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1.
Aquaculture ; : 739017, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095054

ABSTRACT

While curbing the spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), lockdown policies and “stay-at-home” restrictions caused massive supply chain disruptions worldwide. This led to breaks in spatial market integration, which could further lead to market inefficiency and resource misallocation. Taking daily price data from 2016 to 2021, this study investigates COVID-19's effect on the spatial market integration of fish in China using cointegration tests. We find a high degree of spatial market integration for fish in China before the COVID-19 pandemic. Further, our results show that COVID-19's effect on the spatial market integration of fish varies spatially in China. Specifically, COVID-19 reduces the degree of spatial market integration in most provinces, especially those with high infection rates. Meanwhile, the degree of spatial market integration in provinces with low infection rates remains high. Therefore, the government should be regionally specific when formulating market recovery policies.

2.
J Wound Care ; 31(10): 824-831, 2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080985

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: More specific strategies are needed to support children requiring skin grafting. Our goal was to identify procedures that reduce operating times, post-operative complications, pain and length of hospital stay. Patient safety, optimal wound bed support and quick micro-debridement with locoregional anaesthesia were prioritised. Ultimately, a novel acellular fish skin graft (FSG) derived from north Atlantic cod was selected for use. METHOD: We admitted consecutive paediatric patients with various lesions requiring skin grafting for definitive wound closure. All FSGs were applied and bolstered in the operating room following debridement. RESULTS: In a cohort of 15 patients, the average age was 8 years and 9 months (4 years 1 month-13 years 5 months). Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was given to 12 patients. Rapid wound healing was observed in all patients, with a wound area coverage of 100% and complete healing in 95% of wounds. Time until engraftment in patients receiving NPWT was reduced by about a half (to an average 12 days) from our standard experience of 21 days. Ten patients received locoregional anaesthesia and were discharged after day surgery. The operating time was <60 minutes, and no complications or allergic reactions were reported. Excellent pliability of the healed wound was achieved in all patients, without signs of itching and scratching in the postoperative period. This case series is the first and largest using FSG to treat paediatric patients with different wound aetiologies. We attribute the rapid transition to acute wound status and the good pliability of the new epidermal-dermal complex to the preserved molecular components of the FSG, including omega-3. CONCLUSION: FSG represents an innovative and sustainable solution for paediatric wound care that results in shorter surgery time and reduced hospital stays, with accelerated wound healing times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy , Animals , Fishes , Humans , Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy/methods , Pandemics , Skin Transplantation/methods , Wound Healing
3.
Journal of Agriculture and Food Research ; : 100413, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2069228

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effects of COVID-19 on the market prices, spending on fish purchases, and consumer satisfaction level based on a random survey of 247 fish consumers in Bangladesh. The Propensity Score Matching (PSM) was employed to make comparisons between two consumer groups (who consumed Pre-COVID-19 and during COVID-19). Besides, consumer satisfaction with income, purchase frequency, quantity consumed, market price, fish quality, and availability during the pandemic was analyzed using the relative index, while the Tobit regression model was used to estimate the determinants of satisfaction level. Prices of cultured and captured fish species such as pangas, catla, mrigel, common carp, mola, tengra, bayeem, boal, shoil, have experienced sharp price fluctuation during COVID-19 due to supply chain disruptions and changing fish supplies in the market. The reduction in expenses on culture fish species varied from $4.190 to $4.212 while the reduction in expenses on capture fish species ranged from $7.985 to $8.178. In addition, low-income individuals are relatively less satisfied with their income, amount, frequency, and price of fish purchases than the lower middle, upper middle- and high-income groups. Consumer satisfaction declined during COVID-19 while income, frequency, and quantity of purchases plummeted and fish market prices increased. Therefore, the government might place a greater emphasis on eradicating supply chain disruption during pandemic like COVID-19 by avoiding nationwide lockdown to maintain stability in the market prices of fish, spending on fish purchases, consumer income, and make all income groups satisfied.

4.
Mar Drugs ; 20(8)2022 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066237

ABSTRACT

Marine natural products are potent and promising sources of drugs among other natural products of plant, animal, and microbial origin. To date, 20 drugs from marine sources are in clinical use. Most approved marine compounds are antineoplastic, but some are also used for chronic neuropathic pain, for heparin overdosage, as haptens and vaccine carriers, and for omega-3 fatty-acid supplementation in the diet. Marine drugs have diverse structural characteristics and mechanisms of action. A considerable increase in the number of marine drugs approved for clinical use has occurred in the past few decades, which may be attributed to increasing research on marine compounds in laboratories across the world. In the present manuscript, we comprehensively studied all marine drugs that have been successfully used in the clinic. Researchers and clinicians are hopeful to discover many more drugs, as a large number of marine natural compounds are being investigated in preclinical and clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Biological Products , Animals , Biological Products/chemistry , Biological Products/pharmacology , Biological Products/therapeutic use
5.
Cells ; 11(19)2022 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065729

ABSTRACT

The transient nature of RNA has rendered it one of the more difficult biological targets for imaging. This difficulty stems both from the physical properties of RNA as well as the temporal constraints associated therewith. These concerns are further complicated by the difficulty in imaging endogenous RNA within a cell that has been transfected with a target sequence. These concerns, combined with traditional concerns associated with super-resolution light microscopy has made the imaging of this critical target difficult. Recent advances have provided researchers the tools to image endogenous RNA in live cells at both the cellular and single-molecule level. Here, we review techniques used for labeling and imaging RNA with special emphases on various labeling methods and a virtual 3D super-resolution imaging technique.


Subject(s)
Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Single Molecule Imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , RNA , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Single Molecule Imaging/methods
6.
Obstetric Medicine ; 15(1 Supplement):47, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064388

ABSTRACT

Background/aims: Many women do not meet nutritional guidelines for pregnancy, including women with diabetes in pregnancy. During COVID-19 lockdown restrictions in New Zealand, women faced significant external stressors and lifestyle changes: such as food availability, reduced physical activity, and financial uncertainty. We were concerned that nutrition may have been further compromised by these restrictions. A self-reported online survey was performed to investigate the immediate effect of COVID-19 lockdown restrictions on dietary intake and lifestyle behaviours among pregnant women with diabetes. Subjects/methods: The survey was sent to 82 pregnant women who had Type 1, Type 2, or gestational diabetes, and attended the Diabetes in Pregnancy Clinic in Wellington, New Zealand in May 2020, while the most restrictive COVID-19 measures were in place. All women received standard pregnancy nutrition advice provided by a dietitian and monitored blood glucose levels with nursing support. Result(s): Fifty women (61%) responded to the survey. There was no evidence of differences in dietary intake during, compared to before the restrictions, for most food items. There was evidence women consumed more bread OR (95% CI): 0.39 (0.18-0.83) p =0.02;less battered fish: 3.11 (1.20-8.05) p=0.02;and less hot chips/fries: 6.32 (2.67-14.93) p < 0.0001, during the restrictions. During lockdown women consumed more meals at home: 0.05 (0.14-0.15) p < 0.0001;less takeaways: 3.63 (1.54-7.34) p =0.003;and less restaurant and cafe meals: 15.05 (6.03- 37.59) p < 0.0001, when the services reopened. Conclusion(s): The nutrition of pregnant women with diabetes was not compromised during a brief COVID-19 lockdown restriction. This finding is reassuring, with countries worldwide adopting brief intermittent lockdown periods to restrict the spread of the COVID-19 virus.

7.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 22 Suppl 2: S322, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062037

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is characterized by persistent blood eosinophilia, organ damage, and the absence of an underlying cause. Heterogeneous presentations, etiologies, and prognosis are recognized. The landscape of targeted therapies has emphasized the importance of its etiology and pathogenesis. We present a boy with extreme, refractory eosinophilia and end-organ complications. The persistence, severity, and outcome suggested an aggressive myeloid neoplasm. PRESENTATION: A 6-year-old boy presented with fever and respiratory symptoms. A blood count revealed hyperleukocytosis of 200×109/L with 90% eosinophils, normal platelets, and anemia with no hemolysis as well as increased cobalamin levels. Flow cytometry on the blood showed no evidence of hematolymphoid neoplasm. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization on the blood was negative for FIP1L1/PDGFRA, PDGFRB, FGFR1, and CBFB. Renal and liver functions were normal, and no evidence of tumor lysis was present. Parasitic and infectious etiologies were ruled out. Levels of immunoglobulin and complement as well as acute phase reactants were normal. CT scan showed no occult infection or lymphadenopathy. INTERVENTIONS: He was started on glucocorticoids and hydroxyurea as well as imatinib and a trial of antihelmintics. Signs of end-organ damage included 1) CNS hemiparesis, dysarthria, and MRI-documented small-vessel and white matter abnormalities; 2) myocarditis by cardiac ultrasound; and 3) respiratory distress with interstitial infiltrates. Covid PCR test was positive, so he was given Remdesivir, after which PCR became negative. Increased D-dimers led to enoxaparin, intravenous immunoglobulin, and support. Bone marrow evaluation ruled out an abnormal T-cell population and occult acute lymphoblastic leukemia by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Marrow biopsy showed dysmorphic megakaryocytes, so a myeloid neoplasm could not be excluded. Cytogenetics on the marrow showed a normal karyotype, and myeloid-directed next generation sequencing on the blood was negative for mutations. A lung biopsy showed increased eosinophils within vessels and pleural fibrosis but no interstitial fibrosis or vasculitis. Subcutaneous interferon alfa was given 3 times weekly with no response. The 4 drugs were well tolerated. The boy was followed over 9 months, requiring antibiotics, anticoagulation, and oxygen support. Eosinophilia remained high at 40,000-150,000×109/L. The patient expired from respiratory failure. CONCLUSIONS: HES may be life-threatening in the pediatric population. Diagnosis and therapy can be challenging.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome , Myeloproliferative Disorders , Acute-Phase Proteins/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Child , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Fibrosis , Humans , Hydroxyurea/therapeutic use , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome/diagnosis , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome/drug therapy , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Male , Myeloproliferative Disorders/diagnosis , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta/genetics , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta/therapeutic use , Vitamin B 12
8.
Clinical Toxicology ; 60(Supplement 2):121, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062721

ABSTRACT

Background: Palytoxin poisoning is an uncommon exposure in the US, and is most frequently encountered amongst hobbiests and professionals in the aquarium industry. The toxin is produced by the microalgae Ostreopsis as well as the coral Palythoa toxica. Discovered in Hawaii, the name limu-make-o-Hana translates to "seaweed of death from Hana." Palytoxin interrupts Na+/ K+ ATPase pump, resulting in widespread cellular dysfunction. Persons are at highest risk when cleaning a fish tank housing the coral that produces palytoxin, resulting in cutaneous or inhalational exposure. We present a case of palytoxin inhalational exposure with computed tomography (CT) imaging. Case report: A 41-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED) with dyspnea, cough, and wheezing after cleaning his saltwater fish tank. He reported that he maintains Zoanthid corals in his home saltwater fish tank and typically wears personal protective equipment when cleaning the tank. He had taken off his mask directly after using hot water to clean the tank, and quickly developed shortness of breath. He contacted Poison Control and was instructed to take loratadine with initial improvement in his symptoms. He then developed decreased appetite, nausea, and chills. The following day, in addition to these symptoms, he developed a fever of 102.5 degreeF and an oxygen saturation of 88% measured with an at-home pulse oximeter. He then proceeded to the ED where he was found to be hypoxic to 91% on room air, tachycardic to 120 bpm, hypotensive to 93/ 70mmHg, febrile to 100.9 degreeF and tachypneic at a respiratory rate of 30. Physical exam revealed clear lung sounds. Application of supplemental oxygen at 2 L resulted in improvement in his oxygen saturation and his hypotension and tachycardia responded to intravenous fluids. Significant laboratory results included WBC count of 20.4 with bands of 14%, elevated lactate of 2.4mmol/L, elevated D-dimer of 0.48 mug/mL and a negative COVID PCR test. CTA thorax revealed patchy ground-glass opacities in the bilateral upper and lower lobes with mosaicism. The patient received doxycycline in addition to broad spectrum antibiotics due to concern for inhalational marine toxicity. He was also started on 60mg prednisone, inhaled steroids, and bronchodilators for symptomatic treatment, with improvement in his symptoms. During his hospitalization, a respiratory viral panel was negative for common viruses associated with atypical pneumonia including influenza, coronavirus, metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, enterovirus, adenovirus, parainfluenza, bocavirus, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pneumonia. His dyspnea gradually improved and he was weaned off supplemental oxygen prior to discharge home on hospital day 2. Discussion(s): It is unclear what changes are expected on thoracic imaging in patients with inhalational palytoxin exposure. Chest radiographs in two previous cases displayed scattered infiltrates, and a chest CT in another case showed pleural based consolidations. The ground-glass mosaicism suggests that a more diffuse reactive airway process after an inhalational palytoxin insult. Conclusion(s): Patients with inhalational palytoxin exposure may be found to have reactive airway symptoms along with ground glass opacities with mosaicism on CT imaging.

9.
Mar Policy ; 146: 105322, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061636

ABSTRACT

This paper explores the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures to mitigate it on gender dynamics and power relations among men and women involved in cross border fish trade in Zambia and Malawi and the ensuing policy implications to support the fisheries value chain. The paper is based on qualitative and quantitative data collected in Zambia and Malawi in October and November 2021. We conducted quantitative surveys implemented the Cognitive Edge Sensemaker Tool and the Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis toolkit (EMMA to understand the dynamics of cross border fish trade before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. A social relations approach, focusing on gender relations, was used to analyze the data. Findings suggest that women cross-border fish traders are caught up in a complex web of networks and relationships that are disempowering to them. Some measures put in place to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic lacked an understanding of the historical perspective and dynamics of women in fish trading communities further marginalizing men and women cross border fish traders. Some measures exacerbated hidden violence against women and overt forms of violence against men. Since most of the violence occur across state boundaries, there is a need for inter-country coordination to ensure that the rights of women and men cross border fish traders are protected. Policy measures could include educating police officers for even-handedness when enforcing COVID-19 rules and providing mechanisms for reporting abusive practices.

10.
Chest ; 162(4):A2099, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060898

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pulmonary Procedures: Creativity and Complications SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: Recent advances in the management of airway disorders have provided additional therapeutic options for pathology, such as central airway obstruction (CAO). Symptomatic CAO has been managed by bronchoscopic interventions with a high risk of airway compromise and respiratory failure. Other alternatives such as mechanical and jet ventilation may not ensure adequate respiratory support during the procedure and cause delays in life-saving treatments. Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) has been used as an adjunct to preserve safety during these airway interventions [1,2]. We present a case of complete tracheal occlusion successfully intervened using VV ECMO support. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient is a 55-year-old male with a history of ventilator-dependent respiratory failure s/p tracheostomy, secondary to post COVID-19 fibrosis, who presented from a long-term acute care facility with worsening hypoxemia. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit, where he underwent flexible bronchoscopy via the tracheostomy lumen, which did not reveal a patent airway. Orotracheal intubation was unsuccessful as there was complete occlusion of the airway below the vocal cords with abundant granulation tissue. Interventional pulmonology was consulted, and emergent recanalization of the airway with rigid bronchoscopy-mediated debulking was performed. Due to the severity of hypoxemia, cardiothoracic surgery was consulted, and the patient was placed on VV ECMO to support further intervention. The patient was intubated with EFER-DUMON 13 mm rigid bronchoscope. Complete recanalization was achieved using a rigid barrel and forceps with patency of both mainstems and all segmental bronchi. There were no postprocedural complications, and the patient returned to his baseline ventilator settings. DISCUSSION: VV ECMO has been used as an adjunct to preserve safety during high-risk bronchoscopic interventions, primarily in CAO. Acute respiratory decompensation remains a feared complication during these interventions in cases of CAO. Initiating ECMO before these interventions may reduce the incidence of respiratory failure and airway compromise. In a case series, ECMO has been described by Stokes et al. as a supportive measure facilitating such interventions [3]. Further guidelines are required to standardize ECMO initiation as procedural support during airway interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Planned preprocedural ECMO initiation can prevent respiratory emergencies and allow therapeutic high-risk airway interventions. The choices for this patient were stark- either airway recanalization without ECMO bridge with a risk of hypoxic brain injury vs. VV ECMO support and curative airway intervention. In the absence of large-scale data and based on local availability of excellent ECMO support and Interventional Pulmonology, the latter approach was used, leading to successful and safe airway recanalization. Reference #1: Zapol WM, Wilson R, Hales C, Fish D, Castorena G, Hilgenberg A et al.Venovenous bypass with a membrane lung to support bilateral lung lavage. JAMA 1984;251:3269–71. Reference #2: Fung R, Stellios J, Bannon PG, Ananda A, Forrest P. Elective use of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and high-flow nasal oxygen for resection of subtotal malignant distal airway obstruction. Anaesth Intensive Care 2017;45:88–91. Reference #3: Stokes JW, Katsis JM, Gannon WD, Rice TW, Lentz RJ, Rickman OB, Avasarala SK, Benson C, Bacchetta M, Maldonado F. Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during high-risk airway interventions. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2021 Nov 22;33(6):913-920. doi: 10.1093/icvts/ivab195. PMID: 34293146;PMCID: PMC8632782 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Vatsal Khanna No relevant relationships by Anurag Mehrotra No relevant relationships by Trishya Reddy No relevant relationships by Bernadette Schmidt

11.
Harmful Algae ; 118: 102287, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061194

ABSTRACT

A bloom of the fish-killing haptophyte Chrysochromulina leadbeateri in northern Norway during May and June 2019 was the most harmful algal event ever recorded in the region, causing massive mortalities of farmed salmon. Accordingly, oceanographic and biodiversity aspects of the bloom were studied in unprecedented detail, based on metabarcoding and physico-chemical and biotic factors related with the dynamics and distribution of the bloom. Light- and electron-microscopical observations of nanoplankton samples from diverse locations confirmed that C. leadbeateri was dominant in the bloom and the primary cause of associated fish mortalities. Cell counts by light microscopy and flow cytometry were obtained throughout the regional bloom within and adjacent to five fjord systems. Metabarcoding sequences of the V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene from field material collected during the bloom and a cultured isolate from offshore of Tromsøy island confirmed the species identification. Sequences from three genetic markers (18S, 28S rRNA gene and ITS region) verified the close if not identical genetic similarity to C. leadbeateri from a previous massive fish-killing bloom in 1991 in northern Norway. The distribution and cell abundance of C. leadbeateri and related Chrysochromulina species in the recent incident were tracked by integrating observations from metabarcoding sequences of the V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene. Metabarcoding revealed at least 14 distinct Chrysochromulina variants, including putative cryptic species. C. leadbeateri was by far the most abundant of these species, but with high intraspecific genetic variability. Highest cell abundance of up to 2.7 × 107 cells L - 1 of C. leadbeateri was found in Balsfjorden; the high cell densities were associated with stratification near the pycnocline (at ca. 12 m depth) within the fjord. The cell abundance of C. leadbeateri showed positive correlations with temperature, negative correlation with salinity, and a slightly positive correlation with ambient phosphate and nitrate concentrations. The spatio-temporal succession of the C. leadbeateri bloom suggests independent initiation from existing pre-bloom populations in local zones, perhaps sustained and supplemented over time by northeastward advection of the bloom from the fjords.


Subject(s)
Haptophyta , Animals , Fishes , Genetic Markers , Haptophyta/genetics , Nitrates , Phosphates , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics
12.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(6):332-337, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057427

ABSTRACT

Background: The immune system defends the host against many harmful microorganisms. The immune system has developed to contain various specialized cell types, signaling molecules, and functional responses to deal with this wide range of threats. In Covid-19 infections immune system is the key component for prevention of the disease. Hospital admission and duration of stay due to covid 19 infection have a considerable physical, financial, and psychological burden for the individual, family, and country. Diet has been shown to have a vital role in boosting one's immunity. Non vegetarian diet is traditionally considered to be immunity boosting as it is rich in protein, vitamins, and micronutrients. Aims and objective: To study the effect of dietary pattern on duration of hospital stay in patients with respiratory Covid illness Material and Methods: This was a double blind retrospective cohort study comprising of 113 patients tested positive in RTPCR for SARS-CoV-2 and admitted at DCH located at super specialty hospital of Jayarogya Group of Hospitals, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, was studied retrospectively between July 2020 to October 2020. Patients were divided based on diet pattern into Group A (patients following a vegetarian diet;n=70) and Group B (patients following a non-vegetarian diet;n=43). The outcome was measured as the duration of hospital stay and comparison of diet type, age, and gender of patients. All these patients were discharge stable and case files of deaths were excluded. Non vegetarian diet was defined as inclusion of eggs, meet, fish in the routine diet whereas a vegetarian diet was exclusion of these items. Result: Out of 113 patients, most (61.94%) had a vegetarian diet, whereas 43 (38.06%) had a non-vegetarian diet. Duration of hospital stay was more in patients in Group A (10.71±5.5 days) than Group B (8.4± 4.7 days), p=0.0302. Hospital stay was longer (11.05 days) in older patients (>50 years) compared to younger patients (≤50 years) (9.2 days) (table 3). In Group A, hospital stay was longer in those with age >50 years (11.4 days) compared to those with age ≤50 (9.2 days). On the contrary, older patients had shorter hospital lengths (9.9 days) than younger patients (10.09 days) in Group B (p value =). Conclusion: A significantly shorter hospital stay was observed in patients of respiratory covid infection following a non-vegetarian diet with Covid-19 infection.

13.
Meat Research / Roulei Yanjiu ; 36(6):29-35, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056249

ABSTRACT

To clarify the most suitable fish paste for preparing lion's head meatballs, this study investigated the effect of adding 6 different silver carp fish pastes: fresh unwashed (group 1-1), fresh washed (group 1-2), frozen unwashed without antifreeze agent (group 2-1), frozen washed without antifreeze agent (group 2-2), frozen unwashed with antifreeze agent (group 3-1), and frozen washed with antifreeze agent (group 3-2) on the basic nutrients, color, texture properties, waterholding capacity, sensory and flavor properties, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARs) value, and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content of pork/fish composite meatballs. The results showed that the contents of protein and fat in meatballs from groups 2-1 and 2-2 were lower than those in groups 3-1 and 3-2, and the contents of water, protein and fat were 61.68%, 11.32% and 19.41% for group 2-1, and 62.45%, 11.09% and 19.33% for group 2-2, respectively. The gel properties, hardness, elasticity, cohesion, and sensory quality of groups 3-1 and 3-2 were significantly higher than those of groups 2-1 and 2-2 (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference compared with groups 1-1 and 1-2. The odor response value of groups 3 was lower than that of groups 1, and groups 3 had the highest sweetness value (3 039.66) and lowest bitterness value (534.59). The TBARs value and TVB-N content in groups 1-2, 2-2, and 3-2 (with washed fish paste) were significantly lower than those in groups 1-1, 2-1 and 3-1 (with unwashed fish paste) (P < 0.05). Since fresh fish paste is not easy to store and subject to spoilage, frozen washed fish paste with antifreeze agent can be used to produce composite meatballs.

14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 994236, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055098

ABSTRACT

Background: Animal source foods, especially fish is the most commonly consumed and an important source of macro and micronutrients in the diet of the urban low-income residents. The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the food environment in Bangladesh but little is known about how food access and food prices (affordability) have affected the purchase and consumption of fish. The objective of the study was to understand the impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on urban food environment with a specific focus on fish consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 586 homogeneous adults (288 females and 298 males) from separate households from five informal settlements in Dhaka city, Bangladesh during October-November 2020. Data were collected on: (1) food access and affordably; and (2) food purchase and fish consumption. The associations between food access, price, food purchase, and fish consumption were evaluated using path analysis. Results: The majority of respondents reported that food access was more difficult, food prices increased, and food purchase decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to pre-COVID (84-89% of respondents). Fish and meat were more difficult to access, more expensive and purchased less compared to other foods (74-91% of respondents). Compared to pre-COVID period, households consumed less fish during the COVID-19 pandemic, and reported compromised the variety and quality of fish. In the path analysis, food access was associated with food purchase (b = 0.33, p < 0.001). Food purchase was associated with quantity, variety, and quality of fish consumed. Food price was inversely associated with the quality of fish consumed (b = -0.27, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic negatively affected the food environment, particularly food access, price (affordability), purchase, and consumption, especially of fish. Limited food access negatively affected the quantity, variety and quality of fish consumed. An increase in food prices directly affected the quality of fish consumed. Policy actions are essential to ensure equal access to nutritious foods, such as fish. These policies need to focus on diversity and quality along with preventing increases in food prices during emergencies to mitigate future threats to the nutrition and health of the urban low-income residents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Micronutrients , Pandemics
15.
Journal of the Intensive Care Society ; 23(1):96-97, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2043058

ABSTRACT

Introduction: 42% of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) will suffer ocular damage during their stay.1 Multiple mechanisms that usually protect the eye are inhibited, whilst interventions such as positive airway pressure and muscle relaxants further expose the eye to harm.2 This became increasingly evident during the COVID-19 pandemic, where non-invasive ventilation and proning of patients exposed patients to risk of injury.3 Redeployment of Ophthalmologists to ICU during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the need for a robust and sustainable intervention to reduce the frequency of eye complications in our unit. Objectives: Our objective was to reduce harm to eyes in all patients within the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh (RIE) to zero ICU within nine months. Methods: Our QI project involved initial staff and patient data collection regarding current eye care practices. A fish-bone diagram facilitated group discussions with ICU clinical teams regarding prior eye care practices. A pareto chart identified categories to focus on, with a driver diagram identifying change ideas. Our primary intervention was the design and introduction of a bespoke eye care guideline. Specific outcomes, processes, and balancing measures were set out, and multiple PDSA cycles helped to prompt interventions to ensure consistent and standardised care was delivered. Run charts were regularly reviewed and a variety of interventions were introduced throughout the data collection period as tests of change. These included: 1. posters highlighting guideline enrolment 2. formal teaching at handovers and on the unit 3. educational emails to staff members 4. prompts on daily reviews to highlight eye care assessments. Between 28 Sept 2020 -28 June 21, twenty patients in RIE ICU were randomly selected by the data collection team weekly. Patient outcome -eyes were examined and noted if they had developed any ocular complications during their stay. Patients who had evidence of ocular damage on admission were excluded unless they developed further complications. A single episode was not counted twice. Process outcomes -Eye care guideline adherence was recorded, and non-compliance was rectified following data collection. The data was recorded on run charts, accessible via MS teams, allowing all project team members to review the data remotely. Results: During our data collection period, the introduction of our guideline and educational interventions reduced the median number of patients who suffered eye complications in ICU by 50% within nine months (Figure 1). Chemosis and evidence of dry eyes were the most common complications. Since initiation of the guideline, our educational interventions have maintained median guideline compliance at 80%. Conclusion: This is a comprehensive, patient-centred, QI project, utilizing a systematic methodology to introduce a new guideline within ICU. This project has resulted in a sustained improvement of eye care standards, and reduction of eye complications within RIE ICU. This project was ongoing during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, where constant rotation of medical staff, unfamiliar with ICU, required education to ensure guideline compliance was achieved. Our eye care guideline is now part of a multicentre project to standardise care across NHS healthboards.

16.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics ; 114(3):e459-e459, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2036116

ABSTRACT

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use has been well-documented among cancer patients, with increasing public awareness of non-traditional treatments in the era of COVID-19. However, the temporal trends in usage at the patient level have not been well defined. We sought to characterize trends in what CAM interventions patients used before, during and after cancer treatment. An NCI-designated cancer center and a comprehensive cancer center prospectively enrolled adult cancer patients onto a cross-sectional survey assessing CAM use between 2020 and 2021. The survey evaluated perceptions and use of CAM, including vitamins/minerals, herbal supplements and alternative medicines, diets, and mind/body therapies. Types of CAM utilized were self-reported by use before, during and after primary cancer treatment. Differences in utilization were analyzed with two-proportion z-tests. Among 749 patients enrolled, 578 (77%) reported using CAM. Among CAM users, the most popular interventions used at some point included multivitamins (60%), vitamin D (58%), prayer (48%), vitamin C (35%), massage (33%), meditation (28%), fish oil (24%), probiotics (21%), turmeric (20%), CBD products (19%), chiropractic manipulation (17%), marijuana (16%) and vegetarian diet (12%). Vitamin use nearly universally declined over the before → during → after period, for example multivitamin (52% → 39% → 31%, p<0.01), vitamin D (37% → 42% → 30%, p<0.01), and calcium (21% → 24% → 15%), p<0.01). No vitamin consumption increased after treatment compared to before. Multiple herbal supplements increased during treatment but stayed higher than pre-treatment levels, including CBD (5.4% → 13% → 8.2%, p<0.01), marijuana (6.0% → 12% → 7.9%, p<0.01) and turmeric (9.1% → 13% → 9.3%). Many specialized diets were adopted during treatment but were not continued afterward, including vegetarian (5.4% → 8.3% → 5.5%), vegan (2.2% → 5.2% → 2.2%), ketogenic (3.3% → 4.3% → 2.6%), alkaline (1.2% → 3.6% → 1.9%) and raw food (0.9% → 1.4% → 0.3%). Mind/body intervention use also nearly universally decreased over the before to after period, such as chiropractic manipulation (16% → 7.4% → 5.9%, p<0.01), yoga (12% → 12% → 9.2%) or pilates (34.2% → 2.2% → 1.6%). Some increased during treatment but decreased after, like acupuncture (8.0% → 12% → 5.9%, p<0.01) or meditation (18% → 23% → 15%, p<0.01), with the largest decrease being in prayer (43% → 44% → 32%, p<0.01). Although CAM use is known to be common, the patterns of use before, during and after treatment have not been well-defined. Herbal supplements were the most likely to continue to be used after cancer treatment. General health maintenance, wellness and mind/body interventions largely decreased below pre-treatment levels after treatment, regardless of utilization during treatment. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics is the property of Pergamon Press - An Imprint of Elsevier Science and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

17.
Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy ; 285:121883, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031671

ABSTRACT

Alternative routes such as virus transmission or cross-contamination by food have been suggested, due to reported cases of SARS-CoV-2 in frozen chicken wings and fish or seafood. Delay in routine testing due to the dependence on the PCR technique as the standard method leads to greater virus dissemination. Therefore, alternative detection methods such as FTIR spectroscopy emerge as an option. Here, we demonstrate a fast (3 min), simple and reagent-free methodology using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy for discrimination of food (chicken, beef and fish) contaminated with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. From the IR spectra of the samples, the “bio-fingerprint” (800 – 1900 cm−1) was selected to investigate the distinctions caused by the virus contamination. Exploratory analysis of the spectra, using Principal Component of Analysis (PCA), indicated the differentiation in the data due to the presence of single bands, marked as contamination from nucleic acids including viral RNA. Furthermore, the partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) classification model allowed for discrimination of each matrix in its pure form and its contaminated counterpart with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 100 %. Therefore, this study indicates that the use of ATR-FTIR can offer a fast and low cost and not require chemical reagents and with minimal sample preparation to detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus in food matrices, ensuring food safety and non-dissemination by consumers.

18.
Marine Policy ; 145:105280, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031547

ABSTRACT

The anthropopause, when humans were restricted to their homes because of the COVID-19 pandemic, allowed wildlife to reoccupy areas that were previously used by humans. The coral reef at Eilat has been deteriorating for the past 50-years, and includes the sea anemones, that have symbiotic associations with clownfish. The lack of appropriate niches in the form of sea anemones has also resulted in a drastic decline in the endemic Red Sea Clownfish (RSCF). We surveyed 7500 m of the reef to quantify the number of sea anemones and RSCF on five tourist frequented beaches. The pre-pandemic survey was conducted in 2019 and the post-pandemic in 2021. Overall, the average number of sea anemone per sample plot was 0.23/100 m (range 0–6);and there was no significant difference between the years. However, the mean number of RSCF per 100 m was 0.15 (range 0–6);and there were significant differences between the years with on average double the individuals in 2021. We found a significant positive correlation between the number of anemones and RSCF recorded on transects. In both years, 50 RSCF were in sea anemones;39 (78 %) adults and 11 (22 %) juveniles. All adults and two juveniles populated the bulb/digitiform-tentacle sea anemones Entacmaea quadricolor, while 9 juveniles were in the leathery anemone Heteractis crispa. Our study demonstrates that the COVID-19 closures for the past two years were conducive to the RSCF and resulted in an increase in their numbers.

19.
Mar Policy ; 145: 105281, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031548

ABSTRACT

Globally, fisheries have been the site of multiple documented outbreaks of COVID-19. Existing studies point to the threat posed by the pandemic to livelihoods and health among migrant industrial fishery workers, small-scale fish harvesters, and fishing communities. They show the pandemic enhanced safety, economic, social and political layers of vulnerability in fisheries, while also showcasing examples of resilience. Case studies of COVID-19 response provide an opportunity to explore how existing organizational structures, leadership and networks in fisheries can enable the rapid co-development of customized strategies for fishing safely during large-scale global disruptions such as pandemics. This article contributes to our understanding of governance and fishing safety in small-scale fisheries during the early pandemic, examining the response of small-scale fisheries in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. These seasonal fisheries successfully opened with regulator approval after a short delay and operated without documented COVID-19 outbreaks during 2020. Findings draw from key informant interviews with a safety sector association and union leader, complemented with insights from an anonymous online survey of small-scale harvesters. Interviews capture the organizational processes and resources mobilized to rapidly co-develop the COVID-19 Safe Work Practice Guideline. Online survey findings indicate that fifty-nine percent of respondents (crew and skippers) had no COVID-19-related concerns while fishing in 2020; older harvesters and owner-operators were significantly more likely to indicate concerns. When asked about the relative practicality of listed COVID-19 precautions, respondents commonly identified sanitization, reduced interactions with shore workers, social distancing, protection equipment, modifications to eating/rest areas, and reduced crew as impractical. These assessments are generally consistent with those of the interviewed leaders and the Guideline approach. This suggests the co-developed Guideline provided tailored and practical COVID-19 prevention strategies. Pre-existing governance structures and networks can help address small-scale fisheries vulnerabilities to pandemics by supporting co-development of organizational resources and evidence-informed prevention strategies.

20.
Economic Affairs ; 67(2):37-42, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026767

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented stresses on food supply chain in the country, with bottlenecks in processing, transportation and logistics, as well as momentous shifts in consumption pattern and demand for fish and other meat. In this study, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on consumption pattern of fish, chicken, egg, mutton, beef and pork, market availability and as well as prices in North Eastern Region of India was analysed in this study. The study based on primary data collected through online survey method for which a questionnaire framed in Google Form. The sample comprises of total 104 respondents. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test for repeated measure differences between before COVID-19 and during COVID-19 levels of consumption of fish and other non vegetarian food items and quality of fishes supplied during two periods were analysed. It was found that the reduction in consumption of fishes, chicken and beef, during COVID-19 pandemic, were statistically significant. Whereas, the Wilcoxon signed rank test statistics for mutton and pork turned out to be insignificant. During COVID-19 the consumption of local fishes increased due non availability and distortion of fish supply chain. The quality of fishes in terms of freshness, size and odour were also impacted. Due poor availability of fishes, prices of fish increased during COVID-19. The increase in fish prices and poor availability of fishes resulted to shift in purchase of processed fish products in the North Eastern Region in India. The disruption in transportation, logistics, lockdown, etc during COVID-19 impacted trade of fishes as well as its consumption in the region. Hence, efforts for increasing of local supply of fishes as well as the development of resilient supply chain with sufficient storage facilities is needed to cope up under such unprecedented situation.

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