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1.
J Infect Dis ; 226(8): 1362-1371, 2022 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hantavirus is known to be transmitted from rodents to humans. However, some reports from Argentina and Chile have claimed that the hantavirus strain Andes virus (ANDV) can cause human-to-human transmission of the disease. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the evidence for human-to-human transmission of hantavirus. METHODS: We searched PubMed (inception to 28 February 2021), Cochrane Central, Embase, LILACS and SciELO (inception to 3 July 2020), and other sources. We included studies that assessed whether interpersonal contact with a person with laboratory-confirmed hantavirus infection led to human-to-human transmission. Two reviewers conducted screening, selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity. With the exception of 1 prospective cohort study of ANDV in Chile with serious risk of bias, evidence from comparative studies (strongest level of evidence available) does not support human-to-human transmission of hantavirus infection. Noncomparative studies with a critical risk of bias suggest that human-to-human transmission of ANDV may be possible. CONCLUSIONS: The balance of the evidence does not support the claim of human-to-human transmission of ANDV. Well-designed cohort and case-control studies that control for co-exposure to rodents are needed to inform public health recommendations.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Hantavirus Infections , Orthohantavirus , Animals , Humans , Prospective Studies , Rodentia
2.
Cureus ; 15(4): e38180, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236448

ABSTRACT

Introduction Vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) helps develop protective immunity against COVID-19 without experiencing potentially severe illness. Many vaccines are used worldwide, but there is little data on the efficacy and side effects of the Sinopharm vaccine. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the reported adverse effects of the Sinopharm vaccine among participants. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in multiple hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. The study was eight months, from April 1, 2022, to November 30, 2022. A total of 600 participants who gave informed consent and had received their first and second doses of the Sinopharm vaccine were included in the study. As hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are common prevalent conditions in our population, the duration of DM and hypertension were documented as means and standard deviations apart from age, height, and weight. Side effects of the Sinopharm vaccine were reported as frequencies and percentages. Results The study findings showed that out of 600 participants, 376 (62.7%) were males and 224 (37.3%) were females; their mean age was 42.79±14.44 years. Among them, 130 (21.7%) had hypertension, and 138 (23.0%) had DM. All participants received the Sinopharm vaccine. Fever was the most frequently reported adverse effect following the first dose of the Sinopharm vaccine in 308 (51.3% of participants), followed by burning at the injection site in 244 (40.7% of participants) and pain at the injection site in 228 (38.0% of participants). Following the second dose of the Sinopharm vaccine, fever was the most frequently reported side effect in 254 (42.3%) participants, followed by pain at the injection site in 236 (39.5%) participants and burning at the site of injection in 210 (35.0%) participants. Moreover, joint pain in 194 (32.3%), shortness of breath in 170 (28.3%), swelling of glands in 168 (28.0%), chest pain in 164 (27.3%), and muscle pain were reported by 140 (23.3%) participants. The level of satisfaction showed that the majority of the participants, 334 (55.7%), were satisfied, 132 (22.0%) were very satisfied with their vaccination, and only 12 (2.0%) were dissatisfied. Conclusion This study concluded that fever was the most frequent side effect after both doses of the Sinopharm vaccine. Pain and burning at the injection site and joint pain were among the other common side effects reported by most participants. The Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine had mild, predictable, and non-life-threatening side effects after the first and second doses.

3.
Cureus ; 15(5): e38564, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234169

ABSTRACT

Background Vaccination acts by boosting the capacity of a person's immune system to identify and effectively resist infection-causing bacteria and viruses, as it stimulates the immune system to respond to the vaccine's antigens. The immunological response may include local and systemic symptoms, including pain at the injection site and fever, respectively. The Sinovac vaccine is an inactivated virus vaccine made in China and is one of the most widely used vaccines in many countries; however, the side effects of the Sinovac vaccine have not been well-studied in our population. Therefore, this study assessed the prevalence of side effects experienced by participants after receiving the Sinovac vaccine. Methodology This multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted using a non-probability sampling method. The duration of the study was six months from May 1, 2022, to October 31, 2022. A total of 800 participants who were completely vaccinated with the Sinovac vaccine were included in the study. For categorical data, frequencies and percentages were documented, while for continuous data, such as age, height, weight, and the duration of comorbidities, means and standard deviations were evaluated. Results The study findings showed that out of 800 participants, 534 (66.8%) were males and 266 (33.3%) were females, with a mean age of 41.20 ± 13.70 years. Among them, 162 (20.3%) had hypertension, and 104 (13.0%) had diabetes. Following the first dose of the Sinovac vaccine, fever was the most commonly reported side effect in 350 (43.8%) participants. Additionally, pain at the injection site in 238 (29.8%) participants, followed by swelling at the injection site in 228 (28.5%) recipients, were among other common side effects. Following the second dose of the Sinovac vaccine, fever was the most commonly reported side effect in 262 (32.8%) participants. Conclusions This study concluded that fever was the most frequent systemic side effect, whereas pain and swelling at the injection site were the most frequent local side effects following the administration of the first and second doses of the Sinovac vaccine. Both dosages of Sinovac were well-tolerated, and the majority of the adverse effects were minor and self-limiting.

4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 10(Suppl 1): S38-S46, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233801

ABSTRACT

The global response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic demonstrated the value of timely and open sharing of genomic data with standardized metadata to facilitate monitoring of the emergence and spread of new variants. Here, we make the case for the value of Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) genomic data and demonstrate the utility of freely available platforms and services that support the generation, analysis, and visualization of S. Typhi genomic data on the African continent and more broadly by introducing the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention's Pathogen Genomics Initiative, SEQAFRICA, Typhi Pathogenwatch, TyphiNET, and the Global Typhoid Genomics Consortium.

5.
Infektsionnye Bolezni ; 20(4):85-96, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20245415

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 600 million people worldwide over the last 2.5 years. So far, there efficacy of many antiviral drugs against COVID-19 has been evaluated only in small studies conducted in different countries. Objective. To assess the efficacy of umifenovir in patients with COVID-19. Materials and methods. We performed systematic search of publications in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Sixteen studies with a total of 1,843 patients were included in the analysis. The following endpoints were evaluated: frequencies of negative PCR test on days 7 and 14;mortality in patients with mild, moderate, and severe disease;and frequency of fever resolution on day 7. Results. We found that patients receiving umifenovir demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of negative PCR test on day 7 than patients who received no causal therapy or other antiviral drugs (odds ratio (OR) 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-2.62, p = 0.02, I2 = 13%). This difference was even more significant among patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 (OR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.24-3.32, p = 0.005, I2 = 0%), as well as on day 14 (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.35-3.94, p = 0.0007, I2 = 50%). We also observed a reduced risk of death in the studies that included only patients with mild and moderate disease (JR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.33-0.83, p = 0.006, I2 = 0). Umifenovir therapy did not affect the frequency of fever resolution by day 7 (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.49-1.56, p = 0.64, I2 = 0%). Conclusion. Umifenovir significantly accelerated virus elimination by days 7 and 14 among patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Umifenovir also reduced the risk of death compared to other antiviral drugs.Copyright © 2022, Dynasty Publishing House. All rights reserved.

6.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; 28(23):117-121, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20245321

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize and compare the main traditional Chinese medicineTCMsyndromes of Delta and Omicron variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2SARS-CoV-2 carriers to provide references for the syndrome evolution and syndrome differentiation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Method(s):The TCM medical records of imported and local cases of infection with Delta and Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 in Changsha since September 23,2021 to March 27,2022 were collected,including 18 Delta variant cases and 36 Omicron variant cases. Their TCM diagnosis information and TCM pathogenesis were analyzed and compared. Result(s): The common manifestations in Delta variant cases were cough,fever,chest distress/shortness of breath,sore muscles,nausea,dry mouth,dry or sore throat,thick and greasy tongue coating,and rapid and slippery pulse. The predominant pathogenesis was dampness-heat in the upper-energizer and heat stagnation in the lesser Yang combined with dampness. The occurrence of chest distress/shortness of breath,greasy tongue coating,slippery pulse,and the proportion of dampness-heat in the upper-energizer syndrome were higher in Delta variant cases than in Omicron variant cases P<0.05. The common manifestations in Omicron variant cases were itchy and sore throat,nasal congestion,running nose,fever,mild aversion to cold,dry mouth,dizziness,slightly reddish tongue with thin white coating,and rapid or wiry pulse. The predominant pathogenesis was wind-dryness invading defensive exterior,and heat stagnation in the lesser Yang. The occurrence of white-coated tongue and the proportion of wind-dryness invading defensive exterior syndrome were higher in Omicron variant cases than in Delta variant casesP<0.05. Conclusion(s): There are certain differences in TCM syndromes and the corresponding pathogenesis between Delta variant and Omicron variant cases in Changsha,Hunan. The Delta variant of SARS-COV-2 tends to induce dampness-heat syndrome, whereas Omicron variant infection tends to elicit wind-dampness syndrome,which is expected to provide a reference for the pathogenesis evolution of SARS-COV-2 infection.Copyright © 2022, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Institute of Chinese Materia Medica. All rights reserved.

7.
Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 22(12):1661-1665, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-20245315

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the pathogen composition and distribution characteristics of pathogens in respiratory samples from patients with fever of unknown origin. Methods: A total of 96 respiratory samples of patients with unknown cause fever with respiratory symptoms were collected from four hospitals above grade II in Shijiazhuang area (Hebei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Luancheng District People's Hospital, Luquan District People's Hospital, Shenze County Hospital) from January to April 2020, and multiplex-fluorescent polymerase chain reaction(PCR)was used to detect influenza A virus, influenza B virus, enterovirus, parainfluenza virus I/II/III/IV, respiratory adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human rhinovirus, human bocavirus, COVID-19, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Group A streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus nucleic acid detection, the results were analyzed for chi-square. Results: A total of 8 pathogens were detected in the upper respiratory tract samples of 96 fever patients, including 1 kind of virus, 6 kinds of bacterias, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. There were 12 viruses including influenza virus and parainfluenza virus, Legionella pneumophila and Chlamydia pneumoniae were not detected. The pathogen detection rates in descending order were Streptococcus pneumoniae (58/96, 60.42%), Haemophilus influenzae(38/96, 39.58%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14/96, 14.58%), Staphylococcus aureus (10/96, 10.42%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (8/96, 8.33%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6/96, 6.25%), Group A streptococcus (4/96, 4.17%) and human rhinovirus (2/96, 2.08%). The proportions of single-pathogen infection and multi-pathogen mixed infection in fever clinic patients were similar, 41.67% (40/96) and 45.83% (44/96), respectively, and 12.50% (12/96)of the cases had no pathogens detected. The infection rate of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in female patients with fever (21.43%) was higher than that in male patients with fever (2.94%) (P < 0.05). There was no statistical difference between the distribution of of other pathogens and gender and age(P > 0.05). Conclusions: The upper respiratory tract pathogens were mainly bacterial infections, and occasional human rhinovirus and Mycoplasma pneumonia infections. In clinical diagnosis and treatment, comprehensive consideration should be given to the pathogen detection.

8.
Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S242, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20245190

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Data showed that during the SOVID-19 pandemic the pharmacy is the first place for patient care. The purpose was to study the awareness of pharmacists about the COVID-19 for 2021-2022 in Ukraine to provide complete and quality care. Method(s): Survey was developed to determine the level of knowledge of pharmacists regarding the main symptoms, methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of uncomplicated forms of the COVID-19 by using Google form. The heads of pharmacies, pharmacists in eight regions of Ukraine were involved. The research period was December 2021 - December 2022. Result(s): We received, 725 completed questionnaires from 8 regions of Ukraine, of which 69.7% were pharmacy managers, 12.0% were pharmacists, and 18.3% were intern- pharmacists. Of the surveyed pharmacists, 95% called the method of airborne transmission, but 4.7% believe that the coronavirus is transmitted by the contact-household method, and 0.3% - transmissible. We found that 100% of respondents correctly named the main indicators of the condition of a patient with the COVID-19. However, only 95.4% of pharmacists correctly defined the concept of saturation, which requires improvement of information support. For the symptomatic treatment of uncomplicated forms, 91.7% of respondents correctly determined that Paracetamol, Ibuprofen are for the symptomatic treatment of uncomplicated forms, but 8.3% of pharmacists named other drugs. Assessing the need to take antibiotics, 88.5% of pharmacists gave the correct answer, but 5.5% believe that the reason for prescribing antibiotics is an increase in body temperature, and 5.4% named a decrease in saturation, 0.6% - dry a cough, that does not meet the requirements of thee national guideleines Covid-19. Conclusion(s): We found that pharmacists are 100% well-informed with the symptoms and causes of the Covid-19. However, it is necessary to improve the provision of information about the requirements for the treatment of uncomplicated forms of Covid-19 and the dispensing of antibiotics from pharmacies.Copyright © 2023

9.
Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S49, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244974

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to determine disease severity, clinical features, clinical outcome in hospitalized patients with the Omicron variant and evaluate the effectiveness of one-dose, two-dose, and three-dose inactivated vaccines in reducing viral loads, disease course, ICU admissions and severe diseases. Method(s): Retrospective cohort analysis was performed on 5,170 adult patients (>=18 years) identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 positive with Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction admitted at Shanghai Medical Center for Gerontology between March 2022 and June 2022. COVID-19 vaccination effectiveness was assessed using logistic regression models evaluating the association between the risk of vaccination and clinical outcomes, adjusting for confounders. Result(s): Among 5,170 enrolled patients, the median age was 53 years, and 2,861 (55.3%) were male. 71.0% were mild COVID-19 cases, and cough (1,137 [22.0%]), fever (592 [11.5%]), sore throat (510 [9.9%]), and fatigue (334 [6.5%]) were the most common symptoms on the patient's first admission. Ct values increased generally over time and 27.1% patients experienced a high viral load (Ct value< 20) during their stay. 105(2.0%) of these patients were transferred to the intensive care unit after admission. 97.1% patients were cured or showed an improvement in symptoms and 0.9% died in hospital. The median length of hospital stay was 8.7+/-4.5 days. In multivariate logistic analysis, booster vaccination can significantly reduce ICU admissions and decrease the severity of COVID-19 outcome when compared with less doses of vaccine (OR=0.75, 95%CI, 0.62-0.91, P<=0.005;OR=0.99, 95%CI, 0.99-1.00, p<0.001). Conclusion(s): In summary, the most of patients who contracted SARSCoV-2 omicron variant had mild clinical features and patients with vaccination took less time to lower viral loads. As the COVID-19 pandemic progressed, an older and less vaccinated population was associated with higher risk for ICU admission and severe disease.Copyright © 2023

10.
Journal of SAFOG ; 15(1):5-11, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244074

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) poses expectant mothers to a higher risk of serious complications and mortality. Following a risk-benefit review, a number of governmental and professional bodies from across the globe recently approved the COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy. Aim(s): This study aimed to investigate knowledge, actual acceptance, and concerns about the COVID-19 vaccine among the obstetric population. Material(s) and Method(s): Participants were selected from among the expecting women who came for antenatal checkup during the study period (October 1, 2021-November 30, 2021). About 150 pregnant women who met the inclusion criteria and consented were recruited into the study. Data related to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics as well as knowledge, actual acceptance, and concerns about COVID-19 vaccine were collected through in-person interviews using a prestructured questionnaire. The SPSS version 23 was used to analyze data. The association between the attitude (acceptance and hesitance) of participants toward the COVID-19 vaccine and their sociodemographic and clinical profile was found by Fisher's exact test. Result(s): The actual acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine among expecting women was 52.0%. The primary motive for accepting COVID-19 immunization was to protect the fetus, followed by the protection of one's own health. A significant association was found between COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and the level of education, socio-economic status, and presence of comorbidities. The leading causes for vaccine reluctance were concerns about the efficacy and safety of the vaccines and lack of awareness about their usage during pregnancy. Conclusion(s): Multifaceted activities are required to promote the effectiveness and safety profile of the COVID-19 vaccine as well as disseminate knowledge about its usage during pregnancy. Clinical significance: Unlike numerous other studies that have investigated the accepting attitude only, the present one has investigated the actual COVID-19 vaccine uptake among the obstetric population.Copyright © The Author(s).

11.
Danish Medical Journal ; 70(6) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244065

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION. The aetiology of Kawasaki disease (KD) remains unknown. Changes in infectious exposure during the COVID-19 pandemic owing to infection prevention measures may have affected the incidence of KD, supporting the pathogenic role of an infectious trigger. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, phenotype and outcome of KD before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Denmark. METHODS. This was a retrospective cohort study based on patients diagnosed with KD at a Danish paediatric tertiary referral centre from 1 January 2008 to 1 September 2021. RESULTS. A total of 74 patients met the KD criteria of whom ten were observed during the COVID-19 pandemic in Denmark. Alof these patients were negative for SARS-CoV-2 DNA and antibodies. A high KD incidence was observed during the first six months of the pandemic, but no patients were diagnosed during the following 12 months. Clinical KD criteria were equally met in both groups. The fraction of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) non-responders was higher in the pandemic group (60%) than in the in the pre-pandemic group (28.3%), although the rate of timely administered IVIG treatment was the same in both groups (>= 80%). Coronary artery dilation was observed in 21.9% in the pre-pandemic group compared with 0% in KD patients diagnosed during the pandemic. CONCLUSION. Changes in KD incidence and phenotype were seen during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients diagnosed with KD during the pandemic had complete KD, higher liver transaminases and significant IVIG resistance but no coronary artery involvement.Copyright © 2023, Almindelige Danske Laegeforening. All rights reserved.

12.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 17(3):617-621, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243826

ABSTRACT

Objective: COVID-19 caused a deleterious impact on the health care system globally.The roll out of vaccines seems to be the only effective way to curtail the spread of disease.The purpose of this study is to assess the dermatological adverse effect of post COVID-19vaccination on a gender basis. Methodology: This was an observational,cross-sectional,questionnaire-based survey conducted in Pakistan.The sample comprises 518 participants. The questionnaire was self-designed. The trial lasted six months, from August 1, 2022, until January 31, 2023. We used a non-probability sampling technique.Dermatological adverse effects like burning pain, redness, rashes, and lymphadenopathy at the injection site were recorded.Fever was also noted. All the participants have received booster shots or double doses of any one of CCOVID-19 vaccines, such as AstraZeneca, Pfizer, Sinovac, Sinopharm,Pakvac, etc. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Qualitative data was reported as frequency and percentage, and quantitativedata was reported as standard deviation and mean. Result(s): The study included 518 subjects, of whom 262 were males and 256 were females. The mean age of male is 42.70+/-14.05 years and female is 39.04+/-14.6years with a significant difference observed between them (p=0.004). The most common complaint among dermatological adverse effects after first was pain. 106(40.5%) male and 132(51.6%) female reported painwith a significant difference observed between them (p=0.011) followed by swelling which was reported by 92(35.1%) males and 120(46.9%) females with a significant difference observed between them (p=0.006).Burning was reported in 92(35.1%) male and 148(57.8%) female with a significant difference observed between them(p<0.001). Fever was also quite commonly reported in both male 116(44.3%) and female 178(69.5%) with significantdifference observed between them (p<0.001),Likewise post 2nd dose of vaccination, pain was most commonly noted in 90(34.4%) male and female 124(48.4%) female with significant difference observed between them (p=0.001). Moreover, burning was reported by 80(30.5%) malesand 132(51.6%) females with a significant difference observed between them (p<0.001). rashes were reported by76(29.0%) males and 100(39.1%) females with a significant difference observed between them (p=0.016), lymphadenopathy was also significantly associated with genders, (p<0.001). Conclusion(s): This study concluded that the burning pain,redness,rashes,and lymphadenopathywere the most prevalent side effects in male and female post 1st and 2ndCOVID-19 vaccination.Furthermore fever was also reported in majority of subjects.In addition to this higher percentage of side effects were recorded in females as comparedto males.Copyright © 2023 Lahore Medical And Dental College. All rights reserved.

13.
Pamukkale Medical Journal ; 15(3):595-602, 2022.
Article in Turkish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20243681

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome that occurs after SARS-Cov-2 infection with fever, cardiogenic shock and hyperinflammation in children, can be life threatening. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of the complaint and duration at diagnosis on the severity of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Materials and methods: The medical records of 99 pediatric patients, who were diagnosed multisystem inflammatory syndrome between September 2020 and August 2021 according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were evaluated retrospectively. Demographic features, initial findings, and admission time of patients were noted. Patients were categorized according to intensive care necessity. Results: The median age of the patients was 10 (2-18) and 62 (62.6%) of patients were male. The median duration before admission was 4 (1-10) days. All patients has fever, 81.8% had gastrointestinal and 75.8% had cardiovascular involvement at admission. The patients (56.6%) who were accepted as severe and moderate MIS-C required intensive care. Prolonged fever, delayed admission, cardiovascular involvement, high inflammatory markers, lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia were found to key parameters determining the need for intensive care. Conclusion: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children is a new disease characterized by fever, signs of inflammation and organ dysfunction associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Delayed admission, high cardiac and inflammatory markers at diagnosis increase the need for intensive care. © 2022, Pamukkale University. All rights reserved.

14.
Iranian Journal of Epidemiology ; 18(3):244-254, 2022.
Article in Persian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243573

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Due to the high prevalence of COVID-19 disease and its high mortality rate, it is necessary to identify the symptoms, demographic information and underlying diseases that effectively predict COVID-19 death. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to predict the mortality behavior due to COVID-19 in Khorasan Razavi province. Method(s): This study collected data from 51, 460 patients admitted to the hospitals of Khorasan Razavi province from 25 March 2017 to 12 September 2014. Logistic regression and Neural network methods, including machine learning methods, were used to identify survivors and non-survivors caused by COVID-19. Result(s): Decreased consciousness, cough, PO2 level less than 93%, age, cancer, chronic kidney diseases, fever, headache, smoking status, and chronic blood diseases are the most important predictors of death. The accuracy of the artificial neural network model was 89.90% in the test phase. Also, the sensitivity, specificity and area under the rock curve in this model are equal to 76.14%, 91.99% and 77.65%, respectively. Conclusion(s): Our findings highlight the importance of some demographic information, underlying diseases, and clinical signs in predicting survivors and non-survivors of COVID-19. Also, the neural network model provided high accuracy in prediction. However, medical research in this field will lead to complementary results by using other methods of machine learning and their high power.Copyright © 2022 The Authors.

15.
Clinical Epileptology ; 36(1):45-51, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243284

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the course of COVID-19 infections and the tolerability of the mRNA vaccines of Moderna and Pfizer/BioNTech and the viral vector vaccines from Astra Zeneca and Johnson & Johnson in adult patients with epilepsy (PWE). Method(s): From July 2020 to July 2021, we consecutively included adult outpatients with confirmed epilepsy. These PWE were interviewed about COVID-19 infections and vaccinations. Results of follow-up visits were added until the cut-off date (December 31, 2021). The data of COVID-19-infected without vaccinations or fully vaccinated PWE without COVID-19 infections were analyzed. Full vaccination was defined as a double vaccination with the Pfizer/BionTech, Moderna, or Astra Zeneca vaccines or a single Johnson & Johnson vaccination. Result(s): At cut-off, 612 of 1152 PWE fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 51 PWE had been infected without vaccination and 561 had full vaccination without infection. Among the infected PWE, 76.5% presented with symptoms;9.8% had a severe course (one death). The leading symptoms were influenza-like disorders (48.7% of infected PWE with symptoms), anosmia (28.2%), and ageusia (20.5%). Seizure increases or relapses after sustained seizure freedom occurred in 7.8%. Adverse events (AEs) were reported by 113 vaccinated PWE (20.1% of all vaccinated PWE). The leading AEs were fatigue, fever, and headache. The AE rate per vaccine was 14.0% for Pfizer/BionTech, 32.7% for Moderna, 25.8% for Astra Zeneca, and 46.2% for Johnson & Johnson. Of the AEs, 93.3% lasted <=1 week. Seizure increase or relapse occurred in 1.4% and was significantly less frequent than in the infected group (p= 0.0016). Conclusion(s): The course of COVID-19 infections and the tolerability of the vaccines were similar as in the general population, yet, seizure worsening occurred more often after the infection than after the vaccination.Copyright © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Medizin Verlag GmbH, part of Springer Nature.

16.
Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242997

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a severe hyper inflammatory condition caused by the over-activation and proliferation of T cells, NK cells and macrophages. It is often associated with complications of rheumatic/immune diseases. We present a case of a 15-year-old female who experiences recurrent episodes of MAS without any known definitive underlying etiology. Case Presentation: A 15-year-old previously healthy female developed fatigue, fevers, myalgia, chest pain, splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy 10 days after receiving her first Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine. Her symptoms recurred 10 days after receiving the second dose. Her myocarditis, MIS-C, and infectious work up was negative except for positive EBV IgG. Laboratory studies revealed anemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypofibrinogenemia, and hyperferritinemia. She initially responded to decadron;however, her symptoms recurred with steroid taper. Bone marrow biopsy revealed hemophagocytosis. Whole exome sequencing (WES) revealed a heterozygous variant of uncertain significance in UNC13D c.962C>A (p.Thr321Asn). She had multiple re-admissions with significantly elevated inflammatory markers, including extremely high IL2-R, IL-18 and CXCL9. Each episode was complicated by an acute viral infection. She responds to high dose steroids, anti-IL-1, and JAK inhibitors. Nonetheless, it has been difficult to wean decadron without triggering a flare. She continues to require increasing doses of baricitinib. Discussion(s): MAS may be seen as a complication of rheumatic diseases, as well as inborn errors of immunity. However, none of these conditions have been diagnosed in this patient despite extensive testing, including WES. The degree of her immune dysregulation has been very severe making her disease process unpredictable and extremely difficult to control. She has frequent flares precipitated by viral infections or attempts at adjusting her immunomodulators. Weaning her medications has been challenging as she continues to require increasing doses of baricitinib and corticosteroids. The UNC13D gene is associated with autosomal recessive familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 3 (FHL3). Our patient is heterozygous for an UNC13D variant of uncertain significance. Additional genetic inquiries with whole genome sequencing to help elucidate the underlying etiology of her severe condition is being conducted. We hypothesize she developed MAS due to a combination of genetic predisposition, prior EBV infection, and immune stress associated with the COVID-19 vaccine. [Formula presented] [Formula presented] [Formula presented]Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

17.
International Journal of Toxicological and Pharmacological Research ; 13(5):173-179, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242942

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus pandemic is an ongoing pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). WHO declared the outbreak as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in January 2020 & a pandemic in March 2020. In India Oxford University-Astra Zeneca's Covishield vaccine, manufactured by serum institute of India and Bharath Biotech's Covaxin are being used for vaccination programme. In this study, we assess adverse reactions following Covid-19 vaccination & incidence of COVID-19 disease among vaccinated people across Kerala. Since it was newer vaccine and general population was afraid of side effects. The present study aimed to study the adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccination among general population aged above 18 years in Kerala. Method(s): A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among COVID-19 vaccinated individuals above 18 yrs of age residing in Kerala from July 2021 to December 2021. Pattern of adverse events following COVID-19 vaccination (AEFI) were assessed using a semi structured questionnaire. An online questionnaire using Kobo Toolbox was developed and shared via online platform to record the self-reported adverse events following vaccination. A respondent driven sampling method was used. The data was downloaded in MS Excel and analysed using Microsoft excel. Result(s): Study was conducted among 526 people across Kerala, among which both males(45.63%) and females (54.18%). Majority of them received COVISHEID (92.97%) and rest of them received COVAXIN (6.24%) and SPUTNIK (0.57%). Out of which 65.97% received 2 doses and 34.03% received only one dose of vaccine. More than half of them (61.5%) faced side effects during post vaccination period. The symptoms were very mild in which fever (65.74%) and tiredness (76.85%) were the commonest symptoms. Conclusion(s): In the present study, majority of the vaccinated people experienced very mild and self limiting adverse effects, those were very mild & self limiting. It is a fact that COVID-19 vaccines doesn't provided 100% efficiency, but our study indicates that it does provides protection against COVID-19 infection to a great extend & breakthrough infections are very less severe and asymptomatic for vaccinated people.Copyright © 2023, Dr. Yashwant Research Labs Pvt. Ltd.. All rights reserved.

18.
Cancer Research, Statistics, and Treatment ; 4(3):529-532, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242854
19.
Cancer Research, Statistics, and Treatment ; 4(2):347-349, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242853
20.
Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242741

ABSTRACT

Background: The clinical course of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) varies from those who are asymptomatic, experience mild symptoms such as fever, cough, and dyspnea, to more severe outcomes including acute respiratory distress, pneumonia, renal failure, and death. Early reports suggested severe outcomes in patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID), particularly those with type 1 interferon signalling defects. This prompted a rigid approach to social distancing to protect this patient population, particularly children. To date, real-world data describing the course and outcome of COVID-19 in paediatric PID patients remains scarce. Method(s): In this retrospective case series, we describe the clinical course of 36 paediatric patients with underlying primary immunodeficiency (PID) followed by SickKids Hospital (Toronto, Canada) who were symptomatic and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection between October 2020 to November 2022. Result(s): Our cohort consisted of patients with combined immunodeficiency (66.7%), antibody deficiency (22.2%), neutrophil dysfunction (8.3%), and immune dysregulation (2.8%). The median age was 7.5 years (range: 8 months - 17 years), with 21 male and 15 female patients. Three (8.3%) patients were post-hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and 12 (33%) patients were on immunoglobulin replacement. Nine (25%) patients had underlying lung problems including bronchiectasis (1), interstitial lung disease on home oxygen therapy (1), and underlying asthma (7). Most patients had mild clinical course and were managed at home. The most common symptoms were fever (80%), cough (75%) and other upper respiratory tract symptoms (72%). Nineteen (52.7%) patients experienced other symptoms which included headache, lethargy, or gastrointestinal upset. At the time of the infection, 13 patients (36.1%) had received 2 doses of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, 5 patients (13.9%) had received 1 dose, and 18 (50%) were not vaccinated. None of the patients received antiviral or monoclonal antibody as prophylaxis or treatment. Only 1 patient required hospital admission out of precaution given the close proximity to HSCT. All patients recovered without complications. Conclusion(s): The paediatric patients with PID followed by our centre experienced mild to moderate COVID-19 symptoms and recovered fully without complications. These findings support the return of much needed social interactions among children, which were impacted severely during the COVID-19 pandemic.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

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