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1.
Saudi J Gastroenterol ; 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144258

ABSTRACT

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) restores a balanced intestinal flora, which helps to cure recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (RCDI). FMT has also been used to treat other gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and chronic constipation, as well as a variety of non-GI disorders. The purpose of this review is to discuss gut microbiota and FMT treatment of GI and non-GI diseases. An imbalanced gut microbiota is known to predispose one to Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), IBD, and IBS. However, the complex role of the gut microbiota in maintaining health is a newer concept that is being increasingly studied. The microbiome plays a major role in cellular immunity and metabolism and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of non-GI autoimmune diseases, chronic fatigue syndrome, obesity, and even some neuropsychiatric disorders. Many recent studies have reported that viral gastroenteritis can affect intestinal epithelial cells, and SARS-CoV-2 virus has been identified in the stool of infected patients. FMT is a highly effective cure for RCDI, but a better understanding of the gut microbiota in maintaining health and controlled studies of FMT in a variety of conditions are needed before FMT can be accepted and used clinically.

2.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 15: 17562848221134396, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139020

ABSTRACT

The species composition of the human gut microbiota is related to overall health, and a healthy gut microbiome is crucial in maintaining colonization resistance against pathogens. Disruption of gut microbiome composition and functionality reduces colonization resistance and has been associated with several gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal diseases. One prime example is Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) and subsequent recurrent infections that occur after the development of systemic antibiotic-related dysbiosis. Standard-of-care antibiotics used for both acute and recurrent infections do not address dysbiosis and often worsen the condition. Moreover, monoclonal antibodies, recommended in conjunction with standard-of-care antibiotics for the prevention of recurrent CDI in patients at high risk of recurrence, reduce recurrences but do not address the underlying dysbiosis. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an evolving therapeutic strategy in which microbes are harvested from healthy donor stool and transplanted into the gut of a recipient to restore the gut microbiome. Although effective in the prevention of recurrent CDI, some existing challenges include screening and the standardization of stool acquisition and processing. Recent safety alerts by the US Food and Drug Administration raised concern about the possibility of transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 via FMT. Increased knowledge that microbes are beneficial in restoring the gut microbiome has led to the clinical development of several newer biotherapeutic formulations that are more regulated than FMT, which may allow for improved restoration of the gut microbiome and prevention of CDI recurrence. This review focuses on mechanisms by which gut microbiome restoration could influence colonization resistance against the pathogen C. difficile. Plain language summary: The Role of the Gut Microbiome in Clostridioides difficile Infection Introduction: A rich and diverse gut microbiome is key to immune system regulation and colonization resistance against pathogens.A disruption in the gut microbiome composition can make the gut more vulnerable to diseases such as Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), caused by the bacterium C. difficile.CDI management presents a therapeutic dilemma, as it is usually treated with antibiotics that can treat the infection but also can damage the microbiome.Treatment of CDI using antibiotics can further reduce microbial diversity and deplete beneficial bacteria from the gut leading to a condition called dysbiosis.Antibiotic treatment can be followed by therapies that restore the gut microbiota, boost colonization resistance, and prevent the development of antimicrobial resistance.It is important to evaluate treatment options to determine their safety and effectiveness. Methods: The researchers provided an overview of the mechanisms that the gut microbiome uses to prevent colonization of the gut by pathogens.They subsequently reviewed the efficacy and shortcomings of the following treatments for CDI: - Antibiotics- Monoclonal antibodies- Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) Results: Commensal intestinal bacteria prevent colonization of the gut by pathogens using mechanisms such as: - Competition for key nutrients- Production of inhibitory bile acids- Short-chain fatty acid production- Lowering the luminal pH- Production of bacteriocinsAntibiotic therapy is recommended as a standard treatment for CDI. However, patients are vulnerable to recurrent CDI after discontinuation of the therapy.Monoclonal antibodies that inactivate C. difficile toxins may be recommended along with antibiotics to prevent recurrent CDI. However, this approach does not restore the microbiome.FMT is one method of microbial restoration, where stool is harvested from a healthy donor and transplanted into a patient's colon.Although FMT has shown some efficacy in the treatment of recurrent CDI, the procedure is not standardized.Safety concerns have been raised about the possibility of transmission of multidrug-resistant pathogens via FMT. Conclusion: Treatment methods that can efficiently restore the diversity of the gut microbiome are crucial in preventing recurrence of CDI.

3.
Drug Development and Delivery ; 22(6):67-76, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058315
4.
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association ; 121(9):1617-1621, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2015654
5.
Inn Med (Heidelb) ; 63(10): 1036-1042, 2022 Oct.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007121

ABSTRACT

Fecal microbiome transfer (FMT) involving the transfer of the microbiome of healthy stool donors to patients with various diseases has been performed in Germany in clinical studies and individual treatment attempts. There is no doubt that FMT is an effective therapeutic principle for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and ulcerative colitis. From a medico-legal point of view, it should be stressed that, in Germany, the microbiome to be transferred is regarded as a drug, the manufacture of which is subject to the Medicines Act and the risk information from the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices. The background of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and the potential risk of transmitting pathogens must also be considered. There is an obligation to notify the competent state authorities to perform FMTs in the context of individual treatment attempts. In the context of the limited availability and the fundamental problem of infection, future studies aim to identify the therapeutically active components in the microbiome. Recombinant production is the aim. Initial results represent preliminary steps, as these concepts are not yet established in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Clostridium Infections/therapy , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-982, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967387

ABSTRACT

Background Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota may be responsible for the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Restoration of gut microbiota diversity by means of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is of increasing interest as a therapeutic option in the management of UC. The aims of this phase II feasibility study are to estimate the magnitude of treatment response to FMT in treatment-naïve patients with newly diagnosed UC, evaluate donor and patient recruitment rates and determine optimal study conditions for phase III study (ISRCTN 58082603). Methods Treatment-naïve patients with histologically confirmed UC below the sigmoid were recruited. Subjects were randomised to single FMT enema, five daily enemas and control group. All groups received antibiotic for 10 days and bowel preparation 48 hours before the interventions. They were followed up for 12 weeks with quality of life (QOL) scores (IBDex, CUCQ-32) and 16S RNA study on faecal samples. Endoscopic (Mayo score) and histological assessments were performed at the baseline and week 12. The primary endpoints were endoscopic remission of UC and rate of persistent microbial engraftment at 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints included QoL and mucosal cytokine profiling with IL-10. Clinical remission was defined as Mayo score ≤ 2 with an endoscopic Mayo score of 0. Results Eighteen UC patients were recruited between July 2016 and February 2020 until the COVID-19 pandemic, of those five achieved clinical remission. One subject from the control group withdrew at week 4 due to worsening symptoms. 72% improved Mayo and QOL scores, and 44% avoided medical treatment. Clinical remission was more observed among subjects with lower baseline QoL and mild-moderate disease, although this did not reach statistical significance (P=0.173). No correlation between FMT dose, frequency and clinical remission were observed. The 16S evaluation of the faecal samples demonstrated successful engraftment of FMT and showed a similar faecal microbiota profile amongst the intervention groups, which was markedly different from the control group. Coprococcus was found to be much more abundant amongst subjects who responded to the FMT intervention. This study also suggested an inverse correlation between IL-10 and the severity of UC. Conclusions FMT intervention protocols were well adhered and 94% completion rate, though the recruitment period was much longer than the original plan due to some unforeseen interruptions. Yet, this feasibility study demonstrated potential for employing this method for a larger multicentre RCT to further evaluate FMT dose and frequency effects. The correlation between IL-10 and IL-10 producing microorganisms should be sought in the future study.

7.
American Family Physician ; 105(4):406-411, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1848264

ABSTRACT

Ulcerative colitis is a relapsing and remitting inflammatory bowel disease of the large intestine. Risk factors include recent Salmonella or Campylobacter infection and a family history of ulcerative colitis. Diagnosis is suspected based on symptoms of urgency, tenesmus, and hematochezia and is confirmed with endoscopic findings of continuous inflammation from the rectum to more proximal colon, depending on the extent of disease. Fecal calprotectin may be used to assess disease activity and relapse. Medications available to treat the inflammation include 5-aminosalicylic acid, corticosteroids, tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibodies, anti-integrin antibodies, anti-interleukin-12 and -23 antibodies, and Janus kinase inhibitors. Choice of medication and method of delivery depend on the location and severity of mucosal inflammation. Other treatments such as fecal microbiota transplantation are considered experimental, and complementary therapies such as probiotics and curcumin have mixed data. Surgical treatment may be needed for fulminant or refractory disease. Increased risk of colorectal cancer and use of immunosuppressive therapies affect the preventive care needs for these patients.

8.
Biomedicines ; 10(4)2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809695

ABSTRACT

The number of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations conducted worldwide is constantly rising. Together with that, the absolute number of complications after the procedure is increasing, with graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) being one of the most common. The standard treatment is steroid administration, but only 40-60% of patients will respond to the therapy and some others will be steroid-dependent. There is still no consensus regarding the best second-line option, but fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has shown encouraging preliminary and first clinically relevant results in recent years and seems to offer great hope for patients. The reason for treatment of steroid-resistant acute GvHD using this method derives from studies showing the significant immunomodulatory role played by the intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of GvHD. Depletion of commensal microbes is accountable for aggravation of the disease and is associated with decreased overall survival. In this review, we present the pathogenesis of GvHD, with special focus on the special role of the gut microbiota and its crosstalk with immune cells. Moreover, we show the results of studies and case reports to date regarding the use of FMT in the treatment of steroid-resistant acute GvHD.

9.
Science ; 373(6558):977.4-978, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1769808
10.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S453, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746390

ABSTRACT

Background. Clostridiodes difficile infection (CDI) is common and classified as an urgent threat by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recurrence (rCDI) occurs in 30% of cases and increases with subsequent episodes. As part of a trial of fecal microbiota transplantation vs. placebo for the prevention of rCDI, rCDI is identified using a case-finding algorithm that screens for potential cases across all Veterans Affairs facilities, a key component of which is a stool test confirming the presence of C. difficile. With the emergence of Covid-19 in the Unites States in early 2020, study personnel observed a decreasing number of rCDI cases. We hypothesized that Covid restrictions and fear of transmission prevented patients from coming to a VA facility to submit a confirmatory stool sample, the standard method of diagnosing rCDI. Accordingly, the algorithm was modified to also identify cases where rCDI was empirically treated, without confirmatory testing. Here we report on the prevalence of empiric treatment of rCDI during the Covid pandemic and changes in lab-conformed cases over time. Methods. Cases of potentially rCDI are identified by a weekly query of VA data, using an algorithm that includes laboratory testing results, diagnostic codes, and prescriptions. The ource database is updated daily from every VA facility, encompassing over 8 million Veterans. Potential cases are reviewed by research coordinators using the medical record to determine study eligibility. Beginning June 2020, the algorithm was adjusted to also identify patients with lab confirmation of their first CDI episode but none for their recurrence and identified those who were prescribed treatment for rCDI. Results. We observed a reduction in both the number of weekly cases (22.2 vs. 17.4;P < 0.001) which is a 22% decrease after the Covid-19 emergency declaration (figure). Post-declaration, empiric treatment was prescribed to 159 Veterans (mean, 3.3/week). Potential cases of rCDI/week pre- and post Covid-19 pandemic declaration Conclusion. There was a significant drop in laboratory-confirmed rCDI associated with Covid-19. Recurrent CDI was frequently empirically treated during the Covid-19 pandemic, potentially exposing many patients with non-CDI diarrhea to unnecessary antimicrobial use and its attendant risks.

11.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-21, 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730444

ABSTRACT

Diabetes has become one of the biggest non-communicable diseases and threatens human health worldwide. The management of diabetes is a complex and multifaceted process including drug therapy and lifestyle interventions. Dietary components are essential for both diabetes management and health and survival of trillions of the gut microbiota (GM). Herein, we will discuss the relationship between diets and GM, the mechanism linking diabetes and gut dysbiosis, and the effects of dietary components (nutrients, phytochemicals, probiotics, food additives, etc.) on diabetes from the perspective of modulating GM. The GM of diabetic patients differs from that of health individuals and GM disorder contributes to the onset and maintenance of diabetes. Studies in humans and animal models consolidate that dietary component is a key regulator of diabetes and increasing evidence suggests that the alteration of GM plays a salient role in dietary interventions for diabetes. Given that diabetes is a major public health issue, especially that diabetes is linked with a high risk of mortality from COVID-19, this review provides compelling evidence for that targeting GM by dietary components is a promising strategy, and offers new insights into potential preventive or therapeutic approaches (dietary and pharmacological intervention) for the clinical management of diabetes.

12.
Journal of Crohn's and Colitis ; 16:i612-i613, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1722366

ABSTRACT

Background: Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota may be responsible for the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Restoration of gut microbiota diversity by means of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is of increasing interest as a therapeutic option in the management of UC. The aims of this phase II feasibility study are to estimate the magnitude of treatment response to FMT in treatment-naïve patients with newly diagnosed UC, evaluate donor and patient recruitment rates and determine optimal study conditions for phase III study (ISRCTN 58082603). Methods: Treatment-naïve patients with histologically confirmed UC below the sigmoid were recruited. Subjects were randomised to three arms;single FMT enema, five daily enemas and control. All groups received antibiotic for 10 days and bowel preparation 48 hours before the interventions. They were followed up for 12 weeks with quality of life (QOL) scores (IBDex, CUCQ-32) and 16S RNA study on faecal samples. Endoscopic (Mayo score) and histological assessments were performed at the baseline and week 12. The primary endpoints were endoscopic remission of UC and rate of persistent microbial engraftment at 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints included QoL and mucosal cytokine profiling with IL-10. Clinical remission was defined as Mayo score ≤ 2 with an endoscopic Mayo score of 0. Results: Eighteen UC patients were recruited between July 2016 and February 2020 until the COVID-19 pandemic, of those five achieved Clinical remission. One subject from the control group withdrew at week 4 due to worsening symptoms. 72% improved Mayo and QOL scores, and 44% avoided medical treatment. Clinical remission was more observed among subjects with lower baseline QoL and mildmoderate disease, although this did not reach statistical significance (P=0.173). No correlation between FMT dose, frequency and clinical remission were observed. The 16S evaluation of the faecal samples demonstrated successful engraftment of FMT and showed a similar faecal microbiota profile amongst the intervention groups, which was markedly different from the control group. Coprococcus was found to be much more abundant amongst subjects who responded to the FMT intervention. This study also suggested an inverse correlation between IL-10 and the severity of UC. Conclusion: FMT intervention protocols were well adhered and achieved 94% completion rate, though the recruitment period was much longer than the original plan due to unforeseen interruptions. Yet, this feasibility study demonstrated potential for employing this method for a larger multicentre RCT to further evaluate FMT dose and frequency effects. The correlation between IL-10 and IL-10 producing microorganisms should be sought in the future study.

13.
J Clin Med ; 11(4)2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715433

ABSTRACT

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been recognized as a promising treatment for dysbiosis-related diseases. Since 2014, FMT has been utilized to treat ulcerative colitis (UC) in our clinical studies and has shown efficacy and safety. As donor screening (DS) is the primary step to ensure the safety of FMT, we report our experience with DS and present the screening results to improve the prospective DS criteria and provide references for future studies. The donor candidates were screened according to the DS criteria. The first DS criteria were proposed in June 2014 and revised substantially in May 2018. We further sorted the screening results and costs of laboratory tests. From June 2014 to April 2018, the DS eligibility rate was 50%. The total laboratory testing cost for each candidate was JPY 17,580/USD 160.21. From May 2018 to September 2021, the DS eligibility rate was 25.6%. The total laboratory testing cost for each candidate was JPY 40,740/USD 371.36. The reduction in donor eligibility rates due to more stringent criteria should be considered for cost and safety. Studies must consider the latest updates and make timely modifications in the DS criteria to ensure patient safety.

14.
Ann Intensive Care ; 12(1): 3, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608147

ABSTRACT

The composition of the gut microbiota is highly dynamic and changes according to various conditions. The gut microbiota mainly includes difficult-to-cultivate anaerobic bacteria, hence knowledge about its composition has significantly arisen from culture-independent methods based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) such as 16S profiling and shotgun metagenomics. The gut microbiota of patients hospitalized in intensive care units (ICU) undergoes many alterations because of critical illness, antibiotics, and other ICU-specific medications. It is then characterized by lower richness and diversity, and dominated by opportunistic pathogens such as Clostridioides difficile and multidrug-resistant bacteria. These alterations are associated with an increased risk of infectious complications or death. Specifically, at the time of writing, it appears possible to identify distinct microbiota patterns associated with severity or infectivity in COVID-19 patients, paving the way for the potential use of dysbiosis markers to predict patient outcomes. Correcting the microbiota disturbances to avoid their consequences is now possible. Fecal microbiota transplantation is recommended in recurrent C. difficile infections and microbiota-protecting treatments such as antibiotic inactivators are currently being developed. The growing interest in the microbiota and microbiota-associated therapies suggests that the control of the dysbiosis could be a key factor in the management of critically ill patients. The present narrative review aims to provide a synthetic overview of microbiota, from healthy individuals to critically ill patients. After an introduction to the different techniques used for studying the microbiota, we review the determinants involved in the alteration of the microbiota in ICU patients and the latter's consequences. Last, we assess the means to prevent or correct microbiota alteration.

15.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 14: 17562848211053105, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582520

ABSTRACT

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired infection attributing to substantial morbidity, mortality, and healthcare cost. Recurrent CDI (rCDI) is common and occurs after effective treatment of first episode. Treatment of rCDI is based on accurate diagnoses, due to difficulty in distinguishing between colonization of C. difficile spores or CDI; coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) added to the complexity of diagnoses as both entities can co-occur. It is difficult to eradicate rCDI, and there remains a critical gap regarding treatment of rCDI. The treatment goal of rCDI is to reestablish normal microbiota. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is suggested as a treatment for second episode of rCDI. Based on the collective evidence of all randomized controlled trials, FMT was reported more efficacious compared with vancomycin or fidaxomicin; however, these trials had limited number of patients and all patients were pre-treated with vancomycin prior to FMT. Furthermore, when comparing various routes of instillation and types of preparation of fecal microbiota, no difference was observed in cure rate. Despite the success rate of FMT, there remains a concern for transmission of infectious agents, such as Gram negative bacteremia or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), adverse events (diarrhea and abdominal pain), and reports of new diagnoses (inflammatory bowel disease, weight gain and irritable bowel syndrome). To lessen the risk of transmissible infections, donor screening should be performed, which includes screening for medical comorbidities and infectious pathogens in blood and feces. Scheduling complexities and reimbursement places an additional roadblock for using FMT. Microbiome-based therapies are being developed to eliminate the logistical challenges related to FMT. Large prospective and placebo-controlled studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy and long-term safety of FMT, so its use can be justified in clinical practice.

16.
American Journal of Translational Research ; 13(11):12875-12886, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1567794

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the risk factors for early clinical recurrence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) after fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 192 patients with IBD who received FMT treatment in the Colorectal Disease Specialty/Intestinal Microecology Treatment Center of the Tenth People’s Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University from February 2017 to June 2020. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the risk factors for early recurrence of inflammation. Feces from all participants were collected to extract the total bacterial genomic DNA. The V6-8 regions of the bacterial 16S rDNA gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the PCR products were detected by the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method, and the intestinal flora was analyzed by DNA fingerprinting. Stool samples from all patients were tested for 9 bacteria, white blood cells (WBC) and platelet (PLT) counts, as well as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level. Results: Of the 192 patients, 15 cases had inflammation recurrence during FMT and within one week after treatment, including 11 cases of ulcerative colitis (UC) and 4 cases of Crohn’s disease (CD), with a total recurrence rate of 7.8%. High Mayo inflammatory activity score, Mayo endoscopic sub-item score (MES) =3 points, CRP>10 mg/L, anemia, albumin <30 g/L, absolute value of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) <500/mm3, and intolerance to enteral full nutrition were independent risk factors for recurrence during and after FMT in UC patients (P<0.05). Albumin <30 g/L and simultaneous use of immunosuppressive agents were associated with disease recurrence during and after FMT in CD patients. WBC, PLT, and CRP were all negatively correlated with Enterococcus (EC), and ESR was positively correlated with Saccharomyces boulardii (SB) (P<0.01). Conclusion: The low recurrence rate of IBD after FMT indicates the safety of FMT, but this procedure should be cautiously used in patients with severe intestinal barrier dysfunction and/or severe intestinal dysfunction.

17.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 9(9): 1027-1038, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With increasing number of clinical trials relating to fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), it is crucial to identify and recruit long-term, healthy, and regular fecal donors. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to report the outcomes of screening and recruitment of fecal donors for FMT. METHODS: Potential donors were recruited via advertisement through internal mass emails at a university. They were required to undergo a pre-screening telephone interview, a detailed questionnaire, followed by blood and stool investigations. RESULTS: From January 2017 to December 2020, 119 potential donors were assessed with 75 failed pre-screening. Reasons for failure included: inability to come back for regular and long-term donation (n = 19), high body mass index (n = 17), underlying chronic illness or on long-term medications (n = 11), being healthcare professionals (n = 10), use of antibiotics within 3 months (n = 5) and others (n = 13). Forty-four donors completed questionnaires and 11 did not fulfill the clinical criteria. Of the remaining 33 potential donors who had stool and blood tests, 21 failed stool investigations (19 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL] organisms, one Clostridioides difficile, one C. difficile plus Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus), one failed blood tests (high serum alkaline phosphatase level), one required long-term medication and nine withdrew consent and/or lost to follow-up. In total, only one out of 119 (0.8%) potential donors was successfully recruited as a regular donor. CONCLUSION: There was a high failure rate in donor screening for FMT. Main reasons for screening failure included high prevalence of positive ESBL organisms in stool and failed commitment to regular stool donation.


Subject(s)
Donor Selection , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Feces/microbiology , Female , Hong Kong , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Young Adult , beta-Lactamases
18.
Clin Endosc ; 54(2): 157-160, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362722

ABSTRACT

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an accepted procedure for the management of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections. FMT is generally considered safe and well-tolerated - even in high-risk patients. Most short-term risks are mild and known to be associated with delivery methods. Long-term side effects have not been established, and no signs of harm have been found to date. However, causality for several microbiome-associated diseases has to be established. Even though FMT is generally considered safe with strict donor screening, serious adverse events have been recently associated with the FMT product from the stool bank, where screening for multi-drug resistant organisms is not included in protocols. Here, we discuss the adverse events associated with FMT and safety issues.

19.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(11): 1428-1432, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the increasing rise of C. difficile infection, stool banks and donor programs have been launched to grant access to fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Our aim is to describe characteristics and outcomes of the donor program at our stool bank. METHODS: Donor candidates underwent a four-step selection process, including a clinical interview, blood and stool testing, a further questionnaire and a direct stool testing the day of each donation. From March 2020, specific changes to this process were introduced to avoid the potential transmission of COVID-19. We evaluated the rate of excluded candidates at each step of the screening, as well as the number of total fecal aliquots provided by qualified donors. RESULTS: Overall, 114 donor candidates were evaluated. Seventy-five candidates declined to join the program for logistic or personal issues, three were excluded after the questionnaire and seven for positive stool exams. Finally, 29 (25%) subjects qualified as stool donors, and provided 70 stool samples. Fifteen samples were excluded after direct molecular stool testing. A total of 127 aliquots was finally obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Donor recruitment for FMT is a challenging process, and only a small rate of candidates are eligible as donors.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks , Donor Selection/methods , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Adult , Biological Specimen Banks/organization & administration , Biological Specimen Banks/statistics & numerical data , Donor Selection/organization & administration , Donor Selection/statistics & numerical data , Feces/microbiology , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Italy , Male , Program Evaluation , Prospective Studies
20.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(15): 1374-1381, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182988

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is a paucity of literature surrounding the use of early fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for patients presenting with an initial episode of severe, refractory Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Information on optimal antibiotic dosing and therapy duration surrounding FMT during an acute, initial episode of CDI is also limited. Described here is a case of successful treatment of CDI after 4 FMTs during an acute, initial episode of severe, refractory Clostridioides difficile colitis. SUMMARY: A 69-year-old community-dwelling, Caucasian male presented after 48 hours of vomiting and diarrhea. A stool sample was collected and resulted positive for Clostridioides difficile by both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The patient was treated with several days of oral and rectal vancomycin therapy in addition to intravenous metronidazole, but those treatments failed. His clinical and nutrition status deteriorated over the course of several days until salvage therapy was ordered, with administration of 1 inpatient nasogastric FMT and 1 inpatient colonoscopic FMT followed by outpatient colonoscopic FMTs on 2 consecutive days within 2 weeks of hospital discharge. CONCLUSION: This case suggests a role for early, repeat FMT during an initial presentation of a severe Clostridioides difficile colitis episode refractory to pharmacologic antimicrobial therapy. It also adds to emerging literature regarding the timing of antibiotic cessation surrounding FMT.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Colitis , Aged , Clostridioides , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Clostridium Infections/therapy , Colitis/therapy , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Humans , Male , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome
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