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1.
PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] ; 18(1):e0279026, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197064

ABSTRACT

India experienced a rapid rise in COVID-19 infections from March 2021. States imposed varying levels of lockdowns and curfews to curb the spread of the disease. These restrictions severely affected the functioning of food systems. The objective of this study was to analyze how COVID-19 continues to affect agricultural production, food security and household diets of vegetable farmers. A phone-based survey was conducted with 595 vegetable farmers in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Jharkhand, Karnataka and Odisha, 60% of whom had been interviewed a year earlier. Overall, 60% of farmers experienced decreased vegetable production;over 80% reported a reduction in consumption of at least one food group;and 45% reported some level of food insecurity between May 2020 and May 2021. Farmers who reported decreased staples production, difficulty accessing seeds/seedlings, or reduced their household spending were more likely to report decreased vegetable production. Vegetable consumption was positively associated with receipt of COVID-19 relief benefits, borrowing money, or having home gardens. Farmers who received public agricultural assistance, or had reduced expenses, were more likely to have lower vegetable consumption. Greater severity of food insecurity was associated with farmers belonging to underprivileged social groups, non-Hindus, or those who experienced decrease in livestock production, weather related disruptions or received COVID-19 assistance. This is one of few studies that have conducted a longitudinal assessment of the impacts across multiple waves of COVID-19. COVID-19 is seen to be one among several shocks experienced by farm households, and exacerbated existing issues within agriculture and food security. There is a need for public policy support to strengthen both production and consumption of vegetables.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1):102, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2196203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Seasonal agricultural workers working and living in inappropriate sanitary conditions are at great risk for public health. This study aimed to determine the relationships between the sociodemographic variables and life satisfaction of seasonal agricultural workers, and their knowledge, risk perception, and protective behaviors about the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, that included agricultural workers who are 18 years of age or older and worked seasonally in Yozgat, Turkey, during the period between August 2020 and October 2020. The well-being level was measured using the Personal Wellbeing Index-Adult form (PWIA). The data were collected using the face-to-face survey method and with 739 workers who voluntarily participated in the research. RESULTS: All participants disclosed having insufficient information about Covid-19 and indicated their peers and television as their sources of information. The vast majority of the workers stated that they complied with the mask mandates, social distancing, and hand hygiene. No correlations were found between knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors about Covid-19 and the level of wellbeing. The mean PWIA score of the workers was low (53.7) while they were mostly satisfied with their personal relationships (96.6) and health (76.1). The multivariable linear regression analysis revealed that being male (β = 0.245) and not having an ongoing health issue (β = 0.689) were associated with more PWIA;on the other hand, having more children (β = -0.52) was related to less PWIA. CONCLUSIONS: The well-being level of seasonal workers was lower while it was not associated with knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors about Covid-19.

3.
Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2191475

ABSTRACT

PurposeThe objective of this study was to examine the impact of the pandemic on sustainable agricultural practices (SAP) adoption such as: organic fertilizers, minimal use of tillage, crop rotation, soil burning and crop association in the frame of family farming systems in Ecuador.Design/methodology/approachThe present research employed probit models' estimation with pooled data from 2018 to 2020. The study combined three sources of information with The Survey on Surface and Agricultural Continuous Production, as the main. This study also proposed the analysis of six regions: Coast, Coast Mountains, Northern Highlands, Central Highlands, Southern Highlands and the Amazon.FindingsThe authors see a lower adoption in the year 2020, where the pandemic was one of the causes. The only exception was the use of organic fertilizer. The adoption of these sustainable practices differed across the six regions. The findings also reveal that the employment generated by agricultural enterprises had a negative influence on the adoption of three sustainable practices, and that for the remaining practices the effect was positive.Research limitations/implicationsThe data set lacks information on the acceptance and the application of the practices promoted by agricultural technical assistance, which could provide insights into the effectiveness of the learning process. The limited observation period does not allow for investigating long-term effects on sustainable practices adoption.Originality/valueThis study helps to understand the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic in the adoption of SAP. Additionally, this research can help with the scalability of the practices starting from the regions that are most likely to adopt each of them.

4.
Cogent Social Sciences ; 9(1), 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2187856

ABSTRACT

In research literature, the terms "small-scale-agriculture" and "smallholder-agriculture" (farming) cannot be clearly distinguished and are frequently used synonymously. Taking terminology of both versions, we examine relationships between textual and bibliographic elements, identify clusters of studies and research accents, as well as developments in time. Using information science methods (big data, bibliometrics/scientometrics, visualization program Vosviewer) in the citation database Scopus, we design Boolean search statement/query (emphasis on proximity operators), analyse terms in titles and s of articles, evaluate author networks (countries, co-authorship), keywords, and links between journals. Authors from developed and developing countries collaborate widely, with the US having the most co-authored articles, Germany having the most diverse current network, and Kenya being the strongest contributor among developing countries. Most articles are published by authors from Africa. There are also two smaller clusters representing Asia and the Americas. Three clusters of research priorities are evident: 1) crop production (current focus: crop yield), 2) livestock production (current focus: diseases), and 3) environmental issues, vulnerability to climate change, sustainability, and socio-economic themes. Future trends (hot topics and research fronts) will increasingly focus on adaptation strategies, food security, gender (women), or human health (at the time of submission, there were already dozens of papers on Covid 19 and smallholder farmers). Many topics that used to be most covered by Agricultural and Biological Sciences (Scopus Subject Area) are now increasingly covered in Social Sciences journals, becoming a complex research field on its own, which should translate into support and funding for such studies.

5.
Journal of Research ANGRAU ; 49(4):122-126, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2169641
6.
Human Organization ; 81(4):316-326, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2167481

ABSTRACT

While the United States prioritizes agricultural legislation and assistance, policies passed both federally and locally are not always developed with small-scale farms in mind. This inequity became apparent during the COVID-19 pandemic. By identifying how aid money was distributed during times of crisis, we were able to see how small-scale farms are supported through words rather than action. We examine small-scale farmers prior to and during the pandemic in the North Carolina Piedmont region. We focus on the role small-scale farmers and farmers markets play in a local agro-food system through a political economy perspective and highlight some of the challenges, barriers, and responses during the pandemic, including access to farm aid. In addition, we identify strategies for how small-scale farmers persisted during unprecedented times, especially during COVID-19.

7.
Hervormde Teologiese Studies ; 79(3), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2201542

ABSTRACT

The dissection of work based on biological sex orientation amid non-remunerated and remunerated work reduces females frugally and socially to become extra susceptible towards remaining poor and poorer in the society. This division is engineered by family, individual, communal and financial predicaments, especially those emanating from the cultural background, partisan and racial struggle circumstances or disasters like the COVID-19 pandemic. In Africa, particularly in Zimbabwe, women are marginalised and excluded by social discrimination and poverty, hence the call for action by the 1995 Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. Action is required specifically from the areas, such as education and environment, among others, to empower women to improve their situations or to develop communities and the country as a whole. Actions aimed at reducing impoverishment in society are perilous;hence, the Zimbabwean government decided to give preference to women in economic empowerment strategies and to advance acts that support monetary constitutional rights. While both men and women are susceptible to poverty, gender discrimination makes women to be more vulnerable to poverty and have meagre incomes to survive impoverishment. Women are always the last to feed, they are also usually the last to sleep and the first to wake up, they are the disadvantaged to get healthcare facilities and they are stuck in laborious, voluntary household chores from time to time. Unfortunately, some are left with no option and engage in prostitution as a means to survive. Using purposive sampling and cultural feminist lens, this study problematises the feminisation of poverty in Zimbabwe, using Mutasa community, particularly villages 4 and 30, as a case study to see how women alleviate poverty through mukando/marounds . The main argument presented in this study is that poverty must not have a feminine face;hence, the labels that synonymise scarcity with femininity must be eradicated. Contribution: This study contributes to the ongoing academic studies on the feminisation of poverty, using Mutasa district in Zimbabwe as a case study. It concludes by restating that the feminisation of poverty is a product of a flawed cultural system that denies women opportunities for realising their full potential.

8.
CAMPO TERRITORIO: Revista de Geografia Agraria ; 17(47):130-154, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2203937

ABSTRACT

During the period of the COVID-19 pandemic and social isolation, the farmers of the 20 de Marco agrarian reform project had to adapt the way they market their products so that it was possible to continue the Agroecological Fair extension project, which was carried at the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS)/Tres Lagoas Campus. In March 2020, with the suspension of on-site activities at the university, the strategy found to maintain sales was the online sales system and home deliveries. The objective of this paper is to present the paths of this action, analyzing how the spatialization of the consumption of agroecological products in the urban fabric of Tres Lagoas during the pandemic period took place. Despite the social commotion that marked this tragic moment in the history of the country, the settled farmers and the UFMS/Tres Lagoas Campus extension project team remained active in carrying out activities that contributed to the success of the spatialization of urban consumption and maintenance of farmers' income, investing in agroecological educational actions on conscious consumption and the importance of agrarian reform.

9.
Sociologia Ruralis ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2161767

ABSTRACT

Poor mental health is an important and increasingly prevalent issue facing the farming industry. The adaptability of what we, in this article, describe as 'landscapes of support' for farming mental health is important to allow support systems to adapt successfully in times of crisis. The term 'landscapes of support' refers to the range of support sources available to farmers, including government, third sector bodies and farming/community groups. This article seeks to understand the factors influencing the adaptability of these landscapes of support, especially at a time of crisis. Using a case study of the UK, we undertook a literature review, interviews with 22 mental health support providers and an online survey of people within landscapes of support (93) and farmers themselves (207). We also held an end-of-project workshop. Using an adapted three-point framework to assess adaptability, we found that support-giving organisations adapted during the pandemic using a range of interventions (e.g., enhanced digital offering, use of media), but implementation was affected by organisational challenges (e.g., limited digital training, funding shortfalls, staff trauma) and operational constraints (e.g., lack of capacity, rural digital divide, tension between providers, stigma). We discuss how landscapes of support for farming mental health can be made more sustainable to deal with future shocks.

10.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1107(1):012120, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2160867

ABSTRACT

The main food consumption of farming families is an important concern during the pandemic. Farmers in West Nusa Tenggara (WNT) survive with the availability of rice to support household health and food security during the pandemic. In addition to its nutritional content, rice also contains phenolic compounds and has antioxidant activity. This study aims are to measure the frequency of rice consumption, food variety, varieties of rice consumed daily during the pandemic in WNT, as well as the antioxidant properties of several rice varieties grown in WNT. This study was conducted from September 2020 to June 2021 in East Lombok, Sumbawa and Bima Regencies, WNT Province, Indonesia using a survey approach. The data collection techniques were observation, Focus Group Discussion, recording, interviews with 74 respondents with a semi-structured questionnaire and study literature related to the nutritional content and bioactive compound of the rice. Quantitative data was tabulated to determine the frequency and average then descriptively analyzed, while qualitative data was thematically analysed. The most consumed rice varieties are seen from the production data of seed breeders in the WNT region, the phenolic content was determined using Folin–Ciocalteu, antioxidant activity was examined using DPPH assay. The result showed that the highest portion of food consumed by farmer households in WNT is rice. The most variety of rice produced by breeders is the Inpari 32 variety. There are about 97% of farmers consume rice for 3 times a day, while 3% of the remaining consume 2 times a day of rice. Food variety includes 7.9% vegetable-rice and 92.1% rice-vegetables-meat protein. The results of the analysis of antioxidant properties and phenolic content in rice is depending on the variety. The antioxidant properties of the Jeliteng, Baroma, Pamelen, Nutrizinc and Inpari 32 rice varieties were 44.85±0.51%, 9.87±1.55%, 9.96±1.22%, 9.75±1.09%, and 14.305±1.24%, respectively, while the phenolic contents were 9.76±0.09, 4.23±0.03, 4.48±0.02, 4.64± 0.07, 4.58±0.42 mg GAE/g dryrice extract, respectively. The results of this study indicate that rice has been used as one of antioxidants source for farming families during the pandemic.

11.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1107(1):012114, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2160865

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic, changes in global political and security conditions, and climate change have brought significant changes to the food production, consumption, and supply chain. The impact of these changes is transmitted to the farm level. Farmers face not only production risk and price risk, but also the risk of market changes triggered by changes in business orientation on fulfilling consumer pReferences. The purpose of this study is to identify changes in the socio-economic and political environment and their impact on farmers and farming, as well as to analyse the responses needed for extension to remain effective and relevant in carrying out its role. This study employed a descriptive comparative approach. Qualitative data obtained through literature studies based on journal articles. This study found that changes in the business environment not only affect farmers and farming but also the food agribusiness system from upstream to downstream. The conventional extension approach is increasingly turning into a more flexible approach and is not only oriented to the needs of farmers but also considers the needs or pReferences of consumers. Extension is no longer a domain or carried out by public institutions but also by private institutions or companies as well. The results of this study are useful for the formulation of public policies in the field of extension as part of responding to changes in the busiess environment, climate change, and information technology.

12.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1107(1):012111, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2160864

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 Pandemic in Indonesia has an impact to agriculture and extension activities. Agricultural extension activities during the Covid-19 pandemic were carried out used online media such as Whatsapp Groups, Youtube and radio, whereas extension activities involving many people were temporarily removed. Agricultural extension agents are agents of change related with farmers. So that, it is important for farmers to evaluate the performance of agricultural extension workers during the Covid-19 pandemic, so that the benefits of extension activities can feel by all farmers. The purpose of this study was to analyze the perceptions and factors that influence farmers' perceptions to the performance of Field Agricultural Extension during the Covid-19 pandemic in Jember Regency. This research is located in Jember Regency and was conducted from July 2021 to December 2021. The sampling technique was cluster random sampling with a total of 200 respondents. The data collected in this study were analyzed by statistical descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression model analysis. The results show that farmers' perceptions of the performance of agricultural extension workers during the Covid-19 pandemic are very satisfied. The factors that influence the perception of farmers are the frequency of extension, the level of farmer's participation, and farmer's knowledge. Meanwhile farmer's experience, farmer's group class, and land tenure had no effect on farmers' perceptions of the extension workers' performance.

13.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1107(1):012106, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2160863

ABSTRACT

The work of this research was to analyze the effectiveness of the community food barn in terms of the availability and easy access of the community, both farmer members of the barn and other communities in the village to food, and to analyze the comparison of the income levels of farmers who are members of the community food barn with non-members. This research was conducted in West Lombok Regency. This study uses secondary data and primary data. Secondary data were obtained from literature studies. Meanwhile, primary data was obtained from direct observation and interviews by using a questionnaire with 60 respondents. The data in this study were analyzed using descriptive analysis. The results of this study show that the Community Food Barn Program in West Lombok has not been effective. The most tangible benefit from the existence of the Community Food Barn Program is that members can use the Food Barn to store their harvested grain and guarantee the availability of food reserves for members and the entire family because they are allowed to borrow grain.

14.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1107(1):012019, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2160858

ABSTRACT

Tobacco is a leading commodity that has high economic value. The derivative products from tobacco commodities have contributed greatly to state revenues through excise taxes, employment, and sources of farmers' income. This research aims to;1) explain the characteristics of tobacco farming;2) investigate the economic feasibility of tobacco farming;3) analyze the determinants of tobacco farmers' income. The research was conducted in Suralaga District, East Lombok Regency. The study was conducted from July 2021 to October 2021. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling. Primary data was collected from 40 tobacco farmers and analyzed by with R/C ratio and multiple linear regression. The results of this study indicate that tobacco farming is declared economically feasible, This result is evidenced by the R/C ratio value is 1.67 > 1. Furthermore, the results of the regression estimation show that determine the income of tobacco farmers are the tobacco production, land area, seed cost, fertilizer cost, pesticide cost, labor costs, and farming experience.

15.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1107(1):012009, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2160857

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has had a broad impact on several aspects of human life, one of which is the issue of food sufficiency. Due to social restrictions, the agricultural sector, which plays a role in producing food for humans, may be affected by the pandemic. These restrictions impact the availability of farm labor and the market, both agricultural inputs, and outputs. This three-year study examines the factors that influence the productivity and income of maize farmers in the dry sandy lands of Gumantar village, North Lombok, Indonesia, before and during the Covid-19 pandemic. The method used was descriptive quantitative with 50 respondents, determined by accidental sampling. The study results showed variations in land area ownership of respondent farmers, variations in crop productivity, and variations in the form of products sold, such as selling cobs and selling grains. Maize production was more affected by rainfall, fertilizer availability, and pest disturbances than the Covid-19 pandemic. However, the Covid-19 pandemic impacted the income of maize farmers due to restrictions on the mobility of maize buyers.

16.
Global Media Journal ; 20(53):1-5, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2157017

ABSTRACT

[...]in this background, the present study aimed to explore the farmers' subjects covered in Kannada significant dailies, the presentation of the problems and which newspaper emphasizes more farmers' issues. In India, 50 per cent of working labourers are involved in agricultural activities, and 68 per cent of household income is dependent on agriculture. Because of COVID-19, they are suffering from marketing their product and earning money for livelihood [1]. Even though various programmers such as renting agricultural equipment, Kisan call centers to guide the farmers, PM Kisan Maan Dhan Yojana, etc., farmers struggle to get seeds and fertilizers quickly. Since its beginning, newspapers have played a vital role in drawing public and administration attention to many social issues. Many people lost their jobs and returned to their villages to lead safe lives. Because of the inverse migration, villages get infected, and COVID-19 started spreading among village communities.

17.
Berichte uber Landwirtschaft ; 100(2), 2022.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2155817

ABSTRACT

This study quantified the consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic for the agricultural sector and derived long-term options to make agricultural and forestry enterprises more resilient. Almost one in five farm households had at least one person affected by a SARS-CoV-2 infection by March 2021. The psychological stress in farming families was comparable to that in the population as a whole. Economically, negative impacts of the pandemic clearly outweighed the positive ones, with large differences among farm sectors. Around one in four farms considered strategic changes in consequence of the Corona crisis, with direct marketing being the most frequent strategy in this context. Austrian farmers consider their farms quite crisis-proof, although they heavily depend on public funds and respondents rated their cuts as the greatest potential threat. Finally, the study suggests that the impact of the Corona crisis on Austrian agriculture and forestry was still manageable, at least until March 2021, and motivated farmers to make isolated adjustments only.

18.
South African Journal of Agricultural Extension ; 50(1):125-146, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2145664

ABSTRACT

The existing link between knowledge systems, empowerment, and food security of farmers has been proven in many studies. However, the measurement of their empowerment level focusing on the psychological dimension of their participation in these knowledge systems is limited in the agricultural sector. These knowledge systems empower farmers to access intangible and tangible resources that are valuable for farmers’ decision-making and performance. Thus, it was crucial for the study to investigate the levels of psychological empowerment outcomes attained by smallholder farmers, to evaluate the progress made by knowledge systems that were initiated and activated to empower farmers and improve their food security. A purposive sampling technique was used to select 219 smallholder farmers who are actively linked to the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture. Applying empowerment theory and previous studies, five psychological empowerment outcomes were identified. The principal component analysis method (PCA) was employed to generate the principal component (PC) of the perceived farmers’ psychological empowerment level and the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) to measure household food security. The results showed that smallholder farmers were moderately and highly competent, had a sense of self-efficacy, had a sense of control, had agricultural knowledge, and were food secure. These systems not only empowered the farmers with tangible assets but also intangible outcomes as shown in the results of the study. These knowledge systems should be highly tapped into especially in this period of COVID-19 lockdowns accompanied by movement restrictions to ensure the sustainability of agricultural systems and inclusive empowerment of intangible and tangible skills for farmers. These knowledge systems could be used to comply with COVID-19 policies and legislations that are sensitive to physical contact and platforms for farmers to engage in knowledge transformation and empowerment. © 2022, South African Society for Agricultural Extension (SASAE). All rights reserved.

19.
Front Nutr ; 9: 986324, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142145

ABSTRACT

The imminent threat to food security requires immediate intervention toward ensuring societal sustainability especially in combating the pandemic. The rapid spread of COVID-19 cases has caused concern for food security. A recent outlook report produced by Food Agricultural Organization and World Food Programme (FAO-WTP) highlights that there are at least 20 countries that are faced with a looming threat of food availability between the period of March-July 2021. Other factors that pose a significant threat to food security include climate change and natural disasters which could significantly reduce the yield. It is hence imperative to gain an in-depth understanding of factors that influence farmers' choices in innovation adoption for increased yield. A line of research has been conducted across the globe on new technology adoption and effect of innovation that aims to increase productivity and yield. This study examined the key factors, that lead farmers to the adoption of new technology and innovation, reported in studies over the past 15 years. PRISMA-P (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols) was employed based on the SCOPUS and Web of Science database. In creating the main dataset, a protocol was developed in advance to document the analysis method. Several inclusion (eligibility) and exclusion criteria were set to select related articles from a total of 2,136 papers. The thematic and content analyses were subsequently performed on 392 research articles. The findings indicate 4 over-arching segments, and 12 major determinants, that comprise 62 associate determinants. The paper concludes with the identification of critical factors for innovation adoption amongst farmers.

20.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 10(5):1204-1214, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2120531

ABSTRACT

The future and welfare of mango farmers are important and if mango farmers can apply agribusiness behavior, namely perseverance, resilience, hard work, saving, carefulness, discipline, and respecting time, they stand a better chance of survival during a pandemic. How mango farmers’ livelihood will be going forward is, yet unknown since many aspects such as economic, physical, financial, and human factors of their way of earning a living are affected hugely by Covid-19. This study was conducted to determine the socio-economic nature of mango farmers in Vhembe district Limpopo province, determine the livelihoods of mango farmers after the Covid-19 pandemic, and identify challenges that mango farmers encountered during the Covid-19 pandemic. Descriptive statistics and household were employed to help analyze the results from the collected data. In the study area, 77% of the farmers were males and pensioners since they were above the age of 60. Currently, mango farmers are highly impacted by the outbreak of Covid-19 in terms of production and marketing their products, thus these changes in their livelihood and their survival in farming are in the line since 54% of the farmers currently have access to loans, which makes it easy for them to cover for their loss of income. The government should ease up other restrictions on farmers to enable them to farm and issue necessary support to those farmers who have lost the least they had due to Covid-19. Concerning access to information about Covid-19, the results of the study posit the significance of the relationship between finance and human capital, which the study recommended that the government should subsidize the farmers. © 2022, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

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