Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 238
Filter
1.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(8):24-26, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067738

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the potential use of ivermectin with standard therapy among mild to moderate covid-19 illness. Methods: This is a single-centered, prospective observational, randomized, parallel group (1:1 ratio), standard versus controlled ivermectin study recruited 210 confirmed COVID-19 positive patients who were admitted in COVID treatment center of Dr Ruth Kum Pafu Civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan from 1st November 2020 to 30th May 2021. Data were analyzed using SPSS version Results: Total of 210 patients were enrolled in the study and aged matched patients were divided in two groups 105 patients received ivermectin 6 mg twice a day for five days along with standard therapy while remaining 105 patients received standard therapy as per local and international guidelines. Male were 140(66.7%) and female 70(33.3%);age ranges between 26 to 77 years and majority 140( 66.7%) were more than 50 years of age. Fever, dry cough and dyspnea were the major symptoms seen;112(53.3%) patients had DM as a comorbid illness . Total of 21(20%) of 105 patients of ivermectin group had negative PCR for COVID 19 on day seven while the other group had positive covid test in all of 105 patients . On day 10 total of 49 more patients from ivermectin group found COVID negative along with 21 previously negative had second PCR was found negative in this way total of 70( 66.7%) of ivermectin group had negative PCR for COVID 19 while 21(20%) patients from non ivermectin got negative PCR for COVID 19 on day 10 . Conclusion: Use of ivermectin with standard therapy clear the virus earlier than standard therapy in mild to moderate COVID-19 infected patients admitted in COVID treatment center of Dr Ruth Kum Pafu Civil Hospital Karachi.

2.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26(10):1091-1098, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066996

ABSTRACT

Background: It is known that coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia causes cytokine storm, and treatment modalities are being developed on inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines. We aimed to investigate the effects of anticytokine therapy on clinical improvement and the differences between anticytokine treatments. Method(s): A total of 90 patients with positive COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test were divided into three groups, group I (n = 30) was given anakinra, group II (n = 30) was given tocilizumab, and group III (n = 30) was given standard treatment. Group I was treated with anakinra for 10 days;tocilizumab, intravenously, was given in group II. Group III patients were selected from those who did not receive any anticytokine treatment other than the standard treatment. Laboratory values, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), and PaO2/FiO2 values were analyzed on days 1, 7, and 14. Result(s): The seventh-day mortality rates were 6.7% in group II, 23.3% in group I, and 16.7% in group III. In group II, the ferritin levels on the 7th and 14th days were significantly lower (p = 0.004), and the lymphocyte levels on the seventh day were significantly higher (p = 0.018). Examining the changes between the first intubation days, in the early period (seventh day), group I was found to be 21.7%, group II was 26.9%, and group III was 47.6%. Conclusion(s): We observed the positive effects of the use of tocilizumab on clinical improvement in the early period;mechanical ventilation requirement was delayed and at a lower rate. Anakinra treatment did not change mortality and PaO2/FiO2 rates. Mechanical ventilation requirements occurred earlier in the patients who were not receiving any anticytokine therapy. Studies with larger patient populations are needed to demonstrate the potential efficacy of anticytokine therapy. Copyright © The Author(s).

3.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Supplement 2):A203-A204, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064028

ABSTRACT

Aims Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) secondary to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected not only the older children, adolescents and adults but also infants, more so during the second wave of the global pandemic. Thus, this study was done to describe the profile of infants presenting with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) with the aim to alert clinicians regarding the need for its early diagnosis and timely management in this vulnerable age group to prevent the morbidity, mortality and long term complications associated with MIS-C. Methods All sequentially admitted infants hospitalized during a period of 6months from,who fulfilled the WHO/CDC/RPCH criteria for MIS-C were included in the study. The data was recorded in a semi-structured pre-tested self-designed proforma regarding the demographic profile, presenting symptoms, clinical signs, laboratory parameters and treatment received. The data was analysed using appropriate statistical tools. Results A total of 19 infants were studied. Of these, 68.3% (13) had an evidence of recent COVID-19 infection. The median age of presentation was 2 months. The male:female ratio was 1.1:1. The most common presenting symptoms were fever (68.4%), gastrointestinal complaints (63.1%) and edema (36.8%) (figure 1). Other predominant signs were shock (78.9%), myocarditis (52.6%) and neurological complaints (26.3%). Incomplete Kawasaki disease was present in 21% patients. Elevated CRP, ferritin, D-Dimer, NT pro BNP and reduced fibrinogen were markers of severe illness. All subjects received IVIG (100%), 31.5% received a second dose of IVIG and 63.1% received pulse intravenous methylprednisolone. (table 1) A total of 5(26.3%) died as a result of the disease process. Conclusion MIS-C in infants is usually under-diagnosed and under-reported due to the considerable overlap between sepsis and MIS-C especially due to the higher incidence of sepsis in developing countries. The spectrum of this illness can be varied and is different from the overt clinical signs seen in older children and adolescents. Thus, these investigations should be done early in the course for optimal therapy with immunomodulators and favourable outcome.. (Figure Presented).

4.
Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; 167(1 Supplement):P15-P16, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064492

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Anosmia has been described as one of the characteristic symptoms of COVID-19 disease. It is even considered as a key marker for COVID-19 diagnosis. The aim of the study is to evaluate anosmia as prognostic factor in moderate and severe cases of COVID-19 patients. Method(s): Our study is a multicenter prospective study;300 patients were recruited and confirmed COVID-19 infection and admitted into 3 tertiary referral quarantine hospitals to receive medical treatment in Minia, Egypt. The study was conducted between April and October 2021. The selected random sample met the following inclusion criteria: adults older than 18 years, rhinopharyngeal swab positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and moderate and severe cases of COVID-19. The patients were subjected to the following protocol: full clinical history, general medical examination, otorhinolaryngological evaluation, mandatory swab for COVID-19, and recording of laboratory data. Patients underwent olfactory assessment and follow-up for 3 months. Olfactory assessment was done subjectively by odor recognition thresholds using L-butanol;after evaluation, the patients were divided into anosmic and nonanosmic groups. Collected data were compared and statistically analyzed. Result(s): Olfactory impairment was seen in 35% of moderate cases and 13% in severe cases. Our study revealed that patients with anosmia were younger and mostly female. Hospitalized patients with anosmia had a better prognosis. Our results showed no significant differences between the 2 groups regarding temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate. Of patients with anosmia, 70% were associated with dysgeusia, and 50% recovered within 13 days while 85% recovered within 28 days. There was significant relationship (parallel relationship) between progress of anosmia and level of D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and serum ferritin. This indicateds that the prognosis of anosmia is highly related to the inflammatory process of COVID-19 pathophysiology. Conclusion(s): Anosmic patients with COVID-19 have more favorable prognosis and recovery than nonanosmic patients do, and anosmia improves with treatment of the disease.

5.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(Supplement 2):S176, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062097

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Mixed shock in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19 is con-sequence of acute heart failure, inflammation-induced vasodilation and potential volume loss. Method(s): Retrospective analysis included 25 patients (7 girls) with MIS-C-related combined shock, treated in period from April 2020 to December 2021. Result(s): Mean age of patients was 12.6 +/- 4.0 years. Admission was 6.1 +/- 1.6 days after symptoms onset. Systemic inflammatory response was manifested with neutrophilia (10.7 +/- 4.2 x109/), lymphopenia (1.1 +/- 0.7 x109/L), elevated CRP (220.9 +/- 86.1 mg/L), ferritin (684.5 +/- 549.5 mug/L) and D-dimer (1528 +/- 1254 ng/mL). One third of patients had acute kidney injury with glomerular filtration rate of 64 +/- 22 mL/min/1.73 m2 and urea level of 16.0 +/- 8.4 mmol/L. All patients had acute heart failure with ejection fraction 47.2% +/- 7.7% and fractional shortening 23.6% +/- 4.9%, 92% of patients had NTproBNP gt;1500 pg/mL and 58% had elevated troponin I (1.34 +/- 1.47 ng/mL). Z-scores for end-diastolic left ventricle, interventricular septum and pos-terior wall diameters were 0.7 +/- 1.1, 1.7 +/- 1.3 and 0.6 +/- 0.7 respectively. All patients had mild/moderate mitral regurgitation, and 60% had mild pericardial effusion. Inotropes, administered during first 3.7 +/- 1.6 days, were divided in three groups: 1) dop-amine (n = 14), 2) dobutamine + dopamine (n = 5), 3) milrinone +/- dopamine (n = 6). Additional treatment included diuretics and captopril. Total fluid balance (including insensible loss of 300 mL/m2/day) through days 1-7 was +860 mL/m2, +128 mL/m2,-108 mL/m2,-36 mL/m2,-306 mL/m2,-335 ml/m2,-298 ml/m2 (total-95 ml/m2). Methylprednisolone/intravenous immuno-globulin and low-molecular-weight heparin/acetylsalicylic acid were administered and fever persisted 1.2 days averagely. Oxygen supplementation was needed in 71% of patients. Transitory bradycardia was noticed and there was no difference in heart rate between treatment groups. Profound hypotension was revealed on admission and correction differed regarding treat-ment (p lt;0.05) (Figure 1). All patient survived with clinical improvement (one had mechanical ventilation, and one had stroke). Conclusion(s): Mixed shock is the most severe manifestation of MIS-C, and treatment of heart failure should be combined with cau-tious fluid resuscitation.

6.
Chest ; 162(4):A2662-A2663, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060980

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Late Breaking Chest Infections Posters SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: Initial reports of COVID-19 autopsies revealed significant evidence of micro and macrovascular thrombosis. Due to concern for increased thrombotic events, many institutions implemented anticoagulation (AC) protocols for hospitalized patients. The study’s objective is to evaluate disease progression in patients treated with therapeutic anticoagulation vs. prophylactic anticoagulation in noncritical COVID-19 hospitalized patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adults hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia between March 1-May 1, 2020. Inclusion criteria was any adult patient directly admitted to non-intensive care setting for radiologically confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. T-test was performed for the continuous variables with normal distribution. Wilcoxon-rank-sum test for non-parametric groups. Chi-squared test for categorical variables. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Overall, 81 (34%) received therapeutic AC, and 159 (66%) subjected received prophylactic AC. The clinical characteristics of the therapeutic group included: average age 57.8 (vs. 55.7), 77.78% male (vs. 72.92%), 40.74% obese (vs. 37.92%), 64.74% had hypertension (vs. 40.88%), 44.44% had Diabetes Mellitus (vs. 37.92%) and 11.11% had chronic kidney disease (vs. 13.84%). Initial inflammatory markers were higher in therapeutic group vs. prophylactic, including D-dimer (845 vs 361ng/dL), Ferritin (918.5 vs. 632ng/mL), and CRP (20 vs. 11.2mg/dL). The average length of stay (LOS) of the therapeutic group was 10 days (vs. 7 for prophylactic), and a higher number of patients required mechanical ventilation (36 vs. 23), and hemodialysis (18 vs. 6). A higher number of adverse events (bleeding) was noticed in the therapeutic group (13.58% vs. 2.52%) with a p-value of <0.001. Higher odds of In-Hospital mortality observed in therapeutic group subjects with Hypertension (OR=5.41), chronic kidney disease (OR= 4.08), and lung disease (OR= 2.87) with a p-value of <0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In noncritically ill patients with COVID-19, treatment with therapeutic AC was related to greater LOS, requiring mechanical ventilation, hemodialysis, and adverse effects compared to prophylactic AC. We also observed a significantly higher D-dimer, ferritin, and CRP in the therapeutic group. RCT performed by ACTIV-4a investigators demonstrated increased organ support-free days in the therapeutic group, contrary to our study, which showed increased dependence of respiratory support and hemodialysis. Our therapeutic group patients appear to have higher comorbidities and significantly elevated initial inflammatory markers compared to the prophylactic group, which may explain these differences. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Finally, our study supports the use of therapeutic anticoagulation depending on the patient overall clinical scenario. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Adebola Adetiloye No relevant relationships by Jennifer Arzu No relevant relationships by Kuldeep Ghosh No relevant relationships by Gabriel Ibarra no disclosure on file for Armeen Poor;No relevant relationships by Ingrid Portillo No relevant relationships by Fernando Quesada Mata No relevant relationships by Natoushka Trenard No relevant relationships by Julio Valencia Manrique

7.
Chest ; 162(4):A2478, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060950

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 2 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Pneumomediastinum is the presence of air or other gas in the mediastinum which can be due to trauma related to mechanical ventilation or spontaneous in preexisting lung diseases. Here, we present the case of Covid-19 pneumonia, who developed pneumomediastinum without any trauma or other risk factors. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old male COVID unvaccinated with a history of essential hypertension presented to the ED with shortness of breath and worsening cough for one week. He was living with his father, who was admitted to the ICU and receiving treatment for COVID pneumonia. The patient appeared to be in respiratory distress. His initial vital signs were temperature of 99.6 F, respiratory rate of 26 breaths per minute, blood pressure 125/71 mm Hg, heart rate 109 beats per minute with a regular rhythm, and oxygen saturation of 50% while he was breathing ambient air. Pulmonary examination revealed use of respiratory accessory muscle and widespread bilateral coarse rhonchi on auscultation. The rest of the physical examination was within normal limits. RT- PCR COVID -19 test was positive. The blood gas analysis reported respiratory alkalosis. Inflammatory markers were elevated: erythrocyte sedimentation rate (35.2 mg/L), C-Reactive Protein (17.70 mg/dL), Ferritin (1108.1 ng/mL), Lactate Dehydrogenase (813 U/L), Lactate (2.4 mg/dL), D-Dimer (35.20 mg/L) and Troponin High Sensitivity-236.6 ng/L. His CBC, electrolytes, and kidney function were normal. Chest X-ray showed Pneumomediastinum with dense basilar predominant consolidation. CT Angio Chest with contrast reported Pneumomediastinum likely from the left central airway source and bilateral dense ground glass consolidation. An echocardiogram showed an ejection fraction of 60-65%, no valvular abnormalities. He was placed on vapotherm(Oxygen 40L/min) with 100% FiO2. He was given Dexamethasone 6mg for ten days, Remdesivir, Barcitinib, and a 7-day course of Azithromycin and Ceftriaxone for community-acquired pneumonia. He was advised to practice prone positioning for 12 hours or more per day. Pulmonology, Infectious Disease, and Cardiology were consulted. Gradually, his oxygen requirement was weaned down and Pneumomediastinum resolved on serial chest x rays. He was discharged on home oxygen in a clinically stable condition. DISCUSSION: Pneumomediastinum in viral pneumonia is rare. The exact mechanism is unknown. Covid-19 pneumonia causes diffuse alveolar wall damage, which might cause air leakage into the mediastinum. The development of pneumomediastinum is an ominous sign in these patients. Fortunately, our patient did not worsen and was weaned off high flow oxygenation requirement. CONCLUSIONS: Few isolated reported cases of pneumomediastinum in a COVID-19 patient have been associated with life-threatening complications. It should be used as a prognostic marker, and close monitoring of these patients is advisable. Reference #1: Damous, S.H.B., dos Santos Junior, J.P., Pezzano, Á.V.A. et al. Pneumomediastinum complicating COVID-19: a case series. Eur J Med Res 26, 114 (2021) DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Saad Ansari No relevant relationships by Akshit Chitkara No relevant relationships by Sudeshna Ghosh No relevant relationships by Femina Patel

8.
Chest ; 162(4):A2245, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060918

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Systemic Disease with Diffuse Lung Symptoms Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) is a rare and potentially fatal manifestation of dermatomyositis (DM) and has considerable impact in terms of the prognosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old male demonstrated DM-typical rash, fever, mialgias, and mild muscle weakness 3 months after asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. Two weeks later dysphonia and progressive dyspnea appeared. Lung CT scan showed the picture of organizing pneumonia. His COVID-19 PCR test was negative multiple times. Laboratory tests revealed the following numbers: ALT 210 IU/L, AST 748 IU/L, LDH 613 IU/L, CPK 1165 IU/L, ferritin 1145ϻg/l, CRB 11 mg/l. The patient was tested positive for anti-Ro52 antibodies, while anti-synthetase and scleroderma-associated antibodies were not discovered. Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) test was not available due to the lack of the necessary test systems in the country. The patient was diagnosed with DM. Combined immunosuppressive therapy was administered, including: oral prednisolone 60 mg per day and 720 mg intravenously, dexamethasone 64-24 mg intravenously per diem, ciclosporin 200 mg и cyclophosphamide 600 mg, and 3 plasmapheresis sessions followed by an intravenous immunoglobulin. As a result of the therapy, muscle weakness disappeared and CPK levels returned to normal limits, however dyspnea progressed and ferritin levels hit 3500ϻg/l. After the following 3 weeks of intensive combined immunosuppressive therapy, the patient demonstrated symptoms of severe respiratory failure (RF). CT scan showed multiple traction bronchiectasis, wide areas of ground glass opacity, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema of a neck and supraclavicular regions. Ciclosporin was replaced with tofacitinib with the dose of 10 mg per diem, IL-6 inhibitor (olokizumab 256 mg) was injected intravenously, massive broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy was administered. RF progressed and the patient was put on mechanical ventilation. The patient died of acute RF and sepsis a week later. DISCUSSION: RP-ILD is a common manifestation of severe MDA5+ DM, which is also associated with necrotizing vasculitis and amyopathic/hypomyopathic muscle involvement. In this case acute ILD in a patient with typical DM could also have been provoked by previous COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The courses of disease for COVID-19 and MDA5+ DM have several similarities, which means it can be the same for their pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. In spite of early screening and intensive immunosuppressive therapy in such cases, the prognosis of patients with DM and RP-ILD is still poor and is associated with high mortality. Reference #1: Wang G, Wang Q, Wang Y, et al. Presence of Anti-MDA5 Antibody and Its Value for the Clinical Assessment in Patients With COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Front Immunol. 2021 Dec 20;12:791348. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.791348. PMID: 34987516;PMCID: PMC8720853. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Lidia Ananyeva No relevant relationships by Maria Aristova No relevant relationships by Liudmila Garzanova No relevant relationships by Anna Khelkovskaya-Sergeeva No relevant relationships by Dmitry Kulikovsky

9.
Chest ; 162(4):A1120, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060774

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Gastrointestinal Case Reports SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 12:25 pm - 01:25 pm INTRODUCTION: Histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus most commonly encountered as an opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed patients, particularly those with HIV/AIDS. However, patients immunosuppressed from other causes can also be at risk. Here is presented the case of a patient on multi-immunosuppressant therapy as treatment for Crohn's disease, who developed disseminated histoplasmosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 44-year-old male with a past medical history of Crohn's disease (previously been on azathioprine, adalimumab and currently on Prednisone therapy), recently started on infliximab infusion for uncontrolled symptoms of IBD, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, and COVID-19 infection (not requiring oxygen therapy) one month prior to the current admission initially presented to the hospital with chief complaints of exacerbated weakness, myalgias, fevers and diarrhea for 5 days;Symptoms of weakness, myalgias began after first infusion of infliximab and it got progressively worse after the 2nd infusion 2 weeks prior to the admission. White Blood Cell count was 1.1 K/uL, platelet count was 7 K/uL, hemoglobin was 7.9 g/dL. CRP was elevated to 142 mg/L, and ferritin was elevated to 39,000 ug/L. CT abdomen and pelvis demonstrated probable rectosigmoid colitis and splenomegaly. Subsequent chest x-ray demonstrated bilateral opacities with haziness over bilateral lung fields. Respiratory viral panel, stool panel, blastomyces antigen, cryptococcal antigen, toxoplasma antibodies, HIV antibody, CMV PCR, and blood cultures were unrevealing. Urinary histoplasma antigen was positive, and BD-glucan was elevated to over 500 ng/L. EBV panel was positive for reactivation, with EBV DNA 2.02 IU/mL. He was subsequently started on amphotericin B lipid complex, with itraconazole destination therapy. He was treated empirically for pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim due to him being on chronic Prednisone therapy. Echocardiogram demonstrated left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 40%, with diffuse hypokinesis and wall motion abnormalities, posing some question of myocarditis. He was later discharged home in an improved state. DISCUSSION: Disseminated histoplasmosis in the setting of Crohn's disease on chronic immunosuppressive therapy has been very rarely reported,(1) with similar reports in patients on immunosuppressive therapy in the setting of rheumatologic disease being slightly more common.(2) The most commonly involved areas in gastrointestinal histoplasmosis are the terminal ileum and colon,(3) with this patient's rectosigmoid colitis and symptomatology being consistent with this pattern. The patient's myocarditis is also consistent with disseminated histoplasmosis infection. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should maintain suspicion for opportunistic infections in patients on immunosuppressive therapy in the setting of critical illness. Reference #1: Bhut, B., Kulkarni, A., Rai, V. et al. A rare case of disseminated histoplasmosis in a patient with Crohn's disease on immunosuppressive treatment. Indian J Gastroenterol 37, 472–474 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12664-018-0886-1 Reference #2: Wood KL, Hage CA, Knox KS, et al. Histoplasmosis after treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;167(9):1279-1282. doi:10.1164/rccm.200206-563OC Reference #3: Galandiuk S, Davis BR. Infliximab-induced disseminated histoplasmosis in a patient with Crohn's disease. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;5(5):283-287. doi:10.1038/ncpgasthep1119 DISCLOSURES: no disclosure on file for Donald Dumford;No relevant relationships by Abhilash Bhat Marakini No relevant relationships by Palak Rath No relevant relationships by Sterling Shriber

10.
Chest ; 162(4):A1035, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060758

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Challenging Cases of Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare syndrome involving pathologic immune activation that is often fatal. The link between the cytokine storm related to COVID-19 and development of HLH has been reported since the onset of the pandemic, but little is known about clinical manifestations of HLH, thereby delaying treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: A 50 year-old male presented with a several day history of progressive weakness in the setting of missed dialysis session. Medical history was significant for ESRD on dialysis and diastolic heart failure (EF 35%). Initial vitals were unremarkable. Physical exam was notable for peripheral edema bilaterally. Laboratory studies were consistent with hyperkalemia, elevated ferritin (28,383) and elevated liver function tests. COVID-19 PCR was positive upon admission. Chest x-ray, CTA chest and a right upper quadrant ultrasound were unremarkable. He was admitted to the medical ICU for emergent dialysis. Soon after arrival to the ICU, he became lethargic and confused with increasing oxygen requirements and a subsequent a code blue was called. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was immediately initiated, with a first rhythm consistent with ventricular fibrillation. He was shocked and placed on an amiodarone infusion with return of spontaneous circulation. TTE revealed a severely reduced EF <10%. Despite initiation of advanced COVID-19 therapies with Solu-Medrol and tocilizumab he remained ventilator dependent. Due to hemodynamic instability and persistent metabolic acidosis, he was transitioned to continuous renal replacement. Further blood work showed worsening inflammatory markers (ferritin 33,500, LDH 6981). Because of the significantly elevated ferritin, there were concerns for possible HLH. Triglycerides and IL-2 receptor were 395 mg/dL and 9300 pg/mL respectively. Total NK cells were decreased to 1.2%. He remained persistently unstable despite aggressive measures. He suffered a second cardiopulmonary arrest, which was unable to achieve return of spontaneous circulation and he ultimately passed away. DISCUSSION: HLH is characterized by uncontrolled activation and proliferation of benign macrophages in reticuloendothelial organs. This results in histiocytic hemophagocytosis, worsening peripheral blood cytopenia(s), cytokine storm, and cytokine mediated biochemical alteration ultimately culminating in multiorgan dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Although a distinctive constellation of features has been described for HLH, diagnosis remains challenging as patients have diverse presentations associated with a variety of triggers. CONCLUSIONS: As HLH is a medical emergency with poor prognosis, prompt recognition and early treatment is crucial for improving clinical outcomes. We hope this case will create increased awareness and timely diagnosis of cytokine storm syndromes in patients with severe COVID-19 infection. Reference #1: Meazza Prina M, Martini F, Bracchi F, Di Mauro D, Fargnoli A, Motta M, Giussani C, Gobbin G, Taverna M, D'Alessio A. Hemophagocytic syndrome secondary to SARS-Cov-2 infection: a case report. BMC Infect Dis. 2021 Aug 13;21(1):811. doi: 10.1186/s12879-021-06532-7. PMID: 34388982;PMCID: PMC8361241. Reference #2: Schnaubelt, Sebastian MDa,*;Tihanyi, Daniel MDb;Strassl, Robert MDc;Schmidt, Ralf MDc;Anders, Sonja MDb;Laggner, Anton N. MDa;Agis, Hermine MDd;Domanovits, Hans MDa Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in COVID-19, Medicine: March 26, 2021 - Volume 100 - Issue 12 - p e25170 doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000025170 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Garrett Fiscus No relevant relationships by Niala Moallem No relevant relationships by Resham Pawar

11.
Chest ; 162(4):A906, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060723

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Unique Inflammatory and Autoimmune Complications of COVID-19 Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare, life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome caused by severe, dysregulated hypercytokinemia. This can be associated with genetic defects or immunologic triggers such as infection, malignancy or autoimmune disorder. The clinical picture consists of multi-organ failure including fever, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenia,hypertriglyceridemia, hemophagocytosis, high ferritin and IL-2 levels, neurological and liver dysfunction. We present a case of a patient with HLH in the setting of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 39-year-old male presented to the ER with dyspnea and was found to have COVID-19 pneumonia. He had worsening hypoxemia and was admitted to ICU. He rapidly developed multi-system organ failure (MSOF)including severe hepatitis with AST 13,950 U/L and ALT 10,000 U/L, pancytopenia (Hb 12.9 g/dL, WBC 1.7 K/uL, platelet 15,000 K/uL), acute kidney injury (Cr 6.61 mg/dL), and severe ARDS requiring mechanical ventilation. Abdominal ultrasonography showed splenomegaly. Blood HSV1 DNA PCR was positive with liver biopsy revealing viral inclusions consistent with HSV hepatitis. He had elevated ferritin > 100,000 ug/L and LDH > 2500 U/L. Bone marrow biopsy demonstrated hemophagocytosis and trilineage hematopoiesis. He met 6 of 8 diagnostic criteria for HLH per the HLH-2004 protocol. He received dexamethasone. Risks and benefits of HLH-specific therapy were considered in the setting of liver dysfunction and the decision was made to withhold etoposide and administer anakinra. He died of refractory septic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. DISCUSSION: Diagnosis of HLH can be challenging due to its rarity and the clinical picture may be initially attributed to sepsis in the presence of infection, as in our patient who had COVID-19 infection and HSV hepatitis. However, a ferritin level >10,000 ng/mL is 90% sensitive and 96 % specific for HLH, with very minimal overlap with sepsis, infections, and liver failure. Additionally, infection is a known trigger of HLH. Despite high mortality without therapy, survival can be significantly increased with HLH-specific therapy, such as etoposide. Treatment with etoposide in the setting of severe liver disease can raise concern because it is metabolized by the liver but it is an essential component of optimal therapy and can be considered in patients with hepatic dysfunction with dose reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Our case highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for HLH in critically ill patients with MSOF and liver failure, despite an apparent infectious etiology. This may allow timely diagnosis, early referral to a specialist center and consideration of HLH-specific therapy such as etoposide despite liver dysfunction, to prevent high morbidity and mortality in this potentially fatal disease. Reference #1: Filipovich AH. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and related disorders. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2009;:127. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Abdul Khan No relevant relationships by Nehan Sher No relevant relationships by yuttiwat vorakunthada

12.
Chest ; 162(4):A896, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060720

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Care Management of COVID-19 SESSION TYPE: Original Investigations PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: We hypothesized that supplementation of NIH recommended remdesivir (REM) and dexamethasone (DEX) combination treatment with tocilizumab (TOCI) or baricitinib (BARI) initiated inside 48h of index hospitalization would enhance reduction of inflammatory markers and discharges to home in adults over 18 years old who received intensive care. METHODS: Electronic medical record data were extracted under IRB exemption. Treatment responsiveness was estimated using delta in C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and D-dimer levels from assays respectfully respectively first within 24h and last between 25-72h of initiating REM/DEX with vs without TOCI or BARI. Confounder balanced multigroup contrasts were significant when p<.017. RESULTS: Between March 10, 2020 and January 31, 2022, 891 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the ICU with 459 receiving REM/DEX (n=326) or supplemented with BARI (n=85) or TOCI (n=41). Results are sequenced as REM/DEX, REM/DEX/BARI, REM/DEX/TOCI. Age was 67[57,77] (p<.0001) vs. 61[51,69] and 62[48,68] among statistically similar sex (male, 65%;female, 35%) and race (White, 76%;Black, 8%;Other, 16%) distributions and BMI (32[27,38] kg/m2). Hypertension (70%), obesity (59%), diabetes (38%), deficiency anemia (36%), coagulopathy (29%) chronic pulmonary disease (22%), and renal failure (17%) were similarly distributed. Initial CRP, ferritin, LDH and D-dimer levels -24h to +24h of REM/DEX first dose respectively were 12.1[7.1,18.2], 11.4[7.5,15.7], 14.0[11.2,21.0] mg/dL;811[441,1390], 1178[529,1956], 1110[653,1810] ng/mL (REM/DEX, p=.013);437[321,576], 516[403,695], 518[397,692] U/L (REM/DEX, p=.0001);and 1.02[0.67,2.28], 0.97[0.72,1.88], 1.47[0.86,2.19] ug/mL. Responsiveness quantified using last levels 25h-72h post REM/DEX first dose respectively included -3.4[-7.2,-0.6], -4.3[-7.7,-1.9], -7.2[-10.1,-3.6] mg/dL (REM/DEX/TOCI, p=.014);7[-125,202], -94[-329,69], -29[-181, 535] U/L;-3[-74,80], 85[-58,273], -33[-188,-3] U/L (p=.051);and 0.00[-0.50,1.05], 0.88[-0.45,10.52], -0.01[-0.38,0.50] ug/mL. ICU length of stay (LOS) was 6[3,13], 6[3,12], 8[5,15] days (p<.00001) with hospital LOS of 16[10,24], 20[12,33], 17[11,23] days (REM/DEX/BARI, p<.021). Hospital mortality was 51%, 71%, 43%, with REM/DEX/BARI exhibiting increase (p=.0019), but REM/DEX/TOCI numerically lowest (p>.017). Discharge to home was 24%, 18%, 43%, with REM/DEX/TOCI demonstrating increase (p=.0038). CONCLUSIONS: REM/DEX/TOCI combination therapy provided largest reduction of inflammatory markers and mortality while substantially increasing percentage of discharges to home. REM/DEX treatment responsiveness was adversely impacted by addition of baricitinib, while augmented by tocilizumab. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Our findings highlight need to refine early longitudinal biomarker-tracking to identify patient-centric COVID-19 treatment responsiveness to COVID-19 directed treatments. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Qassem Abdelal No relevant relationships by Kevin Dawkins No relevant relationships by Karen Hamad No relevant relationships by Natalia Lattanzio No relevant relationships by Richard Walo Jr No relevant relationships by Wilhelmine Wiese-Rometsch No relevant relationships by Stephanie Williams

13.
Chest ; 162(4):A863-A864, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060713

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Biological Markers in Patients with COVID-19 Posters SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: Severe COVID19 patients present with low CD8(+) T cell counts. A reduced number of T-cells seems to be correlated with high serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels, and a marked inflammatory state. This study aimed to assess if low CD8(+) counts were associated with inflammation markers, length of stay, and Ichikado CT scores in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A retrospective study of adult patients admitted to our hospital with COVID-19 infection from June 2021 to September 2021. CD8(+) count was obtained, and patients were divided into less than 150 cells/μl and more than 150 cells/μl. Ferritin, c-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), troponin, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and d-Dimer values were also recorded. Primary outcomes were hospital length of stay (LOS), Ichikado CT score, and correlation of CD8(+) count and inflammatory markers. Descriptive statistics, and Mann-Whitney-U methods were utilized. RESULTS: 264 patients were included, median age was 50 years [41-61]. 143 (54.2%) patients were male. There was a statistically significant difference when assessing hospital LOS in patients with CD8(+) counts <150 cells/μl vs > 150 cells/μl (9 days [5-16] vs 5 days [4-9], U=(134, 84)=3742, z=-4.174, p<0.01). The Ichikado CT score was significantly different between groups (190 [150-220] vs [130-190], U=(128,80)=3394, z=-4.094, p<0.01). IL-6 and IL-10 values were higher in those patients with CD8(+) less than 150 μl, when compared to higher CD8(+) counts. IL-10 value was (23.8pg/ml [13.6-43.3] vs (6.6pg/ml [9.4-29.2]), U=(131,78)=3711.5, z=-3.305, p<0.01), and for IL-6 (23.8pg/ml [7.6-88.3] vs (11.9 [4.1-32.1]), U=(125,75)=3473.5, z=-3.064, P<0.01). Ferritin was increased in patients with CD8(+) counts lower than 150 cells/μl compared to more than 150 cells/μl (845.3ng/ml [381.6-1600] vs 480ng/ml [232.6-988.7], U=(133,83)=3939.5, z=-3.550, p=<0.01). Similarly, CRP (83mg/L [46.3-136.7] vs 60.2 mg/L [33.25-100.72], U=(134-82)=4208, z=-2.885, p=<0.01), d-Dimer (1.76mg/L [0.53-7] vs 0.64 mg/L [0.35-1.72], U= (134,84)=3635.5, z=-4.396, p<0.01), and LDH (555IU/L [361-849.2] vs 375.5IU/L [273.2-531.2], U=(122,72)=2740,z=-4.373,p<0.01). Troponin and ESR were not significantly different, median troponin (0.022ng/ml [0.011-0.039] vs 0.012ng/ml [0.007-0.032], U=(111,70)=3218, z=-1.944,P=0.052) and median ESR (78mm/hr [57.2-105] vs 76.5 mm/hr [55-108.7], U=(134,84)=5603, z=-0.055,P=0.95). CONCLUSIONS: CD8(+) counts below 150 cells/μl are associated with increased inflammatory markers, a longer hospital stay, and higher Ichikado CT scores. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: CD8(+) count below 150 cells/μl is other indicator of disease severity in COVID-19 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by David Akinwale No relevant relationships by Angelica Almaguer No relevant relationships by Sushen Bhalla No relevant relationships by Ailine Canete Cruz No relevant relationships by Ndiya Emeaba Speaker/Speaker's relationship with johnson and johnson Please note: approx year 2000 Added 03/31/2022 by Joseph Gathe, value=Honoraria clinical research relationship with gilead Please note: since 1990 Added 03/31/2022 by Joseph Gathe, value=Grant/Research clinical research relationship with ansun Please note: 2020 Added 03/31/2022 by Joseph Gathe, value=Grant/Research Support clinical research relationship with regeneron Please note: 2020 Added 03/31/2022 by Joseph Gathe, value=Grant/Research Support No relevant relationships by Jesus Salvador Gonzalez Lopez No relevant relationships by Najia Hussaini No relevant relationships by Claudia Ramirez No relevant relationships by Salim Surani No relevant relationships by Daryelle Varon No relevant relationships by Joseph Varon No relevant relationships by Mohamed Ziad

14.
Chest ; 162(4):A861-A862, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060712

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Biological Markers in Patients with COVID-19 Posters SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: Common markers of inflammation in COVID-19 include erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and ferritin. We aimed to find an association between creatine Phosphokinase (CPK) and other inflammatory markers and enzymes, and their effect on length of hospital stay, and the Ichikado CT scores. METHODS: Retrospective study of the data of 264 adult patients admitted to our hospital between June and September 2021, with COVID-19. Patients were divided into groups with CPK of greater or less than 200mg/dL. Each was assessed for its association with CRP, ESR, ferritin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), length of hospital stay, and Ichikado CT score. Descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney-U were used to address statistical significance. RESULTS: 264 patients were included, median age was 51.95 years [41-63]. 143(53.2%) were male. The median highest CRP value in patients with CPK of <200 mg/dL was (55 mg/L [24-96.4] vs 97.4 mg/L [50.1-139]) in those with CPK of >200 mg/dL, (U=(131,118) =5097, z=-4.638, p<0.01). The median highest ESR with CPK of <200 mg/dL was (72 mm/hr [51.0-102.5] vs 89 mm/hr [60-109]) in those with CPK of >200 mg/dL, (U= (133,119) =6862.5, z=-1.820, p=0.069). The median highest ferritin value in those with CPK of <200 mg/dL was (388.5 ng/mL [187.1-804.4] vs 1046 ng/mL [462.1-1600]) in those with CPK of >200 mg/dL, (U=(132,118) =4156.5, z=6.3985, p<0.01). The median highest phosphate level in patients with CPK of <200 mg/dL was (3.6 mg/dL [3.3-4.2] vs 3.8 mg/dL [3.4-5.2]) in those with CPK of >200 mg/dL,(U=(133,119) =6487.5, z=-2.471, p=0.013). The median highest LDH level in patients with CPK of <200 mg/dL was (352 IU/L [271.5-459] vs 673.5 IU/L[411.7-980.2]) in those with CPK of >200 mg/dL, (U=(113,106) = 2201, z =-8.084, p<0.01). The median highest Ichikado CT score in patients with CPK of <200 mg/dL was (150[130-190] vs 190[140-222.5]) in those with CPK of >200 mg/dL,(U= (142,209) =5188, z=-4.482, p<0.01). The length of hospital stay in patients with CPK of<200 mg/dL was (5 days [3-8] vs 9 days [5-17]) in those with CPK of >200 mg/dL, (U=(144,120) = 5533, z =-5.049, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: CPK has a statistically significant association with CRP and ferritin levels but not ESR. Imaging disease severity at presentation (Ichikado CT score) was associated with higher CPK levels. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: CPK is another marker of disease severity in COVID-19. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by David Akinwale No relevant relationships by Angelica Almaguer No relevant relationships by Sushen Bhalla No relevant relationships by Ailine Canete Cruz No relevant relationships by Ndiya Emeaba Speaker/Speaker's relationship with johnson and johnson Please note: approx year 2000 Added 03/31/2022 by Joseph Gathe, value=Honoraria clinical research relationship with gilead Please note: since 1990 Added 03/31/2022 by Joseph Gathe, value=Grant/Research clinical research relationship with ansun Please note: 2020 Added 03/31/2022 by Joseph Gathe, value=Grant/Research Support clinical research relationship with regeneron Please note: 2020 Added 03/31/2022 by Joseph Gathe, value=Grant/Research Support No relevant relationships by Jesus Salvador Gonzalez Lopez No relevant relationships by Najia Hussaini No relevant relationships by Claudia Ramirez No relevant relationships by Salim Surani No relevant relationships by Joseph Varon No relevant relationships by Daryelle Varon No relevant relationships by Mohamed Ziad

15.
Chest ; 162(4):A859-A860, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060711

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Biological Markers in Patients with COVID-19 Posters SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: A significant reduction of CD4(+) cells and marked inflammatory activity in moderate and severe COVID-19 cases are seen, both associated with a poor prognosis. This study aimed to assess the association of low CD4(+) counts with inflammatory markers, length of stay, and ICKIKADO scores in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A retrospective study of adult patients admitted to our hospital with COVID-19 infection from June 2021 to September 2021. CD4(+) count was obtained and patients were divided into two categories: less than 200 cells/μl and more than 200 cells/μl. Ferritin, c-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), troponin, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and d-Dimer values were also recorded. Primary outcomes were hospital length of stay (LOS), Ichikado CT scores, and correlation of CD4(+) count and inflammatory markers. Descriptive statistics, and Mann-Whitney-U methods were used. RESULTS: 264 patients were included, median age was 50 years [41-61]. 143(54.2%) were male. There was a statistically significant difference in LOS for patients with CD4(+) counts <200 cells/μl vs > 200 cells/μl CD4(+) (9 days [5-18]vs 6 days [4-9]), U=(111,107)=4330, z=-3.466, p <0.01). The Ichikado CT score was significantly different between groups (190[150-220]vs 160[128.7-192.5], U=(106,102)=3706.5, z=-3.923, p<0.01). IL-10 values and IL-6 values were higher in those patients with CD4(+) less than 200 cells/μl, as compared to higher CD4(+) counts. median IL-10 was (25.2 pg/ml [17-72.45 ] vs 15.7 pg/ml [9.4-26.8 ], U=(109,100)=3463, z=-4.550, p<0.01), and median IL-6 was (23 pg/ml [10.5-99] vs 12 pg/ml [3.77-39], U=(104, 96)=3444.5, z=-3.785, p<0.01). Ferritin was increased in patients with CD4(+) counts lower than 200 cells/μl when compared to counts more than 200 cells/μl (850.2 ng/mL [373.3-1600] vs 541.5 ng/mL [245.1-1034.6], U=(110,106) =4543.5, z=-2.813, p=<0.01). CRP had a similar pattern (82 mg/L[49.5-138.2] vs 60.8 mg/L[30-114.2]), U=(111,105)=4478, z=-2.940, p=<0.01), d-Dimer (2.2 mg/L[0.55-7.14] vs 0.7mg/L[0.37-1.75], U=(111,107)=3992.5, z=-4.180, p<0.01), LDH (630 IU/L[371-888] vs 381 IU/L[276-520.2], U=(102,92)=2631.5,z=-5.227, p<0.01) and troponin (0.024 ng/mL[0.012-0.048] vs 0.012 ng/mL[0.007-0.027], U=(91,90)=2925, z=-3.321,P<0.01). The only inflammatory marker that was not statistically significant different was ESR (86 mm/hr[60-110] vs 72 mm/hr[50-100], U(111-107)=5113, z=-1.773,P=0.076). CONCLUSIONS: CD4(+) counts below 200 cells/μl are associated with increased inflammatory markers, a longer hospital stay, and higher Ichikado CT scores. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: CD4(+) count below 200 cells/μl is other indicator of disease severity in COVID-19 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by David Akinwale No relevant relationships by Angelica Almaguer No relevant relationships by Sushen Bhalla No relevant relationships by Ailine Canete Cruz No relevant relationships by Ndiya Emeaba Speaker/Speaker's relationship with johnson and johnson Please note: approx year 2000 Added 03/31/2022 by Joseph Gathe, value=Honoraria clinical research relationship with gilead Please note: since 1990 Added 03/31/2022 by Joseph Gathe, value=Grant/Research clinical research relationship with ansun Please note: 2020 Added 03/31/2022 by Joseph Gathe, value=Grant/Research Support clinical research relationship with regeneron Please note: 2020 Added 03/31/2022 by Joseph Gathe, value=Grant/Research Support No relevant relationships by Jesus Salvador Gonzalez Lopez No relevant relationships by Najia Hussaini No relevant relationships by Claudia Ramirez No relevant relationships by Salim Surani No relevant relationships by Daryelle Varon No relevant relationships by Joseph Varon No relevant relationships by Mohamed Ziad

16.
Chest ; 162(4):A712-A713, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060673

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pulmonary Involvement in Critical Care Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a condition in which the body's natural ability to end an immune or inflammatory response is defective1. COVID-19 also presents with severe inflammation, and like HLH, leads to significantly elevated ferritin2. We present a case that was initially thought to be COVID-19, but the patient was diagnosed with HLH in the setting of S. aureus endocarditis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old male with a history of atrial fibrillation, mechanical mitral valve on warfarin, type II diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and recently diagnosed COVID-19 presented to the hospital with progressive dyspnea. In the emergency department, he was found to be hypoxemic and in atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response. He had a fever of 39.3°C and his initial laboratory workup revealed hemoglobin of 11.9 g/dL, leukocytes of 5,700, platelets of 83,000, AST 35 U/L, ALT 34 U/L, CRP of 31.89 mg/dL, and ferritin of 1994 ug/L. The patient was admitted and started on dexamethasone 6 mg daily. The following day, the patient's blood work revealed a significant worsening of AST and ALT to 7280 U/L and 3319 U/L, respectively. D-dimer increased to 11861 ng/mL (DDU) and ferritin to 36,470 ug/L. On the third day of admission, his clinical status declined acutely as he became significantly bradycardic, progressing to a cardiac arrest after which he required cardiopulmonary resuscitation, intubation, and was transferred to the intensive care unit. A CT scan obtained revealed hepatomegaly of 22 cm and blood cultures were positive for S. aureus requiring vancomycin treatment. The patient was kept on dexamethasone due to concerns for HLH. Ferritin continued to worsen, reaching 50,749 ug/L. His sCD25 came back positive. Unfortunately, the patient expired on his fifth day of hospitalization after discussing with his family their goals for his care and switching his care to comfort only. DISCUSSION: HLH is a challenging condition since diagnosis is difficult and mortality is high. There are a few methods used to diagnose HLH. Usually, 5 of 8 criteria must be met, which was achieved with this patient. However, often the patient only fulfills 4 of 8 since many criteria are difficult to obtain such as bone marrow biopsy, sCD25, and CXCL9. A useful tool is the H-calculator3. Our patient scored a 180 indicating a 50-75% likelihood of HLH. Assessing the likelihood of disease is important since sCD25 and CXCL9 take time and if the patient is clinically deteriorating treatment should not be delayed. CONCLUSIONS: HLH is catastrophic and rare. Physicians should always have it as a differential diagnosis in patients with severe inflammatory states and elevated ferritins to avoid anchoring bias. If suspicion is high based on clinical evaluation and scores, treatment should not be delayed. Reference #1: Filipovich A, McClain K, Grom A. Histiocytic disorders: recent insights into pathophysiology and practical guidelines. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2010;16(1 Suppl):S82-S89. doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2009.11.014 Reference #2: Cheng L, Li H, Li L, et al. Ferritin in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Lab Anal. 2020;34(10):e23618. doi:10.1002/jcla.23618 Reference #3: Fardet L, Galicier L, Lambotte O, et al. Development and validation of the HScore, a score for the diagnosis of reactive hemophagocytic syndrome. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014;66(9):2613-2620. doi:10.1002/art.38690 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Areeka Memon No relevant relationships by Carissa Monterroso No relevant relationships by Carson Oprysko No relevant relationships by Eduardo Padrao No relevant relationships by Mouna Penmetsa

17.
Chest ; 162(4):A485-A486, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060606

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Management of COVID-19-Induced Complications SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in the management of COVID-19-induced cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) has remained unclear since the pandemic's emergence. A recent meta-analysis by Beraud et. al examined the use of TPE for treatment of CSS in COVID-19 patients. Although inconsistencies were noted, they demonstrated a general downtrend in cytokine markers and acute phase reactants following TPE administration. TPE was associated with improvements in clinical outcomes and appeared safe in critically ill patients. The analysis highlighted an ongoing need to establish clear criteria to identify a target population. This case series presents 3 critically ill adult COVID-19 patients with CSS and extreme hyperferritinemia (>10,000 ng/mL) who received TPE. We propose the use of ferritin as a sole biomarker for guiding therapy in this patient demographic. CASE PRESENTATION: Patient 1 presented with ferritin 16,060 and CRP 8.22. Despite receiving standard COVID-19 therapies, she decompensated and required intubation. Repeat labs revealed ferritin 92,488 and CRP 9.75. TPE was initiated. Ferritin decreased following each TPE session as shown in Graph 1. Patients 2 and 3 also presented with extreme hyperferritinemia and showed a similar downtrend following TPE therapy. All 3 patients made successful recoveries. DISCUSSION: Hyperferritinemia is present across a range of inflammation-mediated disorders and considered a validated biomarker in various disease states, including COVID-19. There are many hypothesized mechanisms of elevated ferritin in COVID-19;one of which is cytokine release. Severe-to-critical COVID-19 patients have shown higher ferritin levels compared to mild-to-moderately ill patients, and non-survivors have shown higher levels than survivors. Unlike those reported by Beraud et. al, our patients presented with extreme hyperferritinemia. All 3 showed a consistent downtrend in ferritin after TPE sessions, and resolution or near-resolution of hyperferritinemia. CRP levels were also obtained, however 2 of 3 cases showed only mild elevation, and levels trended inconsistently after individual sessions. As such, it was not used to gauge treatment duration or efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Since biomarker selection and thresholds for therapy remain unclear, we propose further investigation into a ferritin-guided approach to TPE therapy in critically ill COVID-19 patients with CSS. Additionally, the marked ferritin elevation seen in extreme hyperferritinemia may aid in establishing upper thresholds above which TPE would no longer be considered safe or effective. Lastly, given that previous studies showed clinical improvements in patients with mild-to-moderate elevation, we consider that the rate of and/or percentage change in ferritin level may yield a reliable algorithm to direct therapy. Establishing selection criteria in this patient population may prove critical for reducing morbidity and mortality. Reference #1: Beraud, M., Hashami, S. A., Lozano, M., Bah, A., & Keith, P. (2022). Role of therapeutic plasma exchange in the management of COVID-19-induced cytokine storm syndrome. Transfus Apher Sci, 103433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.transci.2022.103433 Reference #2: Kaushal, K., Kaur, H., Sarma, P., Bhattacharyya, A., Sharma, D. J., Prajapat, M., Pathak, M., Kothari, A., Kumar, S., Rana, S., Kaur, M., Prakash, A., Mirza, A. A., Panda, P. K., Vivekanandan, S., Omar, B. J., Medhi, B., & Naithani, M. (2022). Serum ferritin as a predictive biomarker in COVID-19. A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. J Crit Care, 67, 172-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2021.09.023 Reference #3: Krzych, L. J., Putowski, Z., Czok, M., & Hofman, M. (2021). What Is the Role of Therapeutic Plasma Exchange as an Adjunctive Treatment in Severe COVID-19: A Systematic Review. Viruses, 13(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/v13081484 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Stefani Delvecchio No relevant relationships by Sean Masi No relevant relationships by Chris Recker-Herman

18.
Chest ; 162(4):A462, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060600

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 1 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Mucormycosis is an angio-invasive fungal infection with substantial morbidity and mortality. While diabetes and immune suppression remain well-known risk factors for mucormycosis, COVID-19 is now emerging as its independent predictor. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old male, with a history of hyperlipidemia and alcoholism, presented to the hospital with complaints of progressive dyspnea on exertion, productive cough, intermittent fever, anorexia, and chest pain over the course of 2 weeks. About 5 weeks prior to the current presentation, he was tested positive for COVID-19 by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based test and remained in quarantine at home. He was not vaccinated against COVID-19. He had no known immunosuppressive disease. On initial examination, he was ill-appearing and had a temperature of 101 F, blood pressure 138/83 mmHg, respiratory rate 22/minute, pulse 102/minute, and saturation of 91% on 2 L nasal cannula oxygen. A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the chest revealed small bilateral pneumothorax (2 cm and 5mm) along with extensive ground-glass opacifications in all lobes. In the next 24 hours, the right-sided pneumothorax progressed to tension pneumothorax requiring pigtail pleural drainage catheter placement. The drained pleural fluid had more than 100,000/uL total nucleated cells (91% neutrophils, 2% lymphocytes, and 1% eosinophils) and ultimately cultures grew Rhizopus spp. He was started on intravenous liposomal amphotericin-B infusion (5 mg/kg daily). On hospital discharge, he was switched to oral posaconazole (started with loading 300 mg delayed-release tablet twice a day, followed by 300 mg dosing of delayed-release posaconazole tablets daily) to complete the long term treatment course. DISCUSSION: Most of the reported cases of mucormycosis in COVID-19 were in patients with either diabetes or receiving steroids. This is a rare presentation of COVID-19–associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) as spontaneous pneumothorax, in the absence of known immunosuppression history. COVID-19 results in a considerable increase in cytokines, particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6), which increase free iron by increasing ferritin levels due to increased synthesis and decreased iron transport. Also, concomitant acidosis increases free iron by reducing the ability of transferrin to chelate iron and this available iron becomes a considerable resource for mucormycosis. [1] Also, Mucorales adheres to and invades endothelial cells by specific recognition of the host receptor glucose-regulator protein 78 (GRP-78). Acidosis associated with severe COVID-19 triggers GRP-78 and fungal ligand spore coating homolog (CotH) protein expression on endothelial cells, both contributing to angioinvasion, hematogenous dissemination, and tissue necrosis. [2] CONCLUSIONS: Mucormycosis can present as spontaneous pneumothorax after recent COVID-19 and clinicians should be aware of rare clinical presentation. Reference #1: Singh AK, Singh R, Joshi SR, et al. Mucormycosis in COVID-19: A systematic review of cases reported worldwide and in India. Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev 2021;15:102146. doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2021.05.019 Reference #2: Baldin C, Ibrahim AS. Molecular mechanisms of mucormycosis—The bitter and the sweet. PLOS Pathog 2017;13:e1006408. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1006408 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Faran Ahmad No relevant relationships by AYESHA BATOOL No relevant relationships by Zachary DePew No relevant relationships by Neil Mendoza

19.
Chest ; 162(4):A423-A424, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060593

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Challenging Cases of Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of excessive immune activation in response to a variety of insults including malignant, autoimmune and infectious processes. The most common infectious trigger is a viral infection, but other pathogens have also been implicated including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) CASE PRESENTATION: 62-year-old male from Bangladesh presented due to lethargy, weakness, and anorexia for several weeks. He also reported fevers, diarrhea, and unintentional weight loss. On examination, he appeared acutely ill with diffuse bibasilar crackles on lung exam. Labs showed platelets of 132, ESR 45 mm/hr, CRP 9.6mg/dL, ferritin 1,765ng/mL and transaminitis. A viral panel was positive for Rhinovirus. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities and he was started on antibiotics for pneumonia. On day 3, his respiratory status worsened and he was emergently intubated. He underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and started on high-dose steroids for possible hypersensitivity pneumonitis. On day 5, he was extubated to nasal cannula, however, his condition worsened despite treatment. Extensive infectious workup, including HIV, Covid and P jirovecii PCR, sputum, and blood cultures, and preliminary AFB smear were negative. Subsequent labs noted rising ferritin levels (4,164 ng/mL), high triglycerides, pancytopenia and transaminitis. Calculated H score was 211 which gave a 93-96% probability of HLH. Initiation of Etoposide was discussed but family deferred. He was later transferred to another facility. On follow-up, IL-2 receptor antibodies were elevated, bone marrow biopsy showed hemophagocytosis and necrotizing granulomas. He was intubated for worsening hypoxemia. Repeat bronchoscopy and BAL analysis showed many acid-fast bacilli. Anti TB treatment (ATT) was deferred due to his critical state. He further declined and eventually expired. DISCUSSION: The exact mechanism for which MTB triggers HLH is unclear, however, it is thought that MTB serves as an obligate intracellular pathogen after phagocytosis by phagocytic cells to induce TH1-mediated cytotoxicity, activating macrophages and NK cells, further releasing a large quantity of cytokines and chemokines. The lack of specific clinical signs, low sensitivity for acid-fast staining, and time-consuming culture make the diagnosis of TB-HLH difficult. However, the use of NAATs has improved the yield of sputum testing. Exceedingly high ferritin levels should serve as a red flag in cases of undetermined diagnosis. Moreso, Cytopenias, elevated LFTs, and coagulation dysfunction are other clues that a diagnosis of HLH should be on the differential. It is believed that early and effective ATT is the key to preventing HLH in TB patients. CONCLUSIONS: It is paramount to both recognize the features of TB as well as HLH as early diagnosis and treatment favor better outcomes. Reference #1: Padhi S, Ravichandran K, Sahoo J, Varghese RG, Basheer A. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: An Unusual Complication in Disseminated Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Lung India (2015) 32(6):593–601. doi: 10.4103/0970-2113.168100 Reference #2: Dalugama, C., Gawarammana, I.B. Fever with pancytopenia: unusual presentation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis: a case report. J Med Case Reports 12, 58 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13256-018-1596-0 Reference #3: O M P Jolobe, Timely recognition of hematophagocytosis attributable to coexistence of lymphoma and tuberculosis, QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, Volume 112, Issue 4, April 2019, Page 315, https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcy198 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Katherine Acosta No relevant relationships by Chika Winifred Akabusi No relevant relationships by Uma Medapati No relevant relationships by Hector Ojeda-Martinez No relevant relationships by Busala Oke No relevant relationships by Mar o Torres

20.
Chest ; 162(4):A357-A358, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060572

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Management of COVID-19-Induced Complications SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a systemic condition that causes multi-organ dysfunction accompanied by fever and extremely elevated inflammatory markers. This syndrome been primarily identified in children or adolescents similar to Kawasaki disease. The hallmark of this illness includes life-threatening complications such as shock and cardiac dysfunction. As the cases of COVID-19 continue to increase worldwide, a form of MIS-C can present in adults known as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A). We describe a case of MIS-A after exposure to COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: A 28-year-old Hispanic male with no medical history presented with 3 days of persistent fever, diarrhea, and fatigue. He was unvaccinated for COVID-19 but had mild disease three months prior, which did not require hospitalization. Vitals were remarkable for tachycardia and constant fever of up to 103.5 F. Labs were notable for leukocytosis of 26.0 k/uL, CRP of 43 mg/dL, and procalcitonin of 90 ng/mL. Computed tomography with intravenous contrast of his chest revealed multifocal nodular and consolidative airspace disease of the right upper and middle lobes with mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. Echocardiogram revealed ejection fraction (EF) of 29% without wall-motion abnormalities. PCR test for COVID-19 was negative and his infectious work-up was unrevealing. His course was further complicated by shock requiring pressors, intubation, and renal replacement therapy. Despite antibiotics, he did not improve. He was started on pulse dose steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), which decreased his CRP to 34 mg/dL and procalcitonin to 51 ng/mL. He was weaned off the ventilator and pressor support with EF recovery to 51%. He was eventually discharged home without further needs. DISCUSSION: While limited data exists, adult patients of all ages with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection can develop MIS-A. Preliminary reports suggest increased incidence among African American, Hispanic, and Asian ethnic groups. Diagnosis includes one primary and two secondary clinical criteria with two supporting laboratory evidence. Primary criteria includes cardiac dysfunction or rash with conjunctivitis. Secondary criteria includes neurological signs, shock, gastrointestinal disease, or thrombocytopenia. Lab markers include elevated CRP, ferritin, IL-6, ESR, or procalcitonin with a positive SARS-Cov-2 PCR, serology, or antigen detection. Treatment consists of steroids, IVIG, and supportive care based on case reports. There are no current evidence-based guidelines. The best preventative measures include COVID-19 vaccination CONCLUSIONS: MIS-A is a rare complication of unvaccinated COVID-19 cases. Diagnostic criteria include one primary and two secondary clinical signs with supporting lab data. Treatment includes steroids, IVIG, and supportive care. Reference #1: Riphagen S, Gomez X, Gonzalez-Martinez C, Wilkinson N, Theocharis P. Hyperinflammatory shock in children during COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet. 2020;395(10237):1607-1608. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(20)31094-1 Reference #2: Kunal S, Ish P, Sakthivel P, Malhotra N, Gupta K. The emerging threat of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (mis-A) in COVID-19: A systematic review. Heart & Lung. 2022;54:7-18. doi:10.1016/j.hrtlng.2022.03.007 Reference #3: Morris SB, Schwartz NG, Patel P, et al. Case series of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults associated with SARS-COV-2 infection — United Kingdom and United States, March–August 2020. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2020;69(40):1450-1456. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6940e1 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Sadaf Afraz No relevant relationships by Christine Girard No relevant relationships by Jose Rivera No relevant relationships by Ivan Romero-Legro No relevant relationships by Amy Van

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL