Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 162
Filter
1.
Technological Forecasting and Social Change ; JOUR: 122171,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2106038

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has hit enterprises all around the world, affecting virtually every business area and industry. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how COVID-19 has affected the performance of listed companies in the Saudi market. The study uses financial data from 2009 to 2019 to examine the performance of the listed Saudi firms. The study gathers data from the years 2009 to 2019 to investigate the performance of the firms before the pandemic. The result of the study indicates that the COVID-19 pandemic had a detrimental effect on the enterprises' performance. The analysis indicates that the COVID-19 pandemic significantly harmed the enterprises' performance by reducing both their total investment and their overall income, respectively. The findings of the study remain unique and new with respect to the outbreak and performance of the firm.

2.
Journal of Modelling in Management ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083187

ABSTRACT

Purpose The ongoing pandemic has gravely affected different facets of society and economic trades worldwide. During the outbreak, most manufacturing and service sectors were closed across the globe except for essential commodities such as food and medicines. Consequently, recent literature has focused on studying supply chain resilience and sustainability in different pandemic contexts. This study aims to add to the existing literature by exploring the economic, environmental and societal aspects affecting the food supply chain and assessing the impact of COVID-19 on food sustainability. Design/methodology/approach A survey method has been adopted with a questionnaire instrument investigating the role of technology, government policies, geopolitics and intermediaries on sustainable organisational management. A five-point Likert scale (i.e. 1 = strongly disagree;5 = strongly agree) is used to evaluate the responses. The findings are based on 131 responses from entry-level workers and senior executives of different food supply chains across Asia and Europe. The data has been analysed to derive insights into the impacts of this pandemic. Findings The survey concludes with the significant impact of COVID-19 on the three pillars of sustainability, i.e. economic, social and environmental dimensions. The empirical analysis shows digitalisation and its applications help mitigate the negative effect of COVID-19 on sustainability. In addition, the supportive government policies and intermediatory interventions were helpful in improving sustainability at each level. Research limitations/implications The findings have implications for businesses and policymakers. Companies can learn from the advantages of digitalisation to counter the challenges imposed by the pandemic or similar situations in the future in maintaining the sustainability of their supply chains. Managers can also learn the importance of effective organisational management in driving sustainability. Finally, policymakers can devise policies to support businesses in adopting sustainable practices in their supply chains. Originality/value This study adds to the limited literature exploring the impact of COVID-19 on food supply chain sustainability through the triple bottom line lens. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is also one of the first empirical studies to examine the effect of technology, government and organisational management practices on the sustainability of food supply chains.

3.
Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070240

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study aims to explore business strategies adopted by small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the UK's grocery-retail industry to cope with supply chain (SC) disruptions caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach The study adopted two phases of research methods. In Phase 1, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten SMEs from England. Whilst abiding by national guidelines on the travel restrictions imposed by the government, in Phase 2 email-based interviews were conducted with 22 SMEs across the UK's grocery-retail industry. The thematic analysis technique was adopted to analyse the data. Findings This study reveals that SMEs need clearer avenues of communication with the government and better resources for learning and training. SMEs also need to expand their implementation of information technology to improve SC collaboration. In the meantime, they need to improve their power positions in SCs and reduce dependence on SC partners. Originality/value SMEs in the grocery-retailer industry have been increasingly under pressure to compete with bigger grocery retailers. During the pandemic they have faced great challenges and been looking for strategies to improve their performance. While a major proportion of participants in the grocery-retailer industry are fragmented SMEs, the majority of studies have focussed on larger retailers and end consumers. With the help of the social exchange theory, this research reveals new insights into business strategies to cope with SC disruptions, and offer the foundation for a new line of research on preparation for future disruptions.

4.
International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070207

ABSTRACT

Purpose During disturbances and unprecedented events, firms are required to be resilient to confront crises, recover from losses, and even capitalize on new opportunities. The aim of this paper is twofold: (1) to examine how different types of capabilities (routine, dynamic or ad hoc) steer an entrepreneurial firm into ecological, engineering and evolutionary resilience and (2) to identify strategic activities that are deployed by firms with different capabilities to achieve resilience. Design/methodology/approach Data were gathered using structured qualitative interviews with 26 entrepreneurial resilient firms that managed to survive a multitude of coinciding crises. Findings The findings show that each type of capability enhances the ability to achieve a specific resilience outcome: ad hoc capability for partial engineering resilience, routine capability for ecological resilience and dynamic capability for evolutionary resilience. Furthermore, ad hoc capabilities are shown to be favored when firms' losses are severe. In contrast, routine and dynamic capabilities are preferred when losses are mild. The most significant capability deployment activities related to building resilience are corporate strategic changes, global export strategy, cost reduction, stakeholder support, positive mindset, fund raising, network building, product development, efficiency improvement and restructuring. These activities are segregated based on capability and resilience types. Practical implications Practitioners are encouraged to cast off limiting assumptions and beliefs that firms are conditioned to fail when faced with unprecedented crises. This study provides an integrative portfolio of capabilities and activities as a toolbox that can be used by different entrepreneurs and policy makers to achieve resilience and better performance. Originality/value The paper undertakes a first of its kind empirical examination of the association between capabilities and resilience. The context is unique as it involves a multitude of coinciding crises including Covid-19 pandemic, city explosion, economic collapse, political instability and a severe banking crisis.

5.
The Service Industries Journal ; : 1-23, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2069971

ABSTRACT

These are constantly changing times for the tourism industry. The COVID-19 pandemic and accompanying negative economic effects significantly impacted customer behavior and accelerated the need for companies to innovate. Business model innovation (BMI) is ideal for overcome these challenges by innovating the very core of the firm. However, siloed BMI thinking is insufficient: firms need a more holistic approach. We expand the current understanding of business model innovation by proposing a framework that integrates relevant dimensions (change impulses and business model configurations), context factors (service newness and degree of change or destination characteristics), and the outcomes of BMI initiatives into a comprehensive model for the tourism industry context. With our work, we want to guide future research and expand the currently unbalanced, heterogeneous picture of BMI in service industries.

6.
International Economics ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2069170

ABSTRACT

This paper provides new evidence on the reorganization of global production exploiting a novel dataset of Italian multinational firms surveyed throughout 2020 and 2021 as well as consolidated data sources. We find that Covid-19 did not spur large waves of reshoring nor plant closures. Even though the pandemic caused severe losses to firms, including multinationals, most did not stop foreign production nor are willing to do so in the near future. Trade policy uncertainty, conversely, is more likely to induce reshoring and plant closures. This evidence is consistent with a simple multi-period model, illustrating how offshoring, on the one side, and reshoring, on the other side, are asymmetric in important ways. In the presence of sunk costs, reshoring requires sufficiently large and permanent shocks to demand, trade and foreign production costs to induce behavioural changes. Covid-19 was a major shock, but it was mostly perceived as temporary, while persistent trade policy uncertainty, especially if combined with other shocks, is more likely to induce firms to revise their internationalization strategies.

7.
Tourism Economics ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2064613

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to enrich social network and managerial powers theories by examining the effects of board-CEO friendship ties in tourism firms. Specifically, we focus on the association between the board-CEO social network ties (e.g. serving external boards together or sharing memberships at social organisations) and performance and risk-taking behaviour among tourism firms. The findings show that friendship ties between CEO and board members result in higher risk-taking, lower profitability and market values. In addition, professional ties (i.e. current and past employment) significantly impact tourism firms’ outcomes, whereas non-professional ties (i.e. education and other social organisations) do not. The findings prevail after controlling for the Covid-19 pandemic. However, friendship ties lead to better information sharing, resulting in more effective decision-making by board members. © The Author(s) 2022.

8.
Review of Economic Perspectives ; 22(3):219-239, 2022.
Article in Czech | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2054855

ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the best predictor of firm performance among different proxies. A sample of 287 Czech firms was taken from automobile, construction, and manufacturing sectors. Panel data of the firms was acquired from the Albertina database for the time period from 2016 to 2020. Three different proxies of firm performance, return of assets (RoA), return of equity (RoE), and return of capital employed (RoCE) were used as dependent variables. Including three proxies of firm’s performance, 16 financial ratios were measured based on the previous literature. A machine learning-based decision tree algorithm, Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID), was deployed to gauge each proxy’s efficacy and examine the best proxy of the firm performance. A partitioning rule of 70:30 was maintained, which implied that 70% of the dataset was used for training and the remaining 30% for testing. The results revealed that return on assets (RoA) was detected to be a robust proxy to predict financial performance among the targeted indicators. The results and the methodology will be useful for policy-makers, stakeholders, academics and managers to take strategic business decisions and forecast financial performance.

9.
Managing Human Resources In Smes And Start-ups: International Challenges and Solutions ; : 341-365, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2053309

ABSTRACT

Today's world of 21st-century business is said to be a VUCA (Volatility-Uncertainty-Complexity-Ambiguity) world. VUCA describes the fast pace of change in the business environment. It has largely been led by the disruption brought about by technology-led human resources departments within organisations to revise strategy approaches and methods to face these emerging challenges. Research studies show that more than two-thirds of the companies in the world belong to family businesses. In the family business, the owners and HR should see what is going on in the business environment and update the situation. As most family businesses have family members in key positions, the tricky issues faced by family businesses are mostly about handling family and non-family members and creating effective HR policies. The COVID-19 pandemic in 2019 and 2020 has disrupted their business in unexpected ways. This chapter explores different HR practices adopted by the family business and suggests effective HR practices and procedures to meet the multiple challenges in the family business. The chapter also analyses the strategies of HR practices followed by some top family business firms worldwide. The chapter is formed as a meta-synthesis. It provides more qualitative inputs related to recent challenges and effective HR practices adopted in the technologically competitive era and during the COVID-19 pandemic period. © 2022 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.

10.
Managing Human Resources In Smes And Start-ups: International Challenges and Solutions ; : 207-222, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2053307

ABSTRACT

Careful investment of social and human capital within the organisation structure has been believed to improve the performance of the workforce and firms and is also observed to have a constructive impact on the firm and employee performance. A superior human capital and social capital is the accelerator of a firm's growth. While entrepreneurial firms are agile in themselves, they need to have strong ties with their customers, clients, teams/employees, investors, ecosystem and industry experts, debtors, vendors, subcontractors, etc. and here the need and benefits of social skills not only among owners/founders but also in their teams and employees are always in high demand. A young enterprise faces many challenges, the same as any giant corporate firm. Founders often experience that they are working against the clock in managing both business and human resource challenges, even though they do agree that the entrepreneurial-agile and high-performance-driven culture should not be a substitute for an ethical-courageous-people-friendly culture. This chapter discusses various challenges and issues faced by small and medium businesses and employees of small business firms at their level, and how both parties collectively are trying to support and overcome these challenges, so as to make the work as effective as possible. The chapter is prepared through a comprehensive literature review and data/information has been derived from various secondary sources with a discussion with some start-up founders and small business owners. The chapter also focused on other challenges such as related to human resource development practices, innovation, decision making, and the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on some small businesses are also discussed. The chapter also shares recommended solutions to alter current practices, policies, and processes which can help in addressing operative challenges and can help in developing sustainable practices. © 2022 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.

11.
International Conference on Research Advances in Engineering and Technology, ITechCET 2021 ; 2520, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2050687

ABSTRACT

Software development firms have come up as major drivers of economic growth, radical innovation and employment opportunities. During the coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis, technology and project-driven software services continued to play a critical role helping to shift work from offices to home. This paper examines the initiatives of process improvement in software firms and compares the existing models CMMI and ISO. The paper also seeks and suggests the need of a resilient model for improving the software development process based on a survey of 12 software development firms. The recommendations made for effective software process improvement with data in these firms are also discussed in this paper. © 2022 Author(s).

12.
Journal of Environmental Health ; 85(3):50-61, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2044898

ABSTRACT

Panelists included Eric Bradley, deputy health director of Linn County Public Health;Tom Gonzales, public health director of the Larimer County Department of Health and Environment;and Niki Lemin, assistant health commissioner and director of environmental health for Franklin County Public Health. William (Bill) Marler, JD, attorney and food safety expert from Marler Clark, The Food Safety Law Firm, closed out the AEC by speaking virtually to attendees about a lawyer's view of modern foodborne outbreaks. During the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic, he was environmental health manager for the Scott County Health Department in Davenport, Iowa. * Tom Gonzales, public health director for the Larimer County Department of Health and Environment in Fort Collins, Colorado. Prior to this position, he served as deputy public Featured Speakers health director at El Paso County Public Health in Colorado Springs, Colorado, and oversaw programs for environmental health and emergency preparedness and response. * Niki Lemin, assistant health commissioner and environmental health director of Franklin County Public Health in Columbus, Ohio.

13.
International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2042687

ABSTRACT

Purpose The global economic crisis triggered by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused the closure of countless ethnic minority businesses (EMBs) worldwide, partly due to the public policy responses. This paper investigates whether EMBs' entrepreneurial orientation (EO) mediates the impact of public policy responses to COVID-19 on their survival. Design/methodology/approach Utilizing institutional theory, the authors developed a novel conceptual framework that divides policy responses to COVID-19 into aggressive (imposing restrictions on movement, e.g. lockdowns) and less aggressive policy responses (not imposing restrictions on movement, e.g. social distancing). The authors then surveyed intra-regional EMBs, specifically businesses owned by ethnic minorities in the Kano and Katsina provinces of Nigeria, and analysed the data using structural equation modelling and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Findings The authors found that intra-regional EMBs in developing countries are very vulnerable to the public policy responses imposed by governments to curb COVID-19. Aggressive policy responses have a more significant negative effect on the survival of intra-regional EMBs than their less aggressive counterparts. Furthermore, the authors found that EO as a crisis response strategy significantly supports intra-regional EMBs in managing their vulnerability to the hostile institutional environment, reduces the adverse effect of public policy responses and stimulates their survival during the COVID-19 pandemic. Originality/value This paper contributes to the institutional theory of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)/entrepreneurship and the literature on EMBs by showing the role of EO in mediating the effects of COVID-19 institutional policies on the survival of intra-regional EMBs.

14.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics ; 114(3):e439-e440, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2036113

ABSTRACT

Radiation therapy has an increasing role in the management of patients with metastatic cancer. The integration of ablative versus palliative techniques with surgical and systemic approaches is complex, and inefficient care delivery can lead to prolonged hospitalizations that are inconsistent with palliative goals. A dedicated Inpatient Radiation Oncology Consult (IROC) service was created to provide rapid access to palliative radiotherapy. We previously reported the short-term impact of the IROC service in reducing hospital length of stay (LOS), and here we provide an update on long-term improvements in patient care, focusing on quality-of-care metrics including hospital LOS, use of hypofractionated approaches, and prognosis-appropriate care. We retrospectively compared inpatient radiation oncology consults placed in the 12 months preceding IROC (N = 1,507) to those placed during a 12-month period after IROC implementation (N = 1,509). The dates for calendar-matched cohorts were selected to minimize potential confounding from practice changes related to the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. We analyzed continuous variables using the Mann-Whitney test and categorical variables using the Fisher's exact test. The IROC service was associated with reduced hospital length of stay for all consults (mean difference 1.0 day, P = 0.045). IROC led to shorter inpatient radiotherapy courses (mean 5.8 vs. 5.0 days, P = 0.007, and this reduction was greatest for patients discharged to hospice (mean 5.2 vs. 3.7 days, P = 0.033). Compared to pre-IROC patients, IROC patients were more likely to receive hypofractionated treatment (≤ 5 fractions;pre-IROC, N = 405/551 (74%) vs. IROC, N = 433/528 (82%), P = 0.001). Notably, the trend toward fewer prescribed fractions was not due to increased uptake of inpatient stereotactic regimens (N = 84/551 (15%) vs. N = 87/528 (16%), pre-IROC vs. IROC, respectively, P = 0.560). Death within 60 days of inpatient radiation therapy decreased under IROC (pre-IROC, N = 227/551 (41%) vs. IROC, N = 184/528 (35%), P = 0.033). A dedicated inpatient radiation oncology consult (IROC) service was associated with long-term reductions in hospital length of stay. Prognosis-appropriate care was improved through shorter treatment courses and decreased delivery of radiation to patients discharged to hospice or with limited survival. Our findings demonstrate the value of a dedicated program addressing the appropriate delivery of radiotherapy to hospitalized patients and highlight opportunities to stratify patients appropriate for ablative versus palliative treatments. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics is the property of Pergamon Press - An Imprint of Elsevier Science and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

15.
Econ Anal Policy ; 76: 129-145, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035957

ABSTRACT

In this paper we employ survey information on more than 10,000 Southern and Eastern European firms to assess the effects of the COVID-19 related lockdown and government support policies on the business operations of enterprises. Our findings reveal considerable size- and sector-related heterogeneity, with small firms, and firms such as hotels and restaurants operating in the facilities sector reporting the largest losses in terms of sales when governments increase the strictness of confinement measures. Fixed effects regression estimates suggest that a complete lockdown results in an average year-on-year sales growth that is approximately 63 percentage points lower than it would be without any curtailment measures. The magnitude of the coefficient on year-on-year sales change for a complete lockdown is 14 percentage points higher for small compared to large enterprises. Furthermore, our results suggest that state aid in the form of deferral of payments or wage subsidies are associated with firms' firms' labor market and financial outcomes in times of crisis. For instance, deferrals of payments are linked to between 0.7 and 1.5 fewer layoffs per firm in the surveyed enterprises compared to other types of support.

16.
Cogent Business & Management ; 9(1), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2031995

ABSTRACT

Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) ratings are widely recognised methods to assess the sustainability practices of corporations. However, the scores of these ratings are not satisfactory in emerging market economies. This study examines the financial factors that influence ESG ratings regarding public listed companies on the FTSE4 Good Bursa Malaysia Index (F4GBM Index). This paper uses static and dynamic Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) techniques to analyse the data of 31 public listed companies on the F4GBM Index and reported full ESG ratings data for the period 2007-2016. To utilise the maximum number of observations by avoiding the missing data and outlier due to COVID-19, this study applied the sample data up to 2016. Using the two-step system dynamic GMM estimator, such results indicate that highly profitable Malaysian companies enjoy a higher score for ESG overall ratings as well as all three individual ratings. Poorer credit management diminishes the environmental ratings, yet increases overall scores such as the social and governance scores. Companies with higher leverage have a weaker social, governance and overall score, but a higher environmental rating. Finally, companies eliciting a higher sustainable growth rate have weak governance and overall scores. This study provides empirical evidence that will be useful to capital market investors, management teams of these companies and policymakers in their efforts to promote responsible investment in Malaysian public listed companies in line with UN-PRI policy.

17.
10th World Construction Symposium, WCS 2022 ; : 392-403, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2030617

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global pandemic that has wreaked havoc on the lives of many individuals and has had a severe impact on the global economy. During this crisis, small and medium-scale businesses suffer the most and are the least prepared among all companies as per the previous studies done in other parts of the world. The majority of the small-scale construction firms in Sri Lanka act as subcontractors and generate job opportunities for a considerable number of people and are able to create a multiplier effect on the whole economy. However, it was observed that they are more vulnerable to the adverse impact of the pandemic. Thus, the principal goal of this research is to explore possible survival strategies to overcome critical financial issues of small-scale construction companies during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in Sri Lanka. A mixed-method approach was adopted to gather the data for the study. A comprehensive literature review was carried out to identify the impact of COVID-19 on both global and local construction industries. The data for this study was gathered using semi-structured interviews and a comprehensive questionnaire survey with small scale construction company owners and construction industry professionals. The findings highlighted the key financial issues faced by the small-scale construction companies due to the pandemic including delays in client payments, supply chain management issues, frequent price escalation of construction materials, and inability to repay loans. The respondents suggested creating partnerships with financially strong companies, reduction of unwanted expenses, modifying supply chain channels and agreements, and ensuring business continuity plans as the strategies to be used to overcome the financial burden that occurred due to the pandemic. © 2022, Ceylon Institute of Builders. All rights reserved.

18.
Energy Journal ; 43(Special Issue):117-142, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2030265

ABSTRACT

Using network analysis on the connectedness of default factors in a credit default swap (CDS) dataset of U.S. and European energy firms, we provide the first evidence of differences in the shape and dynamics of the interconnectedness of the level, slope, and curvature, representing long-, short-and middle-term default factors, respectively. The interconnectedness of the three default factors increases during the European sovereign debt crisis (ESDC), whereas only the interconnect-edness of the level factor increases during the oil price crash, and the interconnect-edness of both level and slope factors spikes during COVID19. European firms contribute more to the transmission of long-term and short-term default risk from early 2011 till the beginning of the 2014–2105 oil price crash;afterwards, U.S. firms are major default transmitters despite some periods of parity with European firms. The impacts of oil demand and supply shocks on the various interconnect-edness are quantile-dependent and more pronounced in the long term for the credit risk of the energy firms. © 2022 by the IAEE. All rights reserved.

19.
Sustainability ; 14(16):10442, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024167

ABSTRACT

By combining agency theory and the resource- and capabilities-based view, this paper aims to unveil the influence of family firm heterogeneity on environmental performance. Previous results are inconsistent about how the specific features of this type of business contribute to better environmental protection performance. We analyse a number of variables related to the management, ownership and corporate governance characteristics of the family business and their individual influence on environmental performance. We test our hypotheses using a database of 748 family firms in the Spanish tourism sector. This economic sector, which is mostly composed of family businesses, puts great pressure on the environment. As such, family firms must take an active role in the resolution of the environmental problems that afflict society. We find that the effects of a family-controlled ownership and management structure on environmental performance are negative. Family-founder firms with a high degree of family control also are shown to have a negative relationship with environmental performance. However, the existence of a formal management mechanism, such as a management committee, emerges as the most powerful structural factor in facilitating the achievement of environmental objectives. The conclusions drawn from this study allow us to outline future lines of research as well as recommendations for practitioners. Our study responds to the call made in the literature to delve deeper into the heterogeneity of the family business, and specifically to determine which of its characteristic features allow this type of business to achieve better environmental performance.

20.
The American Behavioral Scientist ; 66(11):1512-1525, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2020657

ABSTRACT

The dual pandemics brought on by COVID-19 and racial violence has played a significant role in uncovering how systemic racism is deeply entrenched within white spaces in America. This article examines the experiences of Black women lawyers in elite law firms to demonstrate how white institutional spaces are racially organized with embedded colorblind racist practices that work to obscure the insidious perpetuation of white supremacy. Black women are required to perform added, unrecognized, and uncompensated labor to maintain their positions. This invisible labor manifests in the form of an inclusion tax that they must pay to be included in white spaces. This article discusses how being one of very few Black people in white spaces creates a myriad of issues that require significant invisible labor including navigating white narratives of affirmative action, negotiating how dominant white culture functions to normalize the white experience, and adherence to white normative standards.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL