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1.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 57, 2022 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1849786

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A One Health approach has been increasingly mainstreamed by the international community, as it provides for holistic thinking in recognizing the close links and inter-dependence of the health of humans, animals and the environment. However, the dearth of real-world evidence has hampered application of a One Health approach in shaping policies and practice. This study proposes the development of a potential evaluation tool for One Health performance, in order to contribute to the scientific measurement of One Health approach and the identification of gaps where One Health capacity building is most urgently needed. METHODS: We describe five steps towards a global One Health index (GOHI), including (i) framework formulation; (ii) indicator selection; (iii) database building; (iv) weight determination; and (v) GOHI scores calculation. A cell-like framework for GOHI is proposed, which comprises an external drivers index (EDI), an intrinsic drivers index (IDI) and a core drivers index (CDI). We construct the indicator scheme for GOHI based on this framework after multiple rounds of panel discussions with our expert advisory committee. A fuzzy analytical hierarchy process is adopted to determine the weights for each of the indicators. RESULTS: The weighted indicator scheme of GOHI comprises three first-level indicators, 13 second-level indicators, and 57 third-level indicators. According to the pilot analysis based on the data from more than 200 countries/territories the GOHI scores overall are far from ideal (the highest score of 65.0 out of a maximum score of 100), and we found considerable variations among different countries/territories (31.8-65.0). The results from the pilot analysis are consistent with the results from a literature review, which suggests that a GOHI as a potential tool for the assessment of One Health performance might be feasible. CONCLUSIONS: GOHI-subject to rigorous validation-would represent the world's first evaluation tool that constructs the conceptual framework from a holistic perspective of One Health. Future application of GOHI might promote a common understanding of a strong One Health approach and provide reference for promoting effective measures to strengthen One Health capacity building. With further adaptations under various scenarios, GOHI, along with its technical protocols and databases, will be updated regularly to address current technical limitations, and capture new knowledge.


Subject(s)
One Health , Forecasting , Global Health
2.
Circ Econ Sustain ; : 1-15, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2158285

ABSTRACT

Using farm animals for their natural capability of "recycling" food waste (FW) that is unfit for direct human consumption can support a circular economy as shown in the case of Sri Lanka's Western Province. The reuse of organic residues including FW as animal feed is a traditional agricultural practice in Sri Lanka but is less studied within an urban FW context. A survey of piggeries using FW in and around the rapidly urbanizing city of Colombo showed that FW is a major feed source in the farms accounting for on average 82% of total feed. About 40% of the farms collected the FW mainly from hotels, restaurants, and institutional canteens. Urban FW is supplied to farmers free of charge when collected directly from the sources, although 26% of the farmers collected FW via intermediaries against a fee. As FW is collected daily, the restaurants appreciate the reliable service, the farmers the low-cost feed, and the municipality the reduced FW volumes to be collected. However, this triple-win situation encounters challenges such as (tourist related) seasonal low supply, which was exacerbated under the Covid-19 lockdown of food services. Another area of concern refers to biosafety. Although the large majority of interviewed farmers boil FW which contains raw meat or fish, there is a paucity of related guidelines and control. Given the benefits of FW use, it is worthwhile to explore how far these informal partnerships could be scaled without increasing transport costs for farmers, while introducing biosafety monitoring. For now, the regulatory environment is highly siloed and does not support material transitions across sector boundaries towards a circular economy.

3.
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition & Development ; 22(10):21919-21937, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2164422

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the novel Coronavirus in late 2019 led to disruptions in the food, economic and health systems. There are projections that the pandemic will worsen hunger and malnutrition in families with young children and women of reproductive age in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). Therefore, this study investigated household food security status, dietary patterns and nutritional status of children in a Nigerian community during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total sample of 200 mother-child pairs was selected from a Nigerian community using a multistage sampling technique. A semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, which had four sections, was used for data collection. A food security survey questionnaire was used to assess household food security, and a food frequency questionnaire was used to capture child food patterns. Dietary diversity was assessed using 24-hour dietary recall, and nutritional status was measured using anthropometric parameters. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Almost half (48.5%) of the mothers were aged between 24 and 35 years, with a mean age of 31.63 +6.3 years. The majority of the children (69%) were between 24 and 60 months-old, with a mean age of 29.80 +15.48 months. Most participants (73.7%) were food insecure. Cereals, roots and tubers (79.5%), and sugar and junk (61.4 %) were the most frequently consumed food groups by children, while dairy products (15.8 %), vegetables (18.1%), and fruits (19.3 %) were the least frequently consumed. The majority had a low dietary diversity score (61.4%), and the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight was 41.3%, 27.2% and 3.3%, respectively. There was a statistically significant (p=0.013) relationship between maternal age and child dietary diversity. This study reveals that most households with mothers and children 6-59 months-old were food insecure. More than half of the children had low dietary diversity, and the consequences of poor diet quality are becoming evident as wasting and stunting are high. Therefore, an urgent public health intervention is needed to improve food security in vulnerable households. [ FROM AUTHOR]

4.
Open Agriculture ; 7(1):899-909, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2162641

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about a variety of challenges to Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, especially in the area of health protection, food security, and availability. Food security is a concept that encompasses the availability and accessibility of safe nutritious foods to everyone and is dependent on the maintenance of the food supply chain. The food security status of Nigeria, a developing country that previously was problematic, has been worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic through several fronts including the disruption of the food supply chain, reduced agricultural output as a result of the global lockdown, and lack of access to agricultural facilities and products, such as fertilisers, manpower, and restrictive policies. These factors have generally resulted in food scarcity and price inflations, which increasingly threaten the political and economic stability of households within the country, leading to an insecure future for the people. This review examines how the food security status of households in Nigeria has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and the effects of the lockdown and changing business environment on farmers' food production operations and marketing activities. It further evaluates the pandemics impacts on agro-industrial projects and governments' efforts in making the agriculture sector more sustainable. Strategies to improve local food production, accessibility and availability, through interventions, including financial incentives/grants to farmers, the revival of moribund agricultural agencies, and encouraging local production and processing of foods are explored.

5.
Public Administration and Policy ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2161347

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This paper examines the relevance of Public-Private-Community Partnerships (PPCPs) as an alternative mechanism in enhancing food security during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond in Zimbabwe. It also draws attention to the complexities of adopting PPCPs, and proposes possible options to improve their effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach: The study applied concurrent mixed research methods. The sample population comprised multiple stakeholders in the area of food security and agricultural financing in Zimbabwe. The research adopted purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Data were collected through questionnaire, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs) and documentary analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data, while qualitative data analysis was conducted thematically. Findings: Prior to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, food insecurity was a consistent challenge in Zimbabwe. The pandemic has worsened the situation by further disruption of food systems and limiting people's access to food. PPCPs could be feasible alternative as they enhance value chain collaboration, improve access to inputs, reduce information asymmetry, ensure trust and facilitate risk sharing. PPCPs require proper design, control of transaction costs, clear definition of partners' roles, fair risk sharing, trust, and flexibility. Originality/value: PPCPs are yet to be adopted in the Zimbabwean agricultural sector. The research informs policymakers on the need to implement multi-stakeholder collaborations in food production. © 2022, Brighton Shoniwa.

6.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1107(1):012120, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2160867

ABSTRACT

The main food consumption of farming families is an important concern during the pandemic. Farmers in West Nusa Tenggara (WNT) survive with the availability of rice to support household health and food security during the pandemic. In addition to its nutritional content, rice also contains phenolic compounds and has antioxidant activity. This study aims are to measure the frequency of rice consumption, food variety, varieties of rice consumed daily during the pandemic in WNT, as well as the antioxidant properties of several rice varieties grown in WNT. This study was conducted from September 2020 to June 2021 in East Lombok, Sumbawa and Bima Regencies, WNT Province, Indonesia using a survey approach. The data collection techniques were observation, Focus Group Discussion, recording, interviews with 74 respondents with a semi-structured questionnaire and study literature related to the nutritional content and bioactive compound of the rice. Quantitative data was tabulated to determine the frequency and average then descriptively analyzed, while qualitative data was thematically analysed. The most consumed rice varieties are seen from the production data of seed breeders in the WNT region, the phenolic content was determined using Folin–Ciocalteu, antioxidant activity was examined using DPPH assay. The result showed that the highest portion of food consumed by farmer households in WNT is rice. The most variety of rice produced by breeders is the Inpari 32 variety. There are about 97% of farmers consume rice for 3 times a day, while 3% of the remaining consume 2 times a day of rice. Food variety includes 7.9% vegetable-rice and 92.1% rice-vegetables-meat protein. The results of the analysis of antioxidant properties and phenolic content in rice is depending on the variety. The antioxidant properties of the Jeliteng, Baroma, Pamelen, Nutrizinc and Inpari 32 rice varieties were 44.85±0.51%, 9.87±1.55%, 9.96±1.22%, 9.75±1.09%, and 14.305±1.24%, respectively, while the phenolic contents were 9.76±0.09, 4.23±0.03, 4.48±0.02, 4.64± 0.07, 4.58±0.42 mg GAE/g dryrice extract, respectively. The results of this study indicate that rice has been used as one of antioxidants source for farming families during the pandemic.

7.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1107(1):012106, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2160863

ABSTRACT

The work of this research was to analyze the effectiveness of the community food barn in terms of the availability and easy access of the community, both farmer members of the barn and other communities in the village to food, and to analyze the comparison of the income levels of farmers who are members of the community food barn with non-members. This research was conducted in West Lombok Regency. This study uses secondary data and primary data. Secondary data were obtained from literature studies. Meanwhile, primary data was obtained from direct observation and interviews by using a questionnaire with 60 respondents. The data in this study were analyzed using descriptive analysis. The results of this study show that the Community Food Barn Program in West Lombok has not been effective. The most tangible benefit from the existence of the Community Food Barn Program is that members can use the Food Barn to store their harvested grain and guarantee the availability of food reserves for members and the entire family because they are allowed to borrow grain.

8.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1107(1):012092, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2160862

ABSTRACT

The general objective of the research were to analyse the acceleration of economic recovery and food security of smalllholder farmer househols post the 2018 earthquake and COVID-19 pandemic era through empowering farmer groups of dry land horticulture agribusiness based. The specific objective was determining and analysing the effect of the Pentha-helix approach, sinergy among Higher Education Institution, Local Government, Agricultural Extension officer, Bank and private enterprise in empowering farmers. It's mission were Better Farming, Better Business and Better Living. It was the longitudinal action research by implementing Participatory Action Research. The data was recoded from farmers target groups and 60 smallholder farmers in three villages nearby the pilot project village. The cross classification between food expenditure and sufficiency of energy consumption was used to measure the degree of food security of household. It's concluded that developing agribusiness of upland horticulture has high potential for reinforcement of economic recovery of smalholder farmer's household post the 2018 earthquakes and during pandemic COVID-19 era. Implementing Triple Helix and Pentahelix approach have a possitive impact for strenghtening and recovering economy of smalholders farmers households. They were in enough food category which depicted by 85.50% degree of energy consumption. Food scurity based on distribution of household food need was in the category of low expenditure of food (less than 60%). Food scurity of household based on cross combination between the dergree of energy consumption and the proportion of food expenditure were 61% of them were resistance to food scurity, 30.85% of household were vulnerable of food scurity, and 6.20% of households were troubled of food scurity and 61.25% of them were lack of food. They realize that North Lombok region is a tourism destination, so that they have high instrinsik motivation for growing vegetable crops and seasonal fruits. Therefore, supplying high economic value of vegetables and fruits, quality insurance and friendly environment of vegetables and fruits are needed to be sustained through implementing the penta helix approch.

9.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1107(1):012071, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2160859

ABSTRACT

Rice food security can be realized through increased production of irrigated rice fields. Still, floods and droughts due to extreme weather and the Covid-19 pandemic can threaten food production and security. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the participation of rice farmers in managing water resources on rice production during the Covid-19 pandemic. The study was conducted during the 2020 Covid-19 pandemic in South Konawe Regency, Southeast Sulawesi Province. The research population is all farmers who are members of the water-using farmers' association, 130 farmers. The sample will be selected using a simple random sampling method for 39 people. Variables of lowland rice farmers' participation in water resource management include planning, attendance, provision of fees, security and maintenance of water resources and lowland rice farming production. The data were analyzed using Chi-Square analysis. The results of this study indicate that the participation of rice farmers in managing water resources on rice production during the covid 19 pandemic in the form of planning, attendance, procurement of fees, and security in managing water resources is significantly related to lowland rice production during the Covid-19 pandemic so that Partially the higher the participation of farmers in managing water resources can increase the output of lowland rice and the availability of rice is always available to maintain regional food security.

10.
Agriculture and Human Values ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2158071

ABSTRACT

This research examines the impact of COVID-19 on food security in New York state and the innovative approaches employed by food assistance organizations to help address the changing and increasing demand for their services from March 2020 to May 2021. We examine the case study of New York's Capital District region through a qualitative approach. We find that there was a sharp increase in utilization of emergency services during spring of 2020, which tapered off in the summer and fall of 2020 but remained above the levels of need seen the previous year. Food assistance organizations quickly adapted to the increased demand for their services and changing conditions to reduce gaps in local food distribution chains: They reorganized and tapped into new sources for volunteers, networked with public and private organizations, and coordinated work with other regional food pantries for maximum impact. The flexibility of food assistance organizations to address the disruptions brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic highlights their critical roles in the U.S. food security environment. While organizations are aware of their shortcomings, constraints, and overall role in the American food system, the majority also expressed that the pandemic presented an opportunity to treat a complex problem together and to enact change. Several stakeholders also shared their hope that strengthening their networks and innovations may facilitate post-pandemic recovery, bring about systemic changes to address root causes of food insecurity, and better serve the communities most vulnerable to hunger and service disruptions. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.

11.
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies ; 9(3):483-515, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2157700

ABSTRACT

Open‐air marketplaces are vital to food security, livelihoods, and the national economy in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Over the past 60 years, rapid growth of urban populations, changes in global commodity prices, and the decline in value of the PNG currency have stimulated demand for domestic fresh food. Selling fresh food in marketplaces has also become an attractive way to earn money for rural producers, whose returns on labour on their export crops have declined, and for urban residents struggling to make a living. This in turn has led to significant changes in PNGʼs marketplaces: spatial and temporal changes, changes in what is bought and sold, changes in who is selling, and changes in how food is transacted. In this paper, we bring together research on PNGʼs marketplaces from between 1961 and 2022 to document these changes and their causes, alongside important continuities, and to examine the implications and substantial gaps in our knowledge.

12.
Finance & Development ; 59(2):28-29, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2157116

ABSTRACT

It is shown that three compounding crises (conflict, COVID, and climate change) are giving rise to another: hunger. Russia's invasion of Ukraine sent food prices to an all-time high by disrupting commodity flows from two of the world's largest exporters of wheat and other staples. Importantly, food prices are rising along with, and because of, other major global economic challenges, including rising inflation, the pandemic which continues to snarl supply chains, and climate change which threatens production across many of the world's agricultural regions. The number of people without sufficient food consumption is back to where it was in the early 2000s.

13.
Rajagiri Journal of Social Development ; 12(2):195-206, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2157012

ABSTRACT

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is seeking to end hunger, achieve food security, improve nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. It guarantees every citizen with access to adequate food throughout the year through sustainable food systems. Although India has made considerable progress in tackling hunger and poor nutrition in the past two decades, the Global Hunger Index indicates that India suffers from a level of hunger that is 'serious'. During lockdown, the poor food security structure and its functioning have been observed. The urban informal migrant labourers are the most vulnerable to hunger and experienced acute food scarcity. By addressing food security and rights interventions, our cities would be inclusive. The paper discusses the issue of rights to food with regard to the urban informal sector, migrant labourers and experiences during COVID-19 response work in Pune city.

14.
Obesity ; 30:107, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2156907

ABSTRACT

Background: The uncertainty and economic instability caused by COVID-19 has led to research the risks on food systems. In the publication: Channels of transmission to food and agriculture by The Food and Agriculture Organization, México is considered one of the countries with medium/high risk regarding the demand for food, due to a probable reduction in the purchasing power to access them. Methods: Data was collected by a web-based survey: General information, healthy habits with self-reported anthropometry and the Food Insecurity Experience Scale, the instrument describes difficulties to access food due to resource constraints during the last 30 days. Information was collected during the months of September and December 2021. Results: A total of 479 subjects (330 women) ages 18 to 62 years participated. 29.9% of the participants indicated that the provider's income decreased a little and 16.5% mentioned having decreased a lot or having lost their income. 61.4% indicated that they had gained weight, 54.9% increased their consumption of junk food and 68.9% mentioned that during the contingency they ate more due to anxiety, depression or boredom. Regarding food security, 21.3% mentioned been concerned about not having enough food, 16.5% not having eaten healthy and nutritious food and 16.5% having eaten little variety of food due to lack of money or other resources in the last 30 days. Conclusions: The social isolation and economic imbalance from COVID-19 pandemic has impacted not only in eating habits but quality and quantity of the food consumed.

15.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2156474

ABSTRACT

This issue contains 70 papers that were presented at a conference with the theme, "Landscape Dynamics and Sustainable Development Post Covid-19 Pandemic." The papers cover topics on landscape inventory and mapping;human impact on landscape;disaster management;food security;gender and demographic bonus;climate adaptation and mitigation;sustainable cities and community resilience;and clean water and sanitation.

16.
Discussion Paper, Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO) 2022. (198):97 pp. many ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2156003

ABSTRACT

This report contributes to the project "Securing agriculture and rural development in times of COVID-19, pathways to regional responses for recovery, reforms, and resilience" by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The objectives of the report are threefold: (1) to assess the multiple impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on agriculture, food security, and rural community;(2) to review the policy responses taken by the governments of eight Central Asia and Caucasus (CAC) countries to mitigate the effects of the crisis, and (3) to provide contextual options to build the resilience of the agricultural sector during post-COVID-19 recovery and against future shocks.

17.
Insects and food security in South Africa in the light of climate change. ; 62(4):623-646, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2155916

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has had a devastating socio-economic effect on the country, including the death of more than 102 000 people, many of whom were the breadwinners of their families. This could not have happened at a worse time, since the economy of the country was in a recession even before the pandemic. The situation is exacerbated by the highest level of unemployment in the world, widespread nepotism and corruption, the plundering of state coffers and the favouring of the business interests of BRICS partners by government officials over those of South Africans. The government's commitment to prioritising their BRICS partners' business interests over those of the South African people contributes to food insecurity in South Africa. This includes the export of coal from mines in Mpumalanga to China and India, while nothing is done to rehabilitate the region, which was once known for its agriculture. The government handed over to the Chinese company SAEMB the Musina-Makhado Special Economic Zone, where four opencast mines, a 3 300 MW power station and an iron smelting plant will be developed. This development, however, requires the government to build a dam that will harvest 60% of the annual runoff of the Limpopo River, which in turn will have a devastating effect on farmers and communities downriver in South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique who irrigate their crops with water from the Limpopo River. The same kowtowing of the South African government to its BRICS partners can be seen in the reluctance with which the government responds to the plundering of our marine resources by Chinese fishing boats and abalone smugglers. The unfair competition imposed on local chicken farmers by distributers of dumped chicken, mainly from Brazil, with the approval of government, caused the closure of several South African chicken farms and the resulting loss of tens of thousands of jobs along the supply chain. The reluctance of the government to take sides in the Russia-Ukraine war is partly linked to the fact that South Africa imports fertilizer and wheat from Russia. South Africa, a water-scarce country, is more vulnerable than many other countries to the effects of global climate change. The abnormal rain pattern, that is characterised by severe droughts in certain regions and heavy rainstorms and floods in others, has a devastating impact on the already economically struggling South African community. Abroad, attempts are made to ensure that mean temperatures do not exceed the pre-industrial level mark by more than 1,5 °C. South Africa, however, heats up twice as fast as many other countries, and has already exceeded the pre-industrial era level by more than 2 °C;it will continue to get warmer and drier, causing most of the country to become desertified by 2050. A third of South African rivers do not reach the sea anymore because of over ion of water from rivers;similarly, there is extensive ion of groundwater. Together farming and forestry account for 70% of water use in South Africa. This over ion of water, worsened by the heat and aridification resulting from climate change, led to the degradation of most wetland and estuarine ecosystems and the drying and burning of irreplaceable peatlands. These political, socioeconomic and environmental calamities create the worst possible scenario for food security in South Africa. Already one in four people in Africa suffers from food insecurity and this number will rapidly rise in the wake of global climate change, which will result in the loss of two thirds of arable land by 2025. South Africa is nearing socioeconomic collapse. This, in conjunction with continuing droughts, storms and rising temperatures associated with global climate change, will lead to food insecurity, starvation and anarchy. The effect of global climate change will make it progressively more difficult to produce enough food for the South African population. It is imperative that South Africans consider alternative methods of food production, including water use. Entomophagy is widel practiced throughout the world, but is especially prevalent in South America, the Far East and Africa, where approximately 2 billion people use 1 900 species of insects as food. The nutritional value of insects is unsurpassed and, in some respects, even more nutritious than meat. The larvae of the black soldier fly (BSF) Hermetia illucens are a source of high-quality proteins and unsaturated fats that are used worldwide as animal feed. Insects are a source of minerals such as iron, calcium, copper, zinc and magnesium and high levels of vitamin A, B2 and C. The ecological and socioeconomic benefits of using BSF larvae instead of grain as feed for fish, chickens and pigs are enormous. BSF larvae can be bred almost for free by feeding it a wide variety of organic waste, including rotten vegetables and fruit, manure and even carcases that would have ended up in rubbish dumps and would have contributed to the methane and carbon dioxide pollution emanating from such dumps. The water use of BSF is negligible, because the water in the organic waste that would have been discarded in waste dumps is sufficient to sustain them. BSF affords the subsistence and small-scale farmer the opportunity to raise chickens at a lower input cost than ever before. The conversion of feed to food in insects is far greater than that of chickens, pigs or cattle. In the case of the house cricket (Acheta domestica) the conversion rate of feed to food is twice as effective as that of chickens, four times as effective as pigs and twelve times greater than that of cattle. Compared to conventional farming, this implies that with insects far more exceptionally nutritious food can be produced in a smaller area, with little water and no poison or fertilizer whatsoever, while waste and the associated methane gas are removed from the environment at the same time. A few South African companies have already seen the potential of insects as food and feed. Even though insect farming is still in its infancy, it is already generating jobs and new socioeconomic opportunities in South Africa. Insect farming, especially BSF farming, will in the near future probably grow in popularity all over the world as an affordable, healthy, ecologically sustainable alternative food source that will, directly or indirectly, be consumed by humans. BSF afford the environmentally conscious homesteader who wants to produce livestock such as chickens, fish, or pigs in a sustainable manner an unsurpassed environmentally friendly alternative. BSF will also give the desperate, impoverished and starving population of the future an alternative free source of feed that will offer them economic prospects and food security. [ FROM AUTHOR]

18.
Agriculture & Food Security ; 11(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2153681

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 led to the implementation of lockdowns and social distancing regulations to curb the spread of infections. Consequently, the lockdowns impeded the movement of smallholder farmers, agricultural inputs, and food products thereby disrupting the food supply chains in SSA. Therefore, this paper examines the relationship between food security indicators (accessibility, availability, utilization, stability) and COVID-19. This study uses ordinary least square regression (OLS) models to study the relationship between the food security indicators and COVID-19. The study considers 9 out of 48 sub-Saharan African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal) due to data availability restrictions. The result of the analysis indicated that a rise in COVID-19 levels negatively impacts all the 4 indicators of food security without exception. This paper underscores the need to consider the disruptions of food security indicators such as diet, nutritional content, access and availability, affordability, and food supply chains. Moreover, the paper discusses mitigating strategies that may alleviate SSA’s food security amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. We recommend that SSA countries invest in quality agricultural and food production infrastructure and supporting industries that contribute directly to the food supply chain, such as agro-processing, fertilizer production and transport. Another important dimension of the COVID-19 and food insecurity syndemic is the income shocks that occurred as a consequence of the COVID-19 outbreak. Like many factories, companies, and service providers closed shop (especially the informal sector), people lost their incomes as a result of loss of employment and, in many instances, no social protection. Therefore, we recommend that SSA governments develop affordable, sustainable, and targeted social protection/insurance systems that extend to the informal sector of the economy.

19.
Agriculture & Food Security ; 11(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2153680

ABSTRACT

We review findings from the emerging microeconomic literature on observed changes in food insecurity associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. To do so, we focus our review on studies in low- and middle-income countries that include household survey data measuring food insecurity collected both before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We first focus on several studies—seven from countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and one from India—that estimate immediate changes in food insecurity associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Next, we review subsequent analysis studying longer term changes in food insecurity associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. This review, therefore, complements existing macroeconomic projections of food insecurity based on expected changes in income and prices.

20.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 379, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2152970

ABSTRACT

Britain’s food insecurity crisis was worsening before we’d heard of covid-19. In the year up to March 2020, Trussell Trust food banks had distributed 1 909 156 emergency food parcels across the UK.1 This accounted for a fraction of wider food insecurity—according to the Department for Work and Pensions Family Resources Survey, 43% of households on Universal Credit reported severe or moderate food insecurity in that same year.2 In January 2020, the Independent Food Aid Network (IFAN) revealed that food banks in Scotland had distributed 1,000 emergency food parcels a day over the previous 18 months.3

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