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1.
Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul) ; 85(4): 283-288, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994280

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by varying and recurrent symptoms, reversible airway obstruction, and bronchospasm. In this paper, clinical important studies on asthma published between March 2021 and February 2022 were reviewed. A study on the relationship between asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis, bronchiectasis, and hormone replacement therapy was published. A journal on the usefulness of fractional exhaled nitric oxide for the prediction of severe acute exacerbation was also introduced. Studies on the effect of inhaler, one of the most important treatments for asthma, were published. Studies on the control of severe asthma continued. Phase 2 and 3 studies of new biologics were also published. As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been prolonged, many studies have explored the prevalence and mortality of COVID-19 infection in asthma patients.

2.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927846

ABSTRACT

Introduction:Dupilumab is an anti-IL4R monoclonal antibody (mAb) with proven efficacy in severe eosinophilic asthma (SEA). We have previously identified that a suboptimal response to the eosinophil targeting anti-IL5/5R mAbs mepolizumab and benralizumab is seen in 27% and 14% of patients with SEA respectively1,2. The mechanism of this is not well-understood. It is unknown whether such patients respond in a clinically meaningful way following a switch to dupilumab. Methods:We performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical effectiveness of dupilumab (minimum 6 months treatment) in patients with SEA at our tertiary severe asthma centre who had failed to adequately respond to at least one of the anti-IL-5/5R mAbs. Change in the annualised exacerbation rate (AER), maintenance oral corticosteroids (mOCS) requirements, ACQ-6 and mAQLQ was recorded. Results:Thirty-two patients (mean age 41.2, 68.8% female, 71.9% atopic) were included in the analysis. 13/32(40.6%) had co-morbid nasal polyposis and 5/32(15.6%) had eczema. The baseline FeNO was 60ppb(IQR 39.6-87.5) and peak eosinophil count prior to any mAb was 0.6(IQR 0.5-0.9). 23/32(71.8%) were switched from benralizumab, of whom, 12/23(52.2%) had also failed to respond to at least one other anti-IL5 mAb previously. At six months, the daily median mOCS dose in those requiring mOCS at baseline (n=18) fell from 10mg(IQR 5-25mg) to 3mg(IQR 0-5mg), p≤0.001. 4/18(22%) were able to stop mOCS completely. Mean(SD) AER improved from 2.34(1.89) to 0.44(0.95), p≤0.001. There were also significant improvements in ACQ6 and mAQLQ that exceeded twice the MCID for both measures: mean (SD) ACQ6 improved from 3.04(1.26) to 1.82(1.28), p≤0.001;mAQLQ improved from 3.90(SD 1.40) to 5.36(SD 1.05), p≤0.001. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, FEV1 data was only available for 8 patients. However, there was nonetheless a significant rise in FEV1 (%predicted) from 55.6% (9.78) to 68.5%(16.9), p=0.011. One patient discontinued dupilumab during the follow-up period. Conclusion: A minority of individuals with SEA have a suboptimal response to eosinophil targeted therapy with an anti-IL5/5R mAb. In these patients, we report significant clinical improvements following initiation with dupilumab suggesting an important role for the IL-4/-13 pathway in these patients. Further research is required to understand whether these patients represent a distinct subphenotype of T2-high asthma.

3.
J Breath Res ; 16(4)2022 07 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908699

ABSTRACT

Gaseous nitric oxide levels from the lungs (FeNO) and from the nose (nNO) have been demonstrated to react to acute infection or influenza vaccination. There are no published data on nNO levels during acute COVID-19, but normal levels of FeNO have been reported in one study. Our aim was to assess if acute mild COVID-19 alters nasal or bronchial NO output at the time of acute infection and at a two-month follow up, and if this is related to symptoms or viral load. This study included 82 subjects with mild acute airway infection who did not need hospitalization: 43 cases (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-positive for SARS-CoV-2 in routine testing from nasopharynx) and 39 age- (±5 years) and gender-matched controls (RT-PCR-negative for SARS-CoV-2). During acute infection, the cases had lower nNO compared to controls (158 [104-206] vs. 232 [203-279] nl min-1;p< 0.001), but after two months, there was no significant difference between the groups (230 [179-290] vs. 268 [222-320] nl min-1;p= 0.162). There was no difference in FeNO between the groups at either of the visits. Nasal NO correlated with the cycle threshold (Ct) value of the nasopharyngeal RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 (Spearman'srs= 0.550;p< 0.001), that is, nNO was lower with a higher viral load. Nasal NO output was decreased in acute COVID-19 in relation to higher viral load, suggesting that the type and intensity of inflammatory response affects the release of NO from airway mucosa. In these subjects without significant lower airway involvement, there were no clinically relevant findings regarding FeNO.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nitric Oxide , Breath Tests , Humans , Nitric Oxide/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
4.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 76(SUPPL 110):171-172, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1570339

ABSTRACT

Background: Mepolizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against IL-5, is a therapeutic option in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. Its efficacy has been shown in clinical trials. Our aim is to present data from our center to corroborate this evidence in the complexity of real-life patients. Method: A retrospective study of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma treated with mepolizumab in our center was performed. We collected data regarding demographics, eosinophilic blood count, FEV 1 , fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), clinically significant exacerbations [need to start or increase oral corticosteroids (OCS), emergency department visit and/or hospitalization], OCS and safety profile, before and after patients started mepolizumab. Results: A total of 12 patients were included (9 female, mean age 53.7 ± 8.9 years old);10 patients had concomitant chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. Mepolizumab was administered in a dose of 100 mg every 4 weeks, except for 2 patients diagnosed with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) (300 mg every 4 weeks). The mean duration of treatment was 13.75 months [3 - 28 months]. Due to COVID-19 pandemics restriction it was not possible to assess absolute eosinophilic count in 2 patients, as well as FeNO and FEV 1 in 2 different patients after treatment. The mean value before and after treatment for each outcome were the following: absolute eosinophilic blood count, from 537.5/μl to 116/μl ( p = 0.005);FEV 1 , from 1.44L to 1.84L ( p = 0.036);FeNO, from 62.27ppm to 41.8ppm ( p = 0.260);clinically significant exacerbations, from 2.83 in the previous year to 0.25 ( p = 0.007). Prior to treatment, 8 patients were treated with daily OCS, and after starting mepolizumab 3 of them were able to stop OCS and the others reduced daily dose (mean dose reduction 64.7%, ranging from 25% to 98.5%). The only side effect reported was sporadic headache, and no one discontinued treatment. Conclusion: In our sample, we observed a significant reduction in eosinophilic blood count, clinically significant exacerbations and OCS use, as well as improvements in FEV 1 , in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma treated with mepolizumab, with a good safety profile. This information supports data from clinical trials and early real-life experience in other populations.

5.
J Asthma Allergy ; 14: 415-426, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231282

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients with variable symptoms suggestive of asthma but with normal forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) often fail to be diagnosed without a bronchial provocation test, but the test is expensive, time-consuming, risky, and not readily available in all clinical settings. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 692 patients with FEV1≥80% predicted; normal neutrophils and chest high-resolution computed tomography; and recurrent dyspnea, cough, wheeze, and chest tightness. RESULTS: Compared with subjects negative for AHR (n=522), subjects positive for AHR (n=170) showed increased FENO values, peripheral eosinophils (EOS), and R5-R20; decreased FEV1, FEV1/Forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory flow (FEFs) (P≤.001 for all). Small-airway dysfunction was identified in 104 AHR+ patients (61.17%), and 132 AHR- patients (25.29%) (P<0.001). The areas under the curve (AUCs) of variables used singly for an AHR diagnosis were lower than 0.77. Using joint models of FEF50%, FEF75%, or FEF25%-75% with FENO increased the AUCs to 0.845, 0.824, and 0.844, respectively, significantly higher than univariate AUCs (P <0.001 for all). Patients who reported chest tightness (n=75) had lower FEFs than patients who did not (P<0.001 for all). In subjects with chest tightness, the combination of FEF50% or FEF25%-75% with EOS also increased the AUCs substantially, to 0.815 and 0.816, respectively (P <0.001 for all versus the univariate AUCs). CONCLUSION: FENO combined with FEF50% and FEF25%-75% predict AHR in patients with normal FEV1. FEF25%-75%, FEF50%, or FEF25%-75% together with EOS also can potentially suggest asthma in patients with chest tightness.

6.
World Allergy Organ J ; 14(1): 100499, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223025

ABSTRACT

Indoor environments contribute significantly to total human exposure to air pollutants, as people spend most of their time indoors. Household air pollution (HAP) resulting from cooking with polluting ("dirty") fuels, which include coal, kerosene, and biomass (wood, charcoal, crop residues, and animal manure) is a global environmental health problem. Indoor pollutants are gases, particulates, toxins, and microorganisms among others, that can have an impact especially on the health of children and adults through a combination of different mechanisms on oxidative stress and gene activation, epigenetic, cellular, and immunological systems. Air pollution is a major risk factor and contributor to morbidity and mortality from major chronic diseases. Children are significantly affected by the impact of the environment due to biological immaturity, prenatal and postnatal lung development. Poor air quality has been related to an increased prevalence of clinical manifestations of allergic asthma and rhinitis. Health professionals should increase their role in managing the exposure of children and adults to air pollution with better methods of care, prevention, and collective action. Interventions to reduce household pollutants may promote health and can be achieved with education, community, and health professional involvement.

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