVI exceeded the cut-off value of 0.83 except for five items from the attitude domain and four from the practice domains. Thus, seven of these items were revised to increase the clarity of items, while another two were deleted due to low I-FVI scores. Otherwise, the S-FVI/Ave for every domain exceeded the cut-off point of 0.9, which is considered acceptable. Thus, 50-item MUAPHQ C-19 (Version 3.0) was generated following the content and face validity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The questionnaire development, content validity, and face validity process are lengthy and iterative. The assessment of the instruments' items by the content experts and the respondents is essential to guarantee the instrument's validity. Our content and face validity study has finalised the MUAPHQ C-19 version that is ready for the next phase of questionnaire validation, using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Malaysia , Language , Factor Analysis, Statistical
11.
J Community Health ; 2023 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233700

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, public health authorities have encouraged the use of face masks to minimize transmission within the community. To assess mask wear during a COVID-19 surge and guide public health response efforts, including public messaging on mask recommendations, we compared observed mask use in the largest city in each of Idaho's 2 most populous counties, both without a current mask mandate. We recorded mask usage by every third person exiting stores of 5 retail chains in Boise and Nampa during November 8-December 5, 2021. Observations were conducted during three time periods (morning, afternoon, and evening) on weekday and weekend days. A multivariable model with city, retail chain, and city-chain interaction was used to assess mask wear differences by city for each chain. Of 3021 observed persons, 22.0% wore masks. In Boise, 31.3% (430/1376) of observed persons wore masks; in Nampa, 14.3% (236/1645) wore masks. Among all persons wearing masks, > 94% wore masks correctly; cloth and surgical masks were most common. By retail chain, observed individuals at Boise locations were 2.3-5.7 times as likely to wear masks than persons at respective Nampa locations. This study provided a rapid, nonconfrontational assessment of public use of mitigation measures in 2 Idaho cities during a COVID-19 surge.

12.
Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20245167

ABSTRACT

Background: X-Linked Moesin-Associated Immune Deficiency (X-MAID) is a rare severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) subtype that can present at any age due to its variability. Depending on severity, patients demonstrate failure to thrive, recurrent bacterial and viral infections, and increased susceptibility to varicella zoster. It has been characterized by marked lymphopenia with hypogammaglobulinemia and impaired T-cell migration and proliferation. Case Presentation: This is a report of a Cuban 7-year-old male with poor weight gain and facial dysmorphia. He had a history of recurrent bacterial gastrointestinal infections and pneumonia beginning at 4 months of age. He additionally had 4-6 upper respiratory tract and ear infections annually. While still living in Cuba, he was admitted for a profound EBV infection in the setting of significant leukopenia. A bone marrow biopsy confirmed no malignancy. After he moved to the United States, his laboratory work-up revealed marked leukopenia with low absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte count with low T and B cells, very low immunoglobulin levels IgG, IgA, and IgM, and poor vaccination responses to streptococcus pneumonia, varicella zoster, and SARS-CoV-2. Genetic testing revealed a missense pathogenic variant c.511C>T (p.Arg171Trp) in the moesin (MSN) gene associated with X-MAID. He was managed with Bactrim and acyclovir prophylaxis, and immunoglobulin replacement therapy, and considered for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Discussion(s): Diagnosis of X-MAID should be considered in patients with recurrent infections and profound lymphopenia. As with SCID, early diagnosis and intervention is of utmost importance to prevent morbidity and mortality. This case demonstrates the importance of genetic testing in identifying this disease as it may prompt an immunologist to consider HSCT if conservative management is suboptimal. In the current literature, HSCT appears promising, but the long-term outcomes have yet to be described.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

13.
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering ; 954:347-356, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20245022

ABSTRACT

Teleconsultation is a type of medical practice similar to face-to-face consultations, and it allows a health professional to give a consultation remotely through information and communication technologies. In the context of the management of the coronavirus epidemic, the use of teleconsultation practices can facilitate healthcare access and limit the risk of avoidable propagation in medical cabinets. This paper presents the monitoring of international teleconsultation referrals in the era of Covid-19 to facilitate and prevent the suspension of access to care, the most common architecture for teleconsultation, communication technologies and protocols, vital body signals, video transmission, and the conduct of teleconsultation. The aim is to develop a teleconsultation platform to diagnose the patient in real time, transmit data from the remote location to the doctor, and provide a teleconsultation. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

14.
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series ; : 171-176, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20244906

ABSTRACT

Despite the widespread use of emergency remote learning (ERL) during the COVID-19 pandemic in higher education, little is known about the determinants of Chinese normal student satisfaction with ERL. This study uses a questionnaire survey method to examine how Chinese normal students' satisfaction with ERL during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results show that Chinese normal students prefer face-to-face teaching to online teaching to some extent. According to the findings, it is important to emphasize students' pre-class preparation, adjust course assessment methods, change teachers' teaching strategies, create a positive teaching environment, boost students' learning confidence, and help them deal with their anxiety during ERL to improve the online course experience for Chinese students at normal universities. © 2023 ACM.

15.
2023 11th International Conference on Information and Education Technology, ICIET 2023 ; : 339-343, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20244788

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly changed education and caused unprecedented disruptions. These changes may disappear once the schools resume face-to-face classes in full force. Likewise, a positive change may not be necessarily what we want in education. This may be due to the existence of digital divide among students which cannot be ignored. During the COVID-19 pandemic, OneNote Class Notebook is used as an interactive digital whiteboard and has been evident as one of the best alternatives to the traditional whiteboard in the teaching and learning process. In this study, we aim to analyze students' perceptions of OneNote Class Notebook and the level of their continuous intention to use OneNote Class Notebook as an interactive digital whiteboard to replace the traditional whiteboard when school reopens with face-to-face lessons in the classroom in full force. The findings show that the students perceived that OneNote Class Notebook is indeed a useful tool to be used for calculus learning. But, it cannot be perceived as suitability to continue to be used during post COVID-19 period, when school reopens with physical classes in full force. In this regard, it reminds educators of the importance of rethinking education in the new normal post COVID-19 era from the perspective of curriculum studies. © 2023 IEEE.

16.
European Journal of Engineering Education ; 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-20244581

ABSTRACT

In spite of the sudden onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, many instructors who used team-based pedagogies shifted them online rather than suspending them entirely, but with limited time and resources. To examine the difference in team dynamics and outcomes for courses in Spring 2019 and Spring 2020 of over 1500 first-year engineering students per semester, Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and random forests method were used. Results show that students reported less improvement in team-member effectiveness, lower psychological safety, and less satisfaction in the semester with the emergency transition. However, students also reported lower conflict. The most important factor predicting project grades shifted from 'Interacting with teammates' to 'Having relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities' amid the emergency shift, accompanied by a reduction in team interdependence. In spite of the collection of data during an emergency transition, the foundation of face-to-face interaction before moving to virtual cooperation represents a useful contribution to research that has focused exclusively on virtual learning circumstances.

17.
Issues in Information Systems ; 23(3):199-208, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20244487

ABSTRACT

This research examines student preference toward online and on-ground (i.e., face-to-face) course delivery methods in higher education as a result of the easing of COVID-19 pandemic restrictions. Over 130 undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in Computer and Information Systems courses at a university located in the northeastern United States were surveyed from April 2021 to May 2022. The study found that with the easing of COVID-19 restrictions in Spring 2022, students significantly preferred on-ground over online courses in comparison to their preferences when COVID-19 restrictions were still high in 2021. None of the potential influencing factors contributing to the changed preference, including students' perceptions of online course effectiveness, self-skills supporting online learning (e.g., work independently without supervision, prioritization and time management), and the usefulness of classroom interaction in learning, were found to have significant differences from the time when COVID-19 restrictions were high to the present easing of them. © 2023 Issues in Information Systems. All rights reserved.

18.
2023 3rd International Conference on Advances in Electrical, Computing, Communication and Sustainable Technologies, ICAECT 2023 ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20244302

ABSTRACT

Healthcare systems all over the world are strained as the COVID-19 pandemic's spread becomes more widespread. The only realistic strategy to avoid asymptomatic transmission is to monitor social distance, as there are no viable medical therapies or vaccinations for it. A unique computer vision-based framework that uses deep learning is to analyze the images that are needed to measure social distance. This technique uses the key point regressor to identify the important feature points utilizing the Visual Geometry Group (VGG19) which is a standard Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architecture having multiple layers, MobileNetV2 which is a computer vision network that advances the-state-of-art for mobile visual identification, including semantic segmentation, classification and object identification. VGG19 and MobileNetV2 were trained on the Kaggle dataset. The border boxes for the item may be seen as well as the crowd is sizeable, and red identified faces are then analyzed by MobileNetV2 to detect whether the person is wearing a mask or not. The distance between the observed people has been calculated using the Euclidian distance. Pretrained models like (You only look once) YOLOV3 which is a real-time object detection system, RCNN, and Resnet50 are used in our embedded vision system environment to identify social distance on images. The framework YOLOV3 performs an overall accuracy of 95% using transfer learning technique runs in 22ms which is four times fast than other predefined models. In the proposed model we achieved an accuracy of 96.67% using VGG19 and 98.38% using MobileNetV2, this beats all other models in its ability to estimate social distance and face mask. © 2023 IEEE.

19.
Proceedings of 2023 3rd International Conference on Innovative Practices in Technology and Management, ICIPTM 2023 ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20244298

ABSTRACT

The most dangerous Coronavirus, COVID-19, is the source of this pandemic illness. This illness was initially identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and currently sweeping the globe. The virus spreads quickly because it is so simple to transmit from one person to another. Fever is one of the obvious signs of COVID-19 and is one of its prevalent symptoms. The mucosal areas, such as the nose, eyes, and mouth, are among the most significant ways to catch this virus. In order to prevent and track the corona virus infection, this research suggests a face-touching detection and self-health report monitoring system. Their hygiene will immediately improve thanks to this system. In this pandemic circumstance, people use their hands in dirty environments like buses, trains, and other surfaces, where the virus can remain active for a very long time. With an accelerometer and a pulse oximeter sensor, this system alerts the user when they are carrying their hands close to their faces. © 2023 IEEE.

20.
2023 11th International Conference on Information and Education Technology, ICIET 2023 ; : 480-484, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20243969

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the COVID-19 has made it difficult for people to interact with each other face-to-face, but various kinds of social interactions are still needed. Therefore, we have developed an online interactive system based on the image processing method, that allows people in different places to merge the human region of two images onto the same image in real-time. The system can be used in a variety of situations to extend its interactive applications. The system is mainly based on the task of Human Segmentation in the CNN (convolution Neural Network) method. Then the images from different locations are transmitted to the computing server through the Internet. In our design, the system ensures that the CNN method can run in real-time, allowing both side users can see the integrated image to reach 30 FPS when the network is running smoothly. © 2023 IEEE.

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