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1.
International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science ; 11(6):288-299, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067467

ABSTRACT

[...]we canvass those Nigerian banks should reduce dividend payouts and increase retained profits as a buffer against exposed risks. To ensure the healthiness of banks in the banking industry as well as facilitate international transaction, the central bank of ten countries (Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, the UK and the US) formed the committee of banking supervision in 1988 (the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision). Since the formation of this committee, it has undergone at least three stages called the Basel I, Basel II and Basel III. Premised on shock to the economy brought on by the coronavirus pandemic, with economic growth in 2020 expected to contract by as much as 4.4 percent to 8.94 percent, a drop in oil receipt and a devalued Naira in the range of 380-450 to US dollar, the capital adequacy of banks could be severely threatened, (Egba, 2020). [...]scholars have extensively shown that bank specific performance indicators and macroeconomic factors affected capital adequacy ratio. [...]this paper examined the effect of banks specific-performance indicators and macroeconomic factors on bank financing which is the minimum funds required for their short-term obligation or capital adequacy ratio.

2.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12879, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066476

ABSTRACT

Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) criteria are novel and exciting tools of corporate disclosure for decision making. Using quantitative and qualitative analyses, the present study examined the key characteristics and trends of ESG controversies in the European market. At the same time, it identified the controversies’ determinants. A bibliometric analysis was the qualitative method employed on the data derived from Scopus using Biblioshiny software, an R package. The quantitative analysis involved an international sample of 2278 companies headquartered in Europe from 2017–2019 being studied using a Generalized Linear Model. The findings of this research highlighted the role of the “S” and the “G” dimensions of the ESG controversies as the most crucial in affecting controversies. Women are under-represented in the business hierarchy, but their natural characteristics such as friendliness and peaceability lead to a low level of illegal business practices. However, independent of gender, executives have personal gains that they want to satisfy. Thus, executives may become involved in unethical practices and harm their colleagues and the business’s reputation. On the other hand, democracy emerged as one of the most disputed factors. Democracy gives people the voice to express themselves and publicly support their ideas without restrictions. Although, the regression results showed that democracy is not always operated as the “pipe of peace” and can affect, to some extent, controversies.

3.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12616, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066436

ABSTRACT

Earlier literature has shown that the implementation of FinTech innovations is not only determined by banks, financial institutions, or government support, but also by the perception and experiences of FinTech users. FinTech research has shown encouraging findings from scholars in developed countries. However, little is known about the users’ acceptance and use of FinTech in Jordan. The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of users’ intentions and e-Loyalty toward FinTech adoption in Jordan post the COVID-19 era. A conceptual framework was developed by integrating the four original constructs of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), namely performance expectancy (PE), effort expectancy (EE), social influence (SI), and facilitating conditions (FC), with three additional factors: personal innovativeness (PI), financial literacy (FL), and uncertainty avoidance (UA). In addition, the proposed model considered the e-Loyalty of FinTech users as a consequence of having a good FinTech experience. A quantitative approach using a cross-sectional online questionnaire was applied to collect data from 423 FinTech users. Data were analyzed utilizing structural equation modeling (SEM) based on AMOS 26.0 software package. The findings revealed that UA has a moderating effect on the relationship between FC and users’ intentions. Also, PI has a significant impact on PE and EE. While PE, SI, and FC are factors that enhance behavioral intentions. In return, it builds users’ e-Loyalty toward FinTech services and is deemed a new normal behavior. This study may help FinTech service providers and policymakers better understand the, currently relatively low, usage rate of FinTech, and how it contributes to the development of strategies that boost the acceptance and e-Loyalty of FinTech by Jordanian users after the COVID-19 era, where FinTech is still considered an innovation.

4.
Sustainability ; 14(19):11967, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066381

ABSTRACT

Local government debt is the biggest “gray rhino” of China’s economy and one of the most significant factors affecting the sustainability of economic growth. We use the macroeconomic data of China’s real economy development level and local government debt from 2000 to 2020 to investigate the impact of local government debt on the real economy using the spatial Durbin model, focusing on the impact of the local government debt scale on the development of the real economy in jurisdictions and non-jurisdictions and the intermediation effect of finance under the geospatial correlation characteristics of economic development. The results show that the spatial correlation of the real economy between jurisdictions prevails and the correlation deepens over time. The scale of local government debt in China has exceeded a reasonable threshold, and the crowding-out effect of debt expansion on the real economy is obvious and not limited by jurisdictions, with significant spatial spillover effects. Financial marketization can effectively mitigate the crowding-out effect of local government debt on the real economy. These findings provide useful references for mapping the correlated development characteristics of local government debt and the real economy in China, effectively preventing local government debt risks and high leverage of the real economy and financial systemic risks, and providing effective insights for other countries to resolve government debt problems, prevent crises, and promote local economic development.

5.
Managerial Finance ; 48(12):1707-1725, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2063217

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This study contributes to a growing body of literature on the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) by examining how lender incentives affected prioritization of large borrowers. In addition, this study separately examines incentives for commercial banks and credit unions during the program.Design/methodology/approach>Using 2020 PPP loan data, the authors create a proxy for lender loan prioritization by comparing the skewness statistics of large and small loan distributions. A regression model is used to examine lender reporting incentives and loan prioritization.Findings>Results show that larger borrowers were prioritized in receiving PPP loans earlier. Lenders with financial reporting concerns and commercial banks favored large borrowers to a greater extent.Practical implications>This study may inform social planners and regulators about the benefits and costs of delegating emergency funding loan decisions to financial institutions.Originality/value>The authors believe this paper is the first to examine financial institution reporting incentives in relationship to PPP lending practices. It adds novelty by examining lender incentives, while prior research has focused heavily on the economic consequences of the program and how borrower–lender relationships affected loan practices during the program.

6.
Banks and Bank Systems ; 17(3):58-71, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056747

ABSTRACT

Digital Financial Services (DFS) have been growing steadily all over the world. The COVID-19 crisis has reinforced the need for DFS. This study aims to examine the growth of DFS in the global and Indian markets and to analyze the factors that change the mindsets and attitudes of adults towards the adoption of DFS during the pandemic. The growth of DFS is analyzed using secondary data. The changing customer mindset is studied and analyzed through primary data collected by a survey approach. The unit of analysis includes adults who use or prefer to use DFS. A total of 384 respondents, determined by Krejcie and Morgan formula, were personally interviewed. 384 is taken as sample size as this sample size avoids type II errors in the data analysis. The collected data were processed in SPSS21 software. The study results found that technological benefits (67.9%) have the most significant positive effect on changing people's mindsets and attitudes towards DFS followed by the pandemic forces (50.7%). Peer influences (33.2%) and perceived trust (38.3%) have also affected the change in mindsets and attitudes of adults regarding DFS. But the change in mindset is significantly and positively influenced by perceived risk (50.1%) rather than affecting negatively. So, the factors are confirmed again. The factors that drive changes in mindsets and attitudes of adults towards the adoption of DFS are Pandemic Forces & Convenience, Perceived Safety and Security, User Benefits and Experiences, Peer Influences, and Perceived Trust during the pandemic. © Ravikumar T, Rajesh R, Krishna T A, Haresh R, Arjun B S, 2022.

7.
Journal of Private Enterprise ; 37(2):57-89, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046075

ABSTRACT

FinTech has not only become a buzzword but also brought several business opportunities in the financial world, with the potential to increase financial inclusion, enhance people's daily lives, and spur growth. The issue of online buyers' knowledge about FinTech adoption has emerged from the rapid trend of digital technology in Kathmandu Valley. It also suggests that demographic variables (age and gender) and digital activity (internet experience and level of awareness) mitigate the major correlations. This paper aims to understand online grocery buyers' prior knowledge imprint in FinTech adoption during COVID-19 lockdowns. An exploratory research design was adopted, and data were collected through structured questionnaires using both descriptive and inferential statistics with the help of structural equation modeling. We find that the most respondents are aged twenty-one to forty, showing that most youth are attracted to technological innovation in FinTech (e-commerce and e-banking). We find that two-thirds of online buyers in Kathmandu Valley are facing the challenge of FinTech adoption due to slow internet and lack of awareness about its applications. The structural equation modeling shows that six out of eight constructs are fit and validated with the model. Attitude has a significant effect on actual purchases, whereas trust does not play a partial mediating role between dependent and independent variables. The internet as a digital marketplace has become an important part of marketing strategy and customer-relationship management. Thus, internet issues should be solved immediately with stable connections by internet service providers.

8.
Academy of Marketing Studies Journal ; 26(5), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2045643

ABSTRACT

In a VUCA world, things are extremely unpredictable and the onset of the COVID-19 took every industry by storm. The banking industry is witnessing seismic shifts as traditional net banking banks are being challenged by new-age, digital-only wallets that focus on a hyper-personalized digital-first approach to replace the traditional net banking experience. This research aims to understand the shifts in millennial customer behaviour that have taken place as they progress from net banking to digital wallets for their day-to-day payments. This research is based on primary quantitative data along with an intensive analysis of research papers, articles, and journals. The findings suggest that millennial customers are willing to try out new digital wallet apps and consider them reliable and convenient, indicating high levels of acceptance. Three key factors were majorly responsible for the change in customer behaviour from net banking to digital wallets 1) Performance efficiency 2) social influence 3) Safety. Therefore, digital wallets need to focus on these factors to maximize their digital interactions and embrace innovation to help millennials in their day-to-day banking needs.

9.
Amfiteatru Economic ; 24(61):720-738, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2030564

ABSTRACT

Targets defined in accordance with Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) criteria confront the business world, particularly the banking industry, with new challenges. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of ESG controversies on the credit rating of the European banking sector, involving 65 European banks from 18 countries in the 2011-2020 period. This empirical study includes different approaches. Firstly, we apply an ordered logit model to ascertain the influence of ESG concerns on credit ratings. Secondly, we analyse the impact of ESG controversies on the probability of obtaining a better rating scale through the marginal effects. And finally, we use matching analysis to measure the real impact of ESG controversies on credit ratings. Our findings suggest that ESG controversies have a negative effect on credit rating. In addition, it is a relevant negative factor in the probability of obtaining a better rating in future reviews of credit assessments. Specifically, the lower the level of ESG controversies, the greater the probability of achieving the highest credit ratings. This research provides a comprehensive view of the impact of ESG controversies on credit ratings awarded to European financial institutions. European banks should take special care to avoid such controversies, as a source of reputational risk, when setting their policies so that their credit ratings would not be affected.

10.
Finance: Theory and Practice ; 26(3):19-32, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026388

ABSTRACT

The subject of the research is the segments of the financial system of the Russian Federation: the budget system, the banking sector, the stock and insurance markets, and the currency policy of the state. The purpose of the study is to determine the trends and factors in the development of the main elements of the financial system at the present stage. The relevance of scientific research is due to the fact that the financial system is a key element of the strategy of socio-economic development of any state, providing economic processes with financial resources and capital. The author uses the following methods: analysis, synthesis, generalization, and the logical method. The study highlights promising directions, ways and mechanisms for the development of the Russian financial system that are relevant in the 2020s. The key factors influencing their trends and threats that create barriers are analyzed. The main directions, ways and mechanisms for stimulating the further development of the elements of the financial system are described. The author concludes that due to the spread of the coronavirus pandemic and economic sanctions imposed on Russia, the stability of the Russian financial system has been violated, which requires the adoption of state regulation mechanisms to improve the activities of financial institutions. The prospect of further research on this topic may be related to the development of areas for improving individual elements of the Russian financial system. © Ismoilov g.N., 2022.

11.
Sustainability ; 14(16):10099, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024132

ABSTRACT

The implementation of measures to limit electricity consumption in many provinces of China has caused coal prices to rise irrationally, further aggravating the financing problems of small and medium-sized enterprises in the supply chain. Small and medium-sized enterprises lacking funds cannot effectively participate in the green transformation and development of the coal industry, which slows down the sustainable development process of the coal industry. Under the current background of low-carbon advocacy, blockchain technology can reasonably allocate resources and efficiently process information, thereby providing a solution for this financing problem. This paper first proposes a coal accounts receivable financing model based on blockchain technology, then builds a coal accounts receivable financing system dominated by ports through blockchain technology. Finally, the Stackelberg yield–benefit model is used to analyze the income function of each participant in the process of accounts receivable financing. The results show that the use of blockchain technology can reduce the financing condition of financial institutions and improve the maximum income of cooperative enterprises in the chain while solving the financing problems of small and medium-sized enterprises in the coal supply chain. This study provides practical significance and theoretical value for promoting the transformation and upgrading of coal enterprises and accelerating the opening of the sustainable development model of the coal industry.

12.
Sustainability ; 14(16):9988, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024124

ABSTRACT

While the development of globally accepted sustainability reporting standards initiated by the IFRS Foundation has largely engaged stakeholders in developed economies, the stakes for developing economies could be compromised without an explicit consideration of their sustainability issues within this standard-setting framework. This paper examines the need to develop global sustainability reporting standards based on the principle of double materiality to warrant that both the target towards carbon net-zero by 2050 under the Paris Agreement and the subsequent promise to accelerate under COP26 are achieved with efficacy. Adopting a multiple-case study approach, this paper reveals the limitations of existing sustainability reporting in the absence of double materiality in a developing economy. Specifically, the analyses reveal limited climate-related disclosures among selected cases in Ghana. Available disclosures connote increasing GHG emissions over the period under consideration. This study also shows weak disclosure comparability across the companies following similar reporting standards. Overall, it argues that enforcement of double materiality to embrace sustainability issues impacting both developed and developing economies is necessary for an effective transformation towards a low-carbon global economy. It contributes to the existing body of knowledge by elucidating double materiality as a pertinent interdisciplinary concept and devising a holistic framework for the emerging global sustainability reporting system to underscore governance accountability for external costs to the environment. Global sustainability reporting standards with a myopic focus on conventional financial matters in the absence of double materiality remain a disclosure system with implausible impact on climate change.

13.
Perspectives of Law and Public Administration ; 11(2):252-259, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2012771

ABSTRACT

This research material aims to approach from an analytical perspective the implications that the implementation of the InvestEU Program generates at the level ofthe European Union. The Union framework rule governing this program and its implications at Member State level is Regulation (EU) 2021/523 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 March 2021 establishing the "InvestEU Program" and amending Regulation (EU) 2015/1017. Specifically, the InvestEU Program contributes to the achievement of some of the objectives proposed by the Union coordinator in terms of energy effectiveness1, in the field of investments in the infrastructure of the European Union, especially in the creation of a unique transport space, in the field of sustainable infrastructure policy, regarding funding for innovation, research and digitization. All these goals are considered essential for achieving the Union's sustainable development goals committed by the European Commission under the leadership of President Ursula von der Leyer in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The research methods used in the research are: a) the logical-concretized method by using the union framework norms as well as the internal transposition norms as a source of information and analysis;b) comparative method - in order to carry out a comparative analysis of the main financing mechanisms at Member State level.

14.
SciDev.net ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1999074

ABSTRACT

The war in Ukraine only served to worsen the situation as Russia is Sri Lanka’s third biggest export market for tea and, together with Ukraine, are major sources of tourist arrivals. <span data-mce-type="bookmark" style="display: inline-block;width: 0px;overflow: hidden;line-height: 0;" class="mce_SELRES_start"></span> In April, the Rajapaksa government announced that it would default on payment to creditors totalling a staggering US$51 billion and begin a loan restructuring process. Vithanage, who is doing research on chronic kidney disease that affects farmers in remote rural areas, says it has become prohibitively expensive to do basic work, such as collecting water samples and talking to patients. “Initially, we cooked at our boarding house, but now we are forced to buy food from outside due to shortage of gas, but buying food outside is costly as prices doubled over a year,” says Madushika Sewwandi, a chemical technology graduate student from Matara, a town in southern Sri Lanka.

15.
Banks and Bank Systems ; 17(2):124-137, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1994766

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, bank stability became a priority for the Indonesian Financial Services Authority and the government. Economic activity is expected to be restored by muffling the shocks caused by the COVID-19 outbreak. This paper investigates the influence of COVID-19 on banking stability by differentiating bank core capital size and ownership. Using data from 108 commercial banks in Indonesia for the period March 2020 and March 2021, the paper analyzes data using fixed effects regression. The results show that COVID-19 has a detrimental and significant effect on bank stability in Indonesia. Regardless of the size and ownership of a bank’s core capital, it was found that no bank is immune for a year to the severe implications of COVID-19. This condition was experienced by both state banks and private banks, large and small. To assist in the absorption of COVID-19 shocks, this paper proposes policies for regulators that include stimulus packages and countercyclical roles in the banking system via government-owned banks. © Siti Maria, Rizky Yudaruddin, Yanzil Azizil Yudaruddin, 2022.

16.
Sustainability ; 14(15):9786, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994206

ABSTRACT

This study examines the relationship between sustainable financing and financial risk management of Chinese financial institutions, using data from Chinese banks. Financial risk management is a comprehensive measure of operating performance, asset quality and capital adequacy ratio. The structural vector auto-regression model determines the relationship between two variables. The positive shock of sustainable financing business negatively impacts the financial risk management of banks. In contrast, positive shock of banks’ financial risk management positively affects sustainable financing. Further subdivision of the sample revealed that sustainable financing does not always negatively impact the financial risk management of large state-owned banks. However, the positive shock of financial risk management reduces urban banks’ green credit proportions. The results are consistent whenever compared between the empirical outcome of the entire sample and the sample consisting of national joint stock bank accounts. This comparison helps eliminate the possibility of a biased outcome as a major portion of the sample is from a national joint-stock bank account. Apart from data limitations, the results of the sub-sample test are influenced due to the difference in deposit and loan interest rates, as well as different ownership structures of banks.

17.
Sustainability ; 14(15):9672, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994197

ABSTRACT

In accordance with the new recovery plan, Next Generation EU (NGEU), and the need to speed up the transition of cities towards a new sustainable model, this paper provides an overview of the outcomes of the PEDRERA project, which is focused on the development of a novel tool able to calculate multiple key performance indicators that can support renovation actions at the district level, according to a Positive Energy District (PED) concept. The new tool is programmed in Python programming language and is useful to evaluate several strategies for the renovation of existing building stock. It moves from a quick list of input according to several Public Private Partnership (PPP) models, in addition to other potential business models. Furthermore, the design of the model is supported by a step-by-step methodology in order to deal with a “financial appraisal” that is interactive in each context, customizable for each stakeholder, and user-friendly. The paper describes this innovative tool and reports on the stronger potential that this model can offer when it runs in a QGIS software environment and interacts with a PostgreSQL database, as demonstrated in two case studies located in Spain.

18.
Sustainability ; 14(15):9198, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994169

ABSTRACT

Digital transformation refers to highly thought-out social, manufacturing, and organizational transitions driven by digital revolutions and emerging technologies. On the other hand, energy is a critical pillar of the economic growth of the country. Meanwhile, global interest in environmental, social, and governance (ESG) investment is growing. The conventional investment paradigm is being phased out in favor of investments that prioritize environmental, social, and corporate responsibility. The energy sector is one of the most significantly affected. Presently, the field of digital transformation is limited in its analysis about the sustainability factors and is still controversial, especially in the energy business. This paper identifies an in-corporation factor in Industry 4.0, taking into account the effect on ESG. The research papers and the World Economic Forum reports were investigated and identified the correlation factor using machine learning to analyze their contents. We spotlighted the documents relevant to the energy industry and sustainable development. To quantify the model, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is proposed to generate a valid model, followed by path analysis with latent variables to evaluate the structural equation modeling (SEM). The result provides the conceptual model with impact factors and their correlations. The goodness of fit value is acceptable for the agreed-upon condition, as well as a descriptive that incorporates Industry 4.0 and ESG in terms of business, industry, and ESG in relation to the energy sector’s key issues.

19.
Mathematics ; 10(15):2812, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994109

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the interconnectedness among the stocks of the publicly listed vaccine-producing companies before and after vaccine releases in 2020/21. In doing so, the study utilizes the daily frequency equity returns of the major vaccine producers, including Moderna, Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, Sinopharm and AstraZeneca. First, the investigation applies the TVP-VAR Dynamic Connectedness approach to explore the time–frequency connectedness between the stocks of those vaccine producers. The empirical findings demonstrate that Moderna performs as the most prominent net volatility contributor, whereas Sinopharm is the highest net volatility receiver. Interestingly, the vaccine release significantly increases the stock market connectedness among our sampled vaccine companies. Second, the cross-quantile dependency framework allows for the observation of the interconnectedness under the bearish and bullish stock market conditions by splitting any paired variables into 19 quantiles when considering short-, medium- and long-memories. The results also show that a high level of connectivity among the vaccine producers exists under bullish stock market conditions. Notably, Moderna transmits significant volatility spillovers to Sinopharm, Johnson & Johnson and AstraZeneca under both the bearish and bullish conditions, though the volatility transmission from Moderna to Pfizer is less pronounced. The policy implication proposes that the vaccine release allows companies to increase their stock returns and induce substantial volatility spillovers from company to company.

20.
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies ; 37(2):238-249, 2022.
Article in French | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1989986

ABSTRACT

Este trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la influencia de los productos financieros ofertados por las instituciones financieras ecuatoriana que ayudan al desarrollo económico de los emprendimientos en la provincia del Guayas durante el año 2022, debido a que, existe un alto grado de desconocimiento sobre los productos y servicios ofertados por la banca ecuatoriana para el desarrollo económico de los negocios legalmente constituidos. Con estos precedentes, se desarrolla una metodología de enfoque cuantitativo bajo un diseño no experimental con carácter descriptivo y documental;se examinan los recursos literarios ofrecidos por diversos autores que permite tener un acercamiento al objeto de estudio. Adicionalmente, la unidad de análisis en la que se orienta el artículo científico se focaliza en los emprendimientos y negocios formales de la provincia del Guayas. Finalmente, los resultados arrojados revelaron que la incidencia de los servicios financieros ofertados por la banca ecuatoriana en el desarrollo económico de los emprendimientos en la provincia, es significativamente alta;por lo cual, los negocios pueden potencializar sus actividades económicas a fin de obtener mejores resultados a través del tiempo.Alternate :The objective of this work is to analyze the influence of the financial products offered by the Ecuadorian financial institutions that help the economic development of the enterprises in the province of Guayas during the year 2022, due to the fact that there is a high degree of ignorance about the products and services offered by the Ecuadorian bank for the economic development of legally constituted businesses. With these precedents, a quantitative approach methodology is developed under a non-experimental design with a descriptive and documentary character;The literary resources offered by various authors are examined, which allows an approach to the object of study. Additionally, the unit of analysis in which the scientific article is oriented focuses on formal enterprises and businesses in the province of Guayas. Finally, the results obtained revealed that the incidence of financial services offered by the Ecuadorian bank in the economic development of enterprises in the province is significantly high;therefore, businesses can enhance their economic activities in order to obtain better results over time.

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