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1.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12616, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066436

ABSTRACT

Earlier literature has shown that the implementation of FinTech innovations is not only determined by banks, financial institutions, or government support, but also by the perception and experiences of FinTech users. FinTech research has shown encouraging findings from scholars in developed countries. However, little is known about the users’ acceptance and use of FinTech in Jordan. The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of users’ intentions and e-Loyalty toward FinTech adoption in Jordan post the COVID-19 era. A conceptual framework was developed by integrating the four original constructs of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), namely performance expectancy (PE), effort expectancy (EE), social influence (SI), and facilitating conditions (FC), with three additional factors: personal innovativeness (PI), financial literacy (FL), and uncertainty avoidance (UA). In addition, the proposed model considered the e-Loyalty of FinTech users as a consequence of having a good FinTech experience. A quantitative approach using a cross-sectional online questionnaire was applied to collect data from 423 FinTech users. Data were analyzed utilizing structural equation modeling (SEM) based on AMOS 26.0 software package. The findings revealed that UA has a moderating effect on the relationship between FC and users’ intentions. Also, PI has a significant impact on PE and EE. While PE, SI, and FC are factors that enhance behavioral intentions. In return, it builds users’ e-Loyalty toward FinTech services and is deemed a new normal behavior. This study may help FinTech service providers and policymakers better understand the, currently relatively low, usage rate of FinTech, and how it contributes to the development of strategies that boost the acceptance and e-Loyalty of FinTech by Jordanian users after the COVID-19 era, where FinTech is still considered an innovation.

2.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12328, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066396

ABSTRACT

This research suggests a way to sustain a firm’s business by focusing on the economic aspects of relationship marketing by managing the heterogeneity of churn customers. In general, firms have regarded churn customers as a homogeneous segment, for they have not been conscious that churn ego can be various. However, customer churn can be divided into voluntary and involuntary, implying that firms should reform the retention strategy by focusing on egos that seem homogenous but are heterogeneous in terms of churn behavior. Using a multiple regression model, this study analyzed customer data from an insurance company to investigate the heterogeneous impacts of churn customers. It measured the impact based on the period and revenue in the second lifetime, comprehensively representing customer satisfaction. Empirical results show that customer churn heterogeneity significantly affects customers’ second-lifetime behavior. The analysis reveals how the firm effectively performed customer regaining initiatives and successfully maintained persistency. This research also concludes that voluntary and involuntary churn occurred by intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Finally, this research implicates the retention strategy that differs from the heterogeneity to achieve a firm’s high performance and suggests an empirical method of spurious loyalty avoidance by hedging loyal customer selection risk.

3.
Sustainability ; 14(19):11967, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066381

ABSTRACT

Local government debt is the biggest “gray rhino” of China’s economy and one of the most significant factors affecting the sustainability of economic growth. We use the macroeconomic data of China’s real economy development level and local government debt from 2000 to 2020 to investigate the impact of local government debt on the real economy using the spatial Durbin model, focusing on the impact of the local government debt scale on the development of the real economy in jurisdictions and non-jurisdictions and the intermediation effect of finance under the geospatial correlation characteristics of economic development. The results show that the spatial correlation of the real economy between jurisdictions prevails and the correlation deepens over time. The scale of local government debt in China has exceeded a reasonable threshold, and the crowding-out effect of debt expansion on the real economy is obvious and not limited by jurisdictions, with significant spatial spillover effects. Financial marketization can effectively mitigate the crowding-out effect of local government debt on the real economy. These findings provide useful references for mapping the correlated development characteristics of local government debt and the real economy in China, effectively preventing local government debt risks and high leverage of the real economy and financial systemic risks, and providing effective insights for other countries to resolve government debt problems, prevent crises, and promote local economic development.

4.
International Journal of Social Economics ; 49(12):1713-1726, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2051866

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This study explores the relationship between financial literacy and quality of life (QoL). The study further examines the mediating effect of fintech adoption and the moderating effect of leisure on the relationship between financial literacy and QoL.Design/methodology/approach>Using convenience sampling, 345 respondents participated in a cross-sectional survey. To test the moderated mediation hypotheses, the PROCESS macro was used.Findings>The results reveal the mediating effect of fintech adoption on the relationship between financial literacy and QoL, highlighting the importance of digital literacy in an increasingly digitalized society. Moreover, leisure moderates the mediating relationship. Individuals with high leisure are more likely to perceive the uncertainties and risks associated with new technology optimistically – an observation supported by existing literature on the relationships among leisure, perceived freedom, and internal locus of control.Practical implications>Financial literacy must incorporate digital literacy in order to utilize innovative technology for more efficient financial management. Additionally, having a sense of control over life outcomes can lead to well-being.Originality/value>Previous research on fintech adoption is mostly related to financial inclusion for the unbanked population in underprivileged rural areas. Here, fintech usage by the general public is the focus. The study also reveals the significance of leisure, as those who have high financial literacy are more likely to adopt fintech when they have more freedom in their lives, which leads to higher QoL.Peer review>The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-10-2021-0633.

5.
Journal of Private Enterprise ; 37(2):57-89, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046075

ABSTRACT

FinTech has not only become a buzzword but also brought several business opportunities in the financial world, with the potential to increase financial inclusion, enhance people's daily lives, and spur growth. The issue of online buyers' knowledge about FinTech adoption has emerged from the rapid trend of digital technology in Kathmandu Valley. It also suggests that demographic variables (age and gender) and digital activity (internet experience and level of awareness) mitigate the major correlations. This paper aims to understand online grocery buyers' prior knowledge imprint in FinTech adoption during COVID-19 lockdowns. An exploratory research design was adopted, and data were collected through structured questionnaires using both descriptive and inferential statistics with the help of structural equation modeling. We find that the most respondents are aged twenty-one to forty, showing that most youth are attracted to technological innovation in FinTech (e-commerce and e-banking). We find that two-thirds of online buyers in Kathmandu Valley are facing the challenge of FinTech adoption due to slow internet and lack of awareness about its applications. The structural equation modeling shows that six out of eight constructs are fit and validated with the model. Attitude has a significant effect on actual purchases, whereas trust does not play a partial mediating role between dependent and independent variables. The internet as a digital marketplace has become an important part of marketing strategy and customer-relationship management. Thus, internet issues should be solved immediately with stable connections by internet service providers.

6.
Academy of Marketing Studies Journal ; 26(S3), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2045182

ABSTRACT

In the economic development of a nation, banks occupy an important place. Commercial banks as financial institutions have also emerged as significant sources of funds to industry by virtue of which they constitute an important element of the institutional structure of the capital market in India. Banks assist the establishment and development of well-economic infrastructure for better living standards and are a good source for the procurement of credit to vulnerable groups. They initiated varied financial products and services for inclusive growth at affordable costs. The main purpose of the study is to identify the specific role played by commercial banks in India for achieving financial inclusion. In this research, Firstly, the authors will talk about the significance of financial inclusion in detail;later, the focal point is on the initiatives and role of commercial banks to achieve financial inclusion. The study is based on a systematic review of the literature. The researchers have reviewed the literature of the last decade to realize the financial inclusion growth through the banks. A longitudinal manner literature review has been carried out. The findings of this review paper suggested that various significant contributions rendered by the Indian banking sector towards inclusive growth and to the unbanked populace are Bank branch penetration, Setting up of BC/BF outlets to a large extent, no-frill accounts opening with nil or no balance, Expansion of ATM density in rural and semi-rural areas, Rendering flexible credit facility to MSMEs, SHGs and Villagers to make them economically strong, the introduction of technology-based initiatives such as online banking, Mobile banking, telebanking, Kiosks, and smart cards, simplified KYC norms, distributing General credit cards and Kisan credit cards, and enhancing the financial literacy among the public. The study also concentrates on the performance of banks for financial inclusion before and after the adoption of ICT technology in India.

7.
Revista de Management Comparat International ; 23(3):454-474, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2040617

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The Egyptian banking sector adopts an expansion strategy in the field of digital transformation to face the competition resulting from the entry of ICT companies, the repercussions of the Corona virus and the spread of financial technology companies in the banking services market. This trend offers multiple benefits to banks and customers, including ease of conducting transactions, reducing operating expenses, and meeting the needs of customers who prefer banking transactions via the Internet and smart phones, On the other hand, it introduces wide changes to the size and quality of banking jobs in the future, and threatens the disappearance of some of them ,therefore this study analyses empirical evidence of the impact of the digital transformation on staffing strategy in the Egyptian banking sector. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study depends on the analysis of secondary data obtained from the reports of the Central Bank of Egypt on the indicators of digital transformation and the number and quality of banking staffs during the period from 20162021, using the analysis of correlation and regression coefficients. Findings: The results of the study indicate that there is no negative impact of digital transformation on new staffing operations in the short term, because the rate of bank penetration into the banking services market is still low and therefore Egyptian banks are expanding their traditional branch network alongside digital banking services channels. This transformation has also created a new type of job that keeps pace with banking digitalization, while in the long term digital transformation threatens the disappearance of some jobs to be replaced by artificial intelligence, internet banking, mobile banking and electronic wallets. Originality/Value: The novelty of this study is to examine the relationship between digital transformation indictors and the size and quality of staffing in the Egyptian banking sector. Practical Implications: The importance of this study is to provide recommendations to the HR management in Egyptian banks to deal proactively to deal with the potential impacts of digital transformation in the banking sector. Limitations/implications: There are limitations to the results of this study represented in the insufficiency of the study period, and there are many factors affecting the size and quality of employees in the banking sector other than digital transformation. In addition, the study relied on the method of quantitative analysis of the study variables. Hence further studies can be carried out with different methodologies such as surveys, case studies and qualitative analysis methods

8.
Erciyes &Uuml ; niversitesi Iktisadi ve Idari Bilimler Faküeltesi Dergisi; - (62):87-119, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2040525

ABSTRACT

Türkiye'de katılım bankaları adı altında faaliyet gösteren Islami bankacılık uygulamalarının etkinliǧi ve finans sistemi içerisindeki payı giderek artış göstermiş, söz konusu bankaların sundukları ürünler sayesinde, tasarrufların finansal sisteme kazandırılmasında, yurtiçinden olduǧu kadar yurtdışından da kaynak temininde ve kaynakların çeşitlendirilmesinde önemli ilerlemeler saǧlanmıştır. Faizsiz işlemler üzerine inşa edilen Íslami bankacılık sisteminin küresel nitelikli krizlerden etkilenme düzeylerinin tespit edilmesi, sistemin etkinliǧinin anlaşılmasına ve aksayan yönlerine yönelik gerekli iyileştirmelerin yapılmasına imkân verecektir. Bu çerçevede çalışmamızda 2008 küresel finans krizi ve Covid-19 salgını kaynaklı küresel ekonomik/finansal sorunlar karşısında Türkiye'de faaliyet gösteren katılım bankalarının performanslarında ortaya çıkan gelişmeler mevduat bankalarıyla karşılaştırmalı olarak ele alınmıştır. Sistemdeki yapısal kırılmaları dikkate alan Gregory-Hansen eş bütünleşme testi kullanılarak, işletme giderlerinin aktiflere oranı, finansman-mevduat (katılım fonu) oranı, sorunlu finansman ve sermaye yeterlilik oranı göstergelerinin aktif karlılıǧı üzerindeki etkileri analiz edilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgulara göre, 2008 küresel finans krizinden sonra katılım bankalarının performansında 2010 yılında (Krizin Avrupa'da borç krizine dönüştüǧü dönem) bir kırılma meydana gelmiş, küresel salgın sürecinde ise herhangi bir kırılma oluşmamıştır. Mevduat bankaları açısından ise, küresel finans krizinin hemen arkasından 2009 yılında bir kırılma oluşmuştur. Covid-19 sürecinin mevduat bankaları üzerinde bir kırılma oluşturmadıǧı çalışmanın diǧer bulguları arasında yer almaktadır.Alternate :The efficiency of Islamic banking practices operating under the name of Participation Banks in Turkey and their share in the financial system have gradually increased, and thanks to the products offered by these banks, significant progress has been made in bringing savings into the financial system, in obtaining resources from abroad as well as from within the country, and in the diversification of resources. Determining the impact level of global crises to the Islamic banking system, which is built on interest-free transactions, will enable the efficiency of the system to be determined and the necessary improvements to be made for the faulty aspects. In this context, in our study, the developments in the performance of participation banks operating in Turkey in the face of global economic/financial problems caused by the 2008 global financial crisis and the Covid-19 pandemic are discussed in comparison with deposit banks. By using the Gregory-Hansen cointegration test, which considers the structural breaks in the system, the effects of the ratio of operating expenses to assets, financing-deposit (participation fund) ratio, non-performing financing ratio, and capital adequacy ratio indicators on the return on assets were analyzed. According to the findings, there was a break in the performance of participation banks in 2010 (the period when the crisis turned into a debt crisis in Europe) after the 2008 global financial crisis, but no break in the pandemic process. In terms of deposit banks, a break occurred in 2009, right after the global financial crisis. Other findings of the study include that the Covid-19 process did not create a break on deposit banks.

9.
Technium Social Sciences Journal ; 34:708-717, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2026796

ABSTRACT

The use of Information Technology in the banking sector presents innovations in financial services that are practical, safe, fast, and offer many advantages. This innovation is certainly very useful during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived security on interest in using Dana e-wallet through e-trust as an intervening variable. The type of research conducted by the researcher is associative research. The results showed that perceived usefulness, perceived convenience, and perceived security had a significant effect on e-trust. E-trust has an effect on interest in using e-wallet. Perceptions of benefits and security have an effect on interest in using e-wallet, while perceptions of convenience have a significant effect on interest in using funds through e-trust as an intervening variable. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Technium Social Sciences Journal is the property of Technium Press Constanta and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

10.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10965, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024212

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore social reporting by Islamic banks (IB) (referred to as Islamic social reporting, ISR, hereafter) through two streams, i.e., its determinants and consequences on firm performance. Using annual report data from 90 samples of the world’s IB from 2016–2020, this study focuses on the sharia governance implementation through the role of the Sharia Supervisory Board (SSB). The SSB was measured by individual characteristics and IG-Score, representing a combination of dichotomous characteristics of the SSB, which have not been encountered in previous studies. Firm performance as a consequence of disclosure was determined by a more comprehensive approach based on accounting and the stock market. The study’s findings demonstrate the SSB’s beneficial influence on ISR, suggesting that the presence of an SSB can promote ISR practices. Social reporting has been found to have a negative impact on ROA, but it has a positive impact on MTBV and Tobin’s Q. The data suggest that while voluntary reporting practices may cause a short-term decline in profitability, they can have a positive impact on an enterprise’s long-term value.

11.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10469, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024171

ABSTRACT

The provision of formal micro-credit for refugees has been promoted as a dignified way to improve their ability to generate income through small-scale enterprises and reduce poverty. As humanitarian funding declines in protracted displacement situations, such approaches are sought to transform refugees into self-reliant, resilient, entrepreneurial agents who are no longer dependent on aid and can overcome a crisis with their own resources and financial confidence. The paper in hand questions this claim on the basis of new, comprehensive empirical insights on the financial lives of refugees in non-camp settings in Jordan. By applying the perspective of the credit users, not the suppliers, our evidence shows that the pervasive use of debt (mostly informal) does not signify latent demand for formal micro-credit. In a context where refugees face restrictions on right to work, move, set up businesses, and imagine a future in the host country, formal credit cannot improve self-reliance. The paper sheds light on a larger variety of sources of debt that are crucial for refugees to manage their lives. In conclusion, the paper argues that the rhetoric around micro-credit as a path to refugee self-reliance has to be re-visited as problematic, even damaging, and humanitarian actors should push this agenda with caution.

12.
Information ; 13(8):390, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023762

ABSTRACT

Digital inclusive finance, as a vital engine for the country’s high-quality growth, provides new impetus and prospects for encouraging economic development during the looming economic downturn. SMEs play a significant role in economic growth and development, particularly in developing countries. However, value promoting financial inclusion for SMEs through digitalization is still understudied. The objectives aimed at by this investigation were: to study the impact of financial inclusion on SME performances, to observe the influence of digital financing on financial inclusion and SME performance association as a mediator and to examine how the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) supports financial inclusion and SME performance. A well-structured questionnaire using a quantitative research approach was utilized to gather data from 366 owner-managers among Sri Lankan SMEs. The study’s findings are presented: financial inclusion, digital financing and TAM play influential roles in SME performance. More precisely, digital financing and TAM mediate positively the relationship between financial inclusion and performance in SMEs. The findings of this research endeavor to shed light on developing and popularizing digital financing by providing services which are cheap, secure and low risk from a supply-side perspective, as well as adopting and adjusting digital financing by enhancing financial literacy, which would be necessary from the demand-side perspective.

13.
Economies ; 10(8):184, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023274

ABSTRACT

The digital economy has risen dramatically in the global environment, and many developing countries, including African countries, have seen a spike in digital activity over recent years. The digital economy’s growth has resulted in an increase in digital financial services (DFS) in Africa and other developing regions. Since many African countries are under pressure to raise domestic revenue, taxing the digital economy has become a viable option. As a result, this study attempted to respond to the following questions: first, what is the link between DFS growth and digital inclusion in African countries? Second, what justifies the imposition of DFS taxes in Africa? Third, what are the potential consequences of DFS taxes in African countries? Using secondary data from the literature review and document analysis, a systematic technique for assessing or evaluating printed and electronic documents, and computer-based and internet-transmitted material, the study discovered that digital financial inclusion is driving financial inclusion on the African continent. The study also found that, despite several negative consequences associated with the growth of the digital economy, most African economic activities are informal and are being aided by various digital financial services. Therefore, it is equally crucial that when adopting digital finance taxes, care is taken to avoid excluding low-income earners from the financial sector and to take note of the usage, affordability, and distortive implications of taxation.

14.
The International Journal of Bank Marketing ; 40(6):1182-1199, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2018461

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This research set out to examine how financial advice provided by a human advisor (vs robo-advisor) influences investment intentions in a retail banking context.Design/methodology/approach>In two experiments, between-subjects experimental designs were employed to test the primary hypothesis and identify the underlying causal mechanisms that influence consumer investment decisions.Findings>The results from two experiments indicate consumers have more belief in financial advice provided by a human financial advisor (vs robo-advisor), when the level of involvement is high. The authors also identify customer belief in the information and the customer's perception of the bank's “customer focus” as the causal mechanisms that have downstream effects on investment intentions.Originality/value>This research is the first to examine how financial advice received from a human advisor (vs robo-advisor) influences investment intentions in a retail banking context. Furthermore, this research identifies high involvement as a key boundary condition moderating the effects on investment intention and identifies consumer belief in the advice, as well as the bank's perceived level of customer focus as the causal mechanisms influencing investment intentions.

15.
International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science ; 11(5):46-56, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994720

ABSTRACT

This study examines the effect of experience quality on loyalty to digital wallet users. The financial sector plays a role as a driving force for growth in the real sector, which can be done through capital accumulation and technological innovation. The novelty in this research is the addition of brand image and satisfaction variables as a mediation that has not been studied before. There are still inconsistencies in the results of previous studies regarding the direct effect of experience quality on loyalty. This study uses explanatory research with a quantitative approach. The sample size is 120 respondents to digital wallet users in Malang City. The purposive sampling method is the sampling technique in this study. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling partial least square (SEM-PLS). The results of this study indicate that experience quality can directly improve brand image and satisfaction. Interestingly, this study found that experience quality directly did not have a significant effect on loyalty. The need to pay attention to service is the main key to customer satisfaction and brand image so that they can be loyal to digital wallet products.

16.
Indian Journal of Finance ; 16(6):27-43, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1994658

ABSTRACT

In the post-COVID era, while the use of technology-enabled contactless financial services is growing, it is more critical than ever to match the rising customer expectations by aiding customers in making the best decisions and fulfilling their aspirations. The paper’s objective was to critically review published research on the antecedents of non-transactional customer engagement behaviors (CEBs), such as relationship quality, emotions, customer empowerment, and the influence of the CEBs on customer loyalty and advocacy in the financial services industry. Relevant online databases were comprehensively searched through Boolean search, reviewed critically, and synthesized narratively. The guidelines of PICO (participants, interventions, comparisons, outcomes) were followed. The final results indicated that an empowered, satisfied, highly pre-dispositional customer possessing different affective states and trust reciprocated positive engagement behaviors (CEBs). The positive CEBs build attitudinal loyalty and advocacy behaviors that create value in the long term. This review guided on managing customer tendencies to positively and emotionally engage with the product and brand in many ways, such as reviews and testimonials, to curtail switch-over behaviors, encourage customer advocacy, and loyalty behaviors. © 2022, Associated Management Consultants Pvt. Ltd.. All rights reserved.

17.
Sustainability ; 14(15):9078, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994156

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on consumer satisfaction and loyalty in the Peruvian private banking sector. A total of 390 bank consumers fulfilled an online survey. It evaluated the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR), customer satisfaction (CS), and customer trust (CT) on customer loyalty. The results suggest that CSR and customer satisfaction, through customer trust, have a positive effect on customer loyalty. The model explained 63.6% of customer loyalty. Outcomes of the bootstrapping test showed that the path coefficients were significant. The research findings may help bank managers to understand customers’ satisfaction and trust, which can create a preference and loyalty for their firms. The study’s novelty is based on the use of the partial least square structural equation modeling technique (PLS-SEM) to evaluate CSR in the financial sector in Peru.

18.
Legal Studies ; 42(3):377-395, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1991428

ABSTRACT

The recent advances in information technology now allow millions of people to trade and invest in an array of financial assets with the help of online brokerage platforms. This allows retail investors to have more control over their own financial well-being, arguably a positive development. Nevertheless, trading and investing with real money comes with serious risks, especially for vulnerable people. The current UK framework for the regulation of online trading in financial assets overlooks vulnerable groups, such as children, disabled adults, and vulnerable women. By drawing a parallel between online gambling and online trading, the negative effects of online trading can be minimised. The UK regulatory and policy framework surrounding online gambling could provide valuable solutions to tackle the existing lacunae in the protection of vulnerable groups in the online trading environment.

19.
Journal of Accounting and Finance ; 22(3):44-57, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1989729

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to present Social and solidarity entrepreneurship as a credible model for the emergence of new managerial practices for the solidarity economy companies (SSE, now). This model, especially in times of crises (Covid-19 health, economic, etc.) is an "alternative" to other forms of entrepreneurship specific to the traditional economy due to their double and sometimes triple ultimate goal - achieving financial, social and environmental goals. In recent years, innovative financing mechanisms such as guarantees, impact investing, Crowdfunding and complementary currencies have emerged to address these challenges and enable SSE organizations to thrive. Our study realized in between 2018-2019, on the various initiatives and financing mechanisms with a population of 390 Moroccan cooperatives in the Agadir Souss-Massa region, underline that the financing mechanisms are diversified and presented on the one hand, a certain potential to create and preserve decent jobs, create wealth, reduce social inequalities and advance local development. On the other hand, results showed also a deficiency in the management and diversification of these modes of financing.

20.
Entropy (Basel) ; 24(8)2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979161

ABSTRACT

Valued in hundreds of billions of Malaysian ringgit, the Bursa Malaysia Financial Services Index's constituents comprise several of the strongest performing financial constituents in Bursa Malaysia's Main Market. Although these constituents persistently reside mostly within the large market capitalization (cap), the existence of the individual constituent's causal influence or intensity relative to each other's performance during uncertain or even certain times is unknown. Thus, the key purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the individual constituent's causal intensity, from early 2018 (pre-COVID-19) to the end of the year 2021 (post-COVID-19) using Granger causality and Schreiber transfer entropy. Furthermore, network science is used to measure and visualize the fluctuating causal degree of the source and the effected constituents. The results show that both the Granger causality and Schreiber transfer entropy networks detected patterns of increasing causality from pre- to post-COVID-19 but with differing causal intensities. Unexpectedly, both networks showed that the small- and mid-caps had high causal intensity during and after COVID-19. Using Bursa Malaysia's sub-sector for further analysis, the Insurance sub-sector rapidly increased in causality as the year progressed, making it one of the index's largest sources of causality. Even after removing large amounts of weak causal intensities, Schreiber transfer entropy was still able to detect higher amounts of causal sources from the Insurance sub-sector, whilst Granger causal sources declined rapidly post-COVID-19. The method of using directed temporal networks for the visualization of temporal causal sources is demonstrated to be a powerful approach that can aid in investment decision making.

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