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1.
Bulletin of Agrarian Science ; 1:128-134, 2021.
Article in Russian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841733

ABSTRACT

One of the most important factors of the effective operation of business entities in the new economic circumstances, in particular, under the conditions of preventing spread of the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19), is a diagnosis of the financial condition, which makes it possible to identify unfavorable business development trends timely and ensure the bailout package. In this regard, the methodological basis is of great importance, allowing to conduct analytical research in the context of the application of effective algorithms to identify financial problems and develop practical recommendations for their elimination. This line of research requires improvement, development of the theoretical and methodological foundations of economic analysis and assessment of the effectiveness of financial activities of organizations that meet the needs and characteristics of the modern economy. The purpose of the research is to develop conceptual provisions and guidelines for assessing the financial condition of the agricultural organizations. With the help of general scientific and economic-statistical research methods, an evaluative monitoring of the financial activities of agricultural organizations in the Oryol region was carried out. The author's concept is based on the application of a point-based assessment of financial indicators - autonomy coefficients (concentration of equity capital), current liquidity, provision with own circulating assets, which allows diagnosing and interpreting the level of economic development of an agricultural organization under the modern conditions. The methodology for assessing the financial and property status was developed and tested, based on the use of the absolute value of net assets and the calculation of relative indicators - the ratio of net assets to authorized capital, turnover and profitability of net assets. Proposals to improve and stabilize the financial and property situation of enterprises are formulated. Practical recommendations can be used when conducting a comprehensive financial analysis of business entities.

2.
Journal of Humanities and Tourism Research ; 11(4):738-755, 2021.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841705

ABSTRACT

Service-based hotel businesses produce products that cannot be stocked. These products are seats in planes and trains, cars in car rental companies, chairs in restaurants, and rooms in hotel businesses. Hotel businesses have a fixed capacity, so it is very difficult to increase capacity in a short time. Yield management aims to generate the highest income from products which are produced at a fixed capacity. Rooms that are not sold in time mean a loss for the businesses. Therefore, demand, capacity, and price must be managed in the most efficient way. Right after the first case of Coronavirus was detected in Wuhan, China in December 2019, it spread rapidly all over the world, and the demand for tourism products came to a standstill due to restrictions, fear, and travel bans. This situation has left yield managers in a difficult position at the point of strategic decision-making. For this reason, the main purpose of this study is to determine the strategies and performances of a five-star resort hotel operating in Marmaris, which appeals to those with high income, in the 2020 summer season within the scope of yield management. An additional sub-purpose of the research is to reveal the Covid-19 measures taken by the hotel managers. For this goal, purpose-oriented questions were determined by making use of the literature. Interviews were held in September 2021 with the managers of the sales-marketing department, which is responsible for demand management, and the front office department, which is responsible for capacity management via internet by using a semi-structured interview technique. The data that is obtained within the scope of the research were analyzed by a descriptive analysis method. The results of the research reveal the Covid-19 measures, strategies, and performance of a luxury hotel business during the Covid-19 pandemic. Accordingly, front Office and sales-marketing managers mostly developed strategies related to demand management. Covid-19 measures have been timely and put into practice. Despite Covid-19, the hotel's financial performance was more successful than the previous year.

3.
Turismo e Sociedade ; 14(2):81-96, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841646

ABSTRACT

Taking as a crucial point the great impact on the tourism sector arising from the Covid-19 pandemic, the fragility of the tourism worker in the face of social, economic and health crises became evident. In a future resumption of tourism on a global level, it is essential that researchers, academics and interested parties adopt a critical approach in relation to the theme of labour. This paper, prepared from bibliographical analysis and referenced by historical materialism, aimed to present elements of discussion on the concepts of value, merchandise and estrangement from work in the Marxist perspective, bringing to the debate the critique of political economy of tourism, which is fundamental for the consistent analysis of the theme. It is hoped to promote new studies and appropriations of the Marxist theory, helping, even if occasionally, the expansion of the theoretical framework of tourism, offering subsidies for the ideal reproduction of what happens in the practical reality of tourism as a way to support actions to help these social actors to face the phenomenon.

4.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-336190

ABSTRACT

Policy brief that uses scenarios to explore the long-term trends in child stunting and the impact of COVID-19 thereon. The policy brief introduces three scenarios on COVID-19 impacts on child stunting today and towards 2040. It then quantifies these long-term impacts for the world and for individual regions. The policy brief ends with strategic directions for policy to accelerate the improvement on child stunting and to minimize the long-term risk COVID-19 poses to child stunting

5.
FAPRI-MU Report - Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute, College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Missouri|2021. (06-21):unpaginated. ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1837871

ABSTRACT

The following text examines some impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on U.S. agricultural and agricultural product markets, producers, consumers, and related indicators. We outline reasons why reviewing events in isolation in 2020 might not give reliable estimates of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and might result in misleading expectations about a future pandemic. Next, we explore the effects of three key aspects of the shock in the United States: (1) lockdown impacts that reduced liquid fuel use dramatically, (2) disruptions in the livestock-meat sector supply chain, and (3) changes in overall economic activity, household income, and total expenditures. For these experiments, we use the FAPRI-MU stochastic model to simulate the impacts of a hypothetical future pandemic. This is not a study of the entire COVID-19 pandemic. The full impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic are large and complex. Factors include effects on health and mortality, a broader economic shock with its employment and income effects, lockdowns and reduced socializing, supply chain disruptions, policy responses, and similar shocks to other countries. The negative effects were experienced differently by each country. We focus only on the U.S. experience. We draw some conclusions from this and related work. * Market outcomes in 2020 were driven by factors other than the pandemic, such as a surge in crop exports and weather disruptions, so year-over-year changes alone are probably not good indicators of how the pandemic affected the sector. * Three of the largest direct impacts of COVID-19 on the agriculture sector were on fuel markets, meat supply chains, and consumer demand patterns. Demands for fuels fell by 5-10% after taking into account price and income effects. Margins between meat retail prices and livestock prices widened after considering other factors. * The loss of economic activity as measured by the falling U.S. GDP could have been expected to cause weaker demand for agricultural goods, lower prices, and sharply lower farm income than what was observed in 2020. * U.S. policy responses included payments that increased disposable income, boosted consumer demand, and mitigated the impacts on farm income from the drop in the size of the national economy. Greater payments directly to farmers also help explain why farm income rose in 2020 relative to 2019. * The impact of COVID-19 is partly a story of policy responses, including sector-specific actions targeting agriculture, fiscal policy, monetary policy, and lockdowns. A future pandemic might be set in a context that limits or disallows some of these options, or a setting that has - perhaps by design - new options. * A future pandemic's impacts would differ from recent experiences because of disease characteristics and also new individual, firm, and policy responses. If one assumes that a future pandemic is an exact repeat of the 2020 pandemic, then that implicitly requires that the disease is equally contagious and harmful, individuals and firms respond to a new pandemic the same as they did in 2020, and policy responses repeat the responses to COVID-19.

6.
Visions in Leisure and Business ; 24(1):72-89, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1837746

ABSTRACT

In a journey spanning almost 20 years the Southern Food & Beverage Museum has become established as a solid and reliable museum and attraction in New Orleans, Louisiana. Its journey to established museum has been fraught with disaster and determination - from Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the financial crisis of 2008, the BP Oil Spill, and COVID - to more local disasters like floods and hurricanes. Today it is ready for whatever may happen, as well as prepared with a plan to pivot, innovate, and re-invent itself, all the while deepening its mission and continuing to be the Southern Food & Beverage Museum.

7.
Financial Innovation ; 8(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837610
8.
Intertax ; 50(5):444, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837533

ABSTRACT

As the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) Project attains a significant milestone with 130 Members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/G20 Inclusive Framework agreeing on international tax rules that address digitalization of the economy (Pillar 2), and the UN globally approving its tax treaty on Article 12(B) on automated digital services, a handful of African countries have joined their international counterparts in deviating from the global approach by developing and imposing unilateral digital services tax (DST) policy and legislation. This article examines the rationale of short-term measures of a unilateral DST, particularly in the African context post the COVID-19 pandemic and critically examines legislative measures imposed by a number of African countries. The article then contrasts general and specific challenges (applicable to African countries) in imposing a unilateral DST with opportunities that digital taxation presents for the continent, particularly in developing policy and legislation, and in implementation by tax administrations.

9.
Revista Brasileira de Politíca Internacional ; 63(2), 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837458

ABSTRACT

Over the past decade a number of changes can be observed within the development policy system. This paper presents and discusses these changes along three dimensions: narratives, strategies and operational approaches. Changes are manifold, ranging from the application of new narratives, such as the migration narrative, to alternations in strategic objectives (e.g. developing countries’ graduation issues), new instruments (in the form of development finance at the interface with the private sector), and the application of new concepts for project implementation (e.g. through frontier technologies). We discuss the implications and effects of these changes for the current and potential future role of the development policy system, as well as preliminary ideas for a concept of global co-operation for sustainable development (GCSD), spanning beyond the development policy system.

10.
2021 International Conference of Innovation, Learning and Cooperation, CINAIC 2021 ; 3129, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1837291

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the pandemic caused by the SARS-COVID 19 virus has forced us to rethink our lives. Immersed in this new context, and with the aim of continuing to offer our students a comprehensive training that includes not only knowledge but also skills that will enable them to join a labour market that will also have to adapt to this new situation in the short term. With this objective in mind, the decision was taken to transform the Intensive Programme on the Future of Banking and Finance into an online event, in which the participating students would continue to work collaboratively in a multicultural environment. Copyright © 2021 for this paper by its authors. Use permitted under Creative Commons License Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).

11.
Intertax ; 50(5):476, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837232

ABSTRACT

An obituary for Frans Vanistendael who died in 2021 is presented.

12.
Journal of Economic and Social Development ; 9(1):10-18, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1836718

ABSTRACT

The deterioration of the economic situation during Covid-19 has raised the issue of the quality of banks' assets and in particular the growth of non-performing loans (NPL). This is a topical issue not only for banks that, in this context, incur additional costs for allowances and capital requirements but also for society as a whole, as credit availability is likely to be reduced. The Baltic States experienced a particularly severe financial crisis in 2008-2009, resulting in a rapid increase in NPLs. This study analyses the factors affecting NPLs in the Baltic States, using information available from WB, Eurostat, and econometrical modeling methods. The results of the study allow conclusions to be drawn on the necessary actions to mitigate credit risk.

13.
Eurasian Journal of Sport Sciences and Education ; 3(2):128-140, 2021.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1836668

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 global pandemic has caused huge income losses in the football economy, where billions of people are involved as fans and consumers. During the pandemic period, the sports clubs that experienced a decrease in sponsorship revenues, broadcasting revenues, match revenues and advertising revenues experienced fluctuations and economic losses in BIST (Borsa Istanbul) shares. This study was carried out to reveal the economic losses experienced by the 4 big clubs in the Turkish Premier League, which opened their shares to the stock market. For this purpose, after the stock values of the clubs registered in the BIST were adjusted for inflation and their averages were taken, trend analysis was performed. With the trend analysis, the depreciation and trends in club stocks were tried to be revealed. As a result of the study, it was observed that the decisions taken in the sector during the pandemic period were reflected in the stocks as of dates. In the average of the stocks of the clubs, depreciation of up to 50% was calculated compared to the base year and the previous month. It is thought that the study will shed light on the football economy struggling with the pandemic.

14.
Public Finance Quarterly ; 66(1):50-67, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1836580

ABSTRACT

There is no uniform theoretical standpoint on the effects of changing interest rates and the role of money among economists. Though these disputes exercise a great influence on the economic policy measures adopted as well. For the management of the 2008 global financial crisis many central banks entered into forceful interest rate cuts to contribute to the revitalisation of the economy. The economic recession caused by the pandemic of 2020 again raises the issue how central banks can stimulate growth. In this study we deal with the liquidity trap issue attributed to Keynes. Keynes pointed out that there might exist a lower interest rate limit under which money demand becomes infinite. His conceptions put the foundations to the question, at what interest rate levels might the liquidity trap – a term coined later by Robertson – phenomenon become effective. He was followed by numerous renowned economists dealing with the conception. In this paper we are discussing the most important theoretical approaches – among others the views of Hansen, Hicks, Tobin, Patinkin, Krugman, Brunner and Meltzer and Eggertson. We provide an overview on the effects of low interest rate levels adopted by Japan, by the central banks of Japan, the USA and the ECB aimed at stimulating the economy. Based on the study it can be confirmed that central banks can contribute to economic growth keeping interest rates low and therewith fostering investment. Nevertheless, beyond keeping short-term interest rates low, it might be adequate to control interest rates of other maturities and, especially under deflationary expectations, central banks should express their prolonged commitment to low interest rates.

15.
Canadian Tax Journal/Revue fiscale canadienne ; 70(1):35-40, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1836531

ABSTRACT

Under the 2015 Paris Agreement, Canada is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 40 to 45 percent from 2005 levels by 2030.1 As of 2019, a full 4 years after the agreement was signed, Canada had achieved emission reductions of only 1 percent. [...]meeting our Paris commitments will require a 39 to 44 percent reduction in GHG emissions in just 11 years.2 To put into perspective the structural economic change required by a 39 to 44 percent cut in emissions, the changes that took place in 2020, the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic-working from home, eliminating most business and personal air travel, and so on-reduced Canada's carbon (CO2) emissions by 8 percent from 2019 levels.3 Meeting the Paris commitments would require Canadians to not only preserve 2020-level emissions, but also achieve three or four times that level of reductions by the end of the following decade. [...]the need for equalization is also reduced. Yet, because of the equalization program's "fixed-growth rule," the size of the program would not decline, even with a diminished need for equalization. [...]Snoddon concludes, "Overequalization often results, with Quebec and sometimes Ontario as the main beneficiaries. Christians suggests that to the extent that economists can estimate the amount of externalized environmental costs with increasing detail and precision, the income tax base could be legislatively reformed to deem such externalized costs to constitute additional taxable income to all of the relevant parties throughout the fossil fuel production and consumption cycle.16 Christians acknowledges that there are practical difficulties in estimating the environmental costs created by individual firms, especially given Canada's selfassessment-based income tax system.

16.
Finance: Theory and Practice ; 26(1):103-114, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1836433

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the stock markets of many countries. Understanding the impact of this pandemic on industries is an important and relevant basis for a thorough explanation of stock market movements during this period. The aim of this study is to examine how stock returns of non-financial sectors in Vietnamfs stock market react to information about the COVID-19 pandemic. The event study method is applied to analyze three main events related to the emergence and outbreak of this pandemic in Vietnam in 2020. The first event (January 23, 2020) and the second event (March 6, 2020), respectively, were the time when Vietnam officially announced that it had recorded the first case positive for COVID-19 in the Hochiminh city and Hanoi. The third event is on March 30, 2020, Vietnam announced that it will apply a blockade order in all provinces and cities nationwide to limit the outbreak of this pandemic. Closing price data from January 1, 2019 to April 14, 2020 for five industry indexes (Basic Materials, Consumer Goods, Consumer Services, Industry and Utilities), used in this study. The results show that the stock prices of all five sectors reacted in the same meaningful direction (negative/positive) after the event that Vietnam confirmed the first patient confirmed with COVID-19 in Hochiminh city and the nationwide blockade event was announced, proving that the stock market is affected by psychology. In industries, Industry and Consumer Services are the two sectors that respond the most to events, but Basic materials are the least affected. The study found that the Consumer Goods industry had the most positive results in the five industries for the following two events;The Utilities industry reacted negatively to the first information that could create potential risks of a COVID-19 outbreak in the community, especially in the two major economic centers of Vietnam. Conclusions from this study show that Vietnamfs stock market is inefficient, research results and insights on industry responses to disease information contribute to strategic planning for policymakers and investors in the future. © Phuong L. C.M., 2022.

17.
Istanbul Business Research ; 50(2):215-233, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1836412

ABSTRACT

This article provides results on the volatility spread for stock markets in emerging economies. Empirical studies on determining or predicting volatility in national and international financial markets provide information for investors. The aim of this study is also to analyze volatility spreads from the United States of America, France, Germany, Japan Turkey, China, India, Indonesia from emerging markets within the scope of EGARCH models, which take into account the asymmetric effects using daily stock returns for the period of January 2008 - April 2020. The a symmetric effect parameter (λ or μt-i/ht-1) appears to be negative and statistically significant at 1% for all countries, except the Shanghai Composite Stock Exchange, China. This result shows that the asymmetric effect, or the leverage effect in other words, is valid in stock markets other than China. The volatility spreads from the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index – USA to Borsa Istanbul and the Shanghai Stock Exchange – China. Also, the S & P 500 Index – USA is significant on the volatility spread of the Borsa Istanbul and Shanghai Stock Exchange. The volatility spread between Jakarta Stock Exchange - Indonesia and Borsa Istanbul is two-way and mutual.

18.
Review of Agrarian Studies ; 11(1):95-106, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1836384

ABSTRACT

This note analyses the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the production and cost of cultivation of crops grown in the monsoon (kharif) season. The note is based on a survey of 164 informants from 26 villages across 13 States of India. Moreover, this study sought primarily to understand the effects of the pandemic on agricultural production, employment, income, and food security in rural India. There are three main findings of the survey. First, there was an increase in the acreage and output under kharif crops in 2020 to 21. This increase was, first, because of good and timely rainfall, and secondly, many households, including those with migrant worker earnings in a normal year, returned to farming during the pandemic year, leasing in small plots of land. Thus, in some areas, the increase in acreage and output in kharif production was driven by the loss of work for migrant labour. Secondly, increases in costs of inputs, diesel, and hired labour significantly increased the aggregate cost of cultivation of kharif crops. Lastly, the increase in MSP between 2019 to 2020 and 2020 to 2021 for kharif crops (for instance, 3 per cent for rice, 5 per cent for cotton, 2 to 4 per cent for different pulses, and 5 per cent for oilseeds) did not compensate for the increase in the cost of cultivation of kharif crops. As a consequence of increased costs and a less than adequate increase in output prices, farm households will not reap the full benefits of increased production this kharif season. In fact, incomes may actually be less than in the previous year. A heavily indebted class of poor peasants who are primarily dependent on informal credit is also under severe income distress.

19.
Facta Universitatis: Series Physical Education and Sport ; 19(3):257-269, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1836312

ABSTRACT

The goal of this paper is to provide a review of the transfer of rights to broadcasting sporting events as one source of financing sporting activities and clubs through comparative practice and current legal regulations. Sports and the law are deeply intertwined, primarily due to the fact that sports are exposed to various challenges, ranging from doping, prevention of violence at sports manifestations, all the way to competition regulations, managing sports organizations and business processes. In this paper, we will analyze the positive legal regulations that enable the realization of income based on the right to broadcast. Sources of financing are necessary for the conduct of sporting activities. The most successful clubs generate the biggest part of their revenue through leasing broadcasting rights for sporting events and marketing. Broadcasting sporting events not only enables generation of direct revenue, but also removes the shackles of previously existing spatial barriers and thus contributes to the popularity of sports, athletes and their clubs. Occurrences such as the coronavirus pandemic have led to the organization of sporting events in controlled conditions, without the presence of an audience or with numerous limitations and restrictions. In such situations, numerous institutions have offered interactive forms of communication with the consumers (online museum tours, concerts, etc.), thus not only minimizing losses, but also maintaining contact with the audience. This situation has proven the significance of digital communication with the consumers. Even though the year 2020 went by without the previously planned Olympics and, in most cases, without sports fans in the stands, the sporting industry recorded a jump (from 388.28 billion dollars in 2020 to 440.77 billion of dollars in 2021). The growth in earnings was achieved predominantly due to the increase in media revenues.

20.
Banks and Bank Systems ; 16(4):229-239, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1836272

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the impact of Working Capital Management (WCM) and Credit Management Policy (CMP) on the Financial Performance (FP) of Jordanian banks (JB). The study data were obtained from 16 Jordanian banks listed on the Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) between 2017 and 2020. The study used panel data to investigate the relationship between the two independent variables, WCM and CMP, and the dependent variable FP;64 financial reports to Jordanian banks were analyzed to measure this relationship. To test hypotheses, multiple regression was used. The study found a statistically significant relationship between WCM and FP, and the independent variable was able to explain 34.1% of the changes that occur in the dependent variable. In addition, the outcome approved that there is a statistically significant relationship between CMP and FP. Furthermore, CMP explained about 41.8% of changes in the dependent variable. The findings of this study indicate support for the banks’ performance;a bank may need to lengthen client credit terms, prolong the cash transfer cycle, and require a more extended payment period when judging on WCM. Acknowledgment The publication of this research has been supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research and Graduate Studies at Philadelphia University – Jordan.

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