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1.
Chest ; 162(4):A1780, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060861

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Drug-Induced and Associated Critical Care Cases Posters 2 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Lung toxicity due to antineoplastic therapy is reported with both cytotoxic and molecularly targeted agents [1]. We present one such case of lung injury induced by capecitabine. CASE PRESENTATION: A 79-year-old female with history of triple negative infiltrating duct carcinoma of the right breast (status post mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel and cyclophosphamide 3 years prior) presented to the hospital with dyspnea on exertion following her fourth cycle of capecitabine therapy for breast cancer recurrence. Patient developed nausea, vomiting, and malaise with cycles 1, 2, and 3 of capecitabine therapy with onset of severe dyspnea on exertion, cough, and hypoxia following cycle 4. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest on admission showed consolidative opacities in the right upper, right middle, and anterior right lower lobe along with smaller opacities in the left lung apex and small subcentimeter nodules;no pulmonary embolism. Antibiotics were given for a short duration for suspected pneumonia without improvement. Capecitabine was held on discharge. She presented again to the emergency room with worsening shortness of breath, diarrhea, fatigue, and dizziness. COVID test was negative. Chest x-ray redemonstrated patchy airspace disease involving the right apical, lateral, mid lower lung field. Oral steroids were recommended for suspected organizing pneumonia, but the patient refused due to concerns about side effects. Her hospital course was complicated by Clostridium difficile infection (treated with oral vancomycin) and left lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (treated with anticoagulation). Subsequently she followed up with pulmonology outpatient. Repeat imaging showed evolving infiltrates in the same areas with elevated aspergillus IgG level (18.0 mcg/ml) and IgE (178 kU/L) but negative galactomannan and sputum bacterial/fungal/acid fast cultures. Oral steroids were initiated with clinical and symptomatic improvement. DISCUSSION: Capecitabine is a prodrug of fluorouracil (antimetabolite). It is used as a chemotherapy agent in multiple types of cancer including breast cancer. Respiratory side effects include cough (<7%) and bronchitis (<5%). Lung injury/pneumonitis is a rare complication with only a few cases reported to date [2,3]. The timing of symptoms with chemotherapy administration and the negative infectious work-up supports capecitabine as the inciting etiology of lung injury. Withholding chemotherapy and starting systemic steroids were effective treatments in this case of chemotherapy induced lung toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Capecitabine induced lung injury is a rare but important entity and should always be kept in mind while evaluating dyspnea in cancer patients. Reference #1: Capri G, Chang J, et al. An open-label expanded access study of lapatinib and capecitabine in patients with HER2-overexpressing locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Ann Oncol. 2010;21(3):474. Epub 2009 Oct 8. DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdp373 Reference #2: C. J. Benthin, G. Allada. Capecitabine-Induced Lung Injury. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2016;193:A1653. Reference #3: Andrew K Chan, Bok A Choo, John Glaholm. Pulmonary toxicity with oxaliplatin and capecitabine/5-Fluorouracil chemotherapy: a case report and review of the literature. Onkologie. 2011;34(8-9):443-6. doi: 10.1159/000331133. Epub 2011 Aug 19. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by William Karkowsky No relevant relationships by Chahat Puri No relevant relationships by Sahib Singh

2.
Chest ; 162(4):A1764, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060857

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pathologies of the Post-COVID-19 World SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 Associated Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CAPA) is a subset of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis occurring in patients actively infected with or recovering from COVID-19. It has mostly been described in immunocompromised or severely ill patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation[1-6]. The authors report a case of CAPA infection in an ambulatory and immunocompetent patient with prior lung resection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 20-year-old male presented to a Comprehensive Cancer Center for fever and hemoptysis. He carried a diagnosis of metastatic germ cell tumor to his lungs, status post left upper-lobe wedge resection. He had completed bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy one year earlier. He was recently diagnosed with COVID-19 one month prior to admission and treated as an outpatient with monoclonal antibodies. He reported ongoing cough productive of clear sputum since his diagnosis, which had worsened over the previous two days and was now blood-tinged. He had been afebrile for weeks before noting new fevers over the same period. Physical examination was notable for fever to 38.6°C and lungs clear to auscultation. His labs were significant for a WBC of 14.5 K/mcl (82.5% neutrophils), Cr 2.1 mg/dL (baseline 1.5 mg/dL), and normal platelets and coagulation studies. Serum Aspergillus galactomannan was normal. Repeat SARS-CoV-2 PCR was negative. Chest x-ray was unchanged. V/Q scan showed no evidence of pulmonary embolism. Non-contrast CT chest performed on hospital day #4 revealed a partial opacification and increased wall thickness of patient's largest left upper lobe surgical cavitation (see Image 1). A bronchoscopy was performed day #6, with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) galactomannan >5.56 (normal <0.5)7;fungal culture was significant for septate hyphae. He was started on voriconazole with improvement in his symptoms and discharged day #9. DISCUSSION: Immunocompromised patients with prolonged neutropenia, solid-organ or stem cell transplants, and patients with advanced AIDS are at highest risk of contracting PA[8-9]. ARDS secondary to viral pneumonia is also a common precipitant in immunocompetent patients[1-6,10,11]. The exact mechanism of this association remains unknown, but it is postulated to occur due to multiple factors, including host immune dysregulation[1,2], widespread exposure to corticosteroids[1,2], concomitant lung disease[1], and viral-induced lymphopenia[2]. We report a case of an immunocompetent patient with prior lung resection recovering from COVID-19 who experienced a secondary worsening of symptoms ultimately found to have CAPA to further highlight the link between these conditions. CONCLUSIONS: While many of CAPA case reports describe patients with typical risk profiles for CAPA, this case suggests that clinicians should consider structural lung disease alone in an otherwise immunocompetent, ambulatory individual to be a potential risk factor. Reference #1: See Image 2 for full list of references. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Raphael Rabinowitz No relevant relationships by Matthew Velez

3.
Chest ; 162(4):A623-A624, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060649

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Unusual Pneumonias SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) commonly occurs in the setting of immunosuppression. Underlying lung disease is a well-known risk factor for IPA;however, interstitial lung disease (ILD) has not been recognized as a risk factor for IPA[1]. CASE PRESENTATION: A 40-year-old male with a history of a failed kidney transplant now on hemodialysis (HD), Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, Mixed Connective Tissue Disease, Aspergilloma led to right lower lobectomy a year ago, COVID-19 infection three months ago, chronic lung disease (CLD) thought to be due to Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) presented with dyspnea. He had several hospitalizations for respiratory failure needing intubation or NIPPV, broad-spectrum antibiotics, steroids, and HD with improved respiratory status, eventually discharged. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid culture grew aspergillus terreus but was negative for Pneumocystis (PCP), bacteria, acid-fast bacilli, and Nocardia. The transbronchial biopsies showed mixed inflammatory type and fungal forms in one specimen. Additionally, the initially negative galactomannan converted into a serial rise in galactomannan (>3.75 Index) along with a rise in beta d-glucan (>500 pg/ml). Unfortunately, he had gaps in antifungals and was readmitted similarly. Micafungin was added for dual fungal coverage and was planned for surgical lung biopsy to characterize ILD further once his respiratory status allows. DISCUSSION: He has multiple risk factors for developing IPA, such as high-dose steroids for ILD and recent COVID infection. Initially, respiratory failure was thought to be due to exacerbation of ILD, and suspicion for IPA was low because of lack of neutropenia, negative fungal biomarkers, lack of classic findings on lung imaging, and in-hospital clinical improvement with steroids. However, the eventual course of recurrent respiratory failure while on high-dose steroids, along with gaps in antifungal therapy and continued growth of Aspergillus, made IPA the most likely diagnosis. For IPA, the mainstay of treatment is both adequate antifungal therapy and reduction in immunosuppression to the extent possible[2];however, it is unclear if his underlying ILD can tolerate steroid taper. He will need a lung transplant after adequately treating IPA. CONCLUSIONS: There are no current guidelines on simultaneously treating IPA and NSIP. It is challenging to balance reduction in immunosuppression as tolerated for ILD and concurrently maintain antifungal therapy. During this patient's hospitalization, there have been considerations of using a steroid-sparing agent for his suspected NSIP, however, in the setting of active infection, its benefit is debatable.[3] Reference #1: Matsuyama H, Miyoshi S, Sugino K, et al. Fatal Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Associated with Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia: An Autopsy Case Report. Intern Med. 2018;57(24):3619-3624. doi:10.2169/internalmedicine.1144-18 Reference #2: Thomas F. Patterson, George R. Thompson, III, David W. Denning, Jay A. Fishman, Susan Hadley, Raoul Herbrecht, Dimitrios P. Kontoyiannis, Kieren A. Marr, Vicki A. Morrison, M. Hong Nguyen, Brahm H. Segal, William J. Steinbach, David A. Stevens, Thomas J. Walsh, John R. Wingard, Jo-Anne H. Young, John E. Bennett, Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Aspergillosis: 2016 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 63, Issue 4, 15 August 2016, Pages e1–e60, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciw326 Reference #3: Mezger, M., Wozniok, I., Blockhaus, C., Kurzai, O., Hebart, H., Einsele, H., & Loeffler, J. (2008). Impact of mycophenolic acid on the functionality of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and dendritic cells during interaction with Aspergillus fumigatus. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 52(7), 2644–2646. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01618-07 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Nasir Alhamdan No relevant relati nships by Parth Jamindar No relevant relationships by Harshitha Mergey Devender No relevant relationships by Abira Usman No relevant relationships by Vishruth Vyata

4.
Chest ; 162(4):A448, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060598

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Post-COVID-19 Infection Complications SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Since the start of Covid-19 pandemic, several respiratory microorganisms have been identified that cause coinfection with Sars-Cov-2. Bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and viruses like influenza are some of the identified pathogens. Rarely, fungal infections from Aspergillus are also being reported. CASE PRESENTATION: 59-year-old male with past medical history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia was admitted for shortness of breath and was found to be positive for Covid-19. He received Remdesivir, dexamethasone & tocilizumab. He required non-invasive ventilation via continuous positive airway pressure but continued to remain hypoxemic with elevated procalcitonin, he was treated with cefepime for bacterial pneumonia. Patient required emergent intubation and eventually underwent tracheostomy. He developed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia for which he received vancomycin. He was eventually discharged to long term acute care facility. Patient was readmitted after 2 months due to worsening respiratory status. Computed Tomography Angiography of chest was negative for pulmonary embolism but showed pleural effusion. He underwent thoracentesis which showed exudative effusion with negative cultures. Echocardiogram showed right heart failure. Patient's symptoms were believed to be due to Covid-19 fibrosis. He required home oxygen and also received pulmonary rehabilitation. One year after the initial Covid-19 infection, he developed pulmonary hypertension and was referred for lung transplant consultation. However, he developed severe hemoptysis requiring intubation and vasopressors. Galactomannan was positive, Karius digital culture revealed Aspergillus Niger for which he received voriconazole. He was not deemed a suitable candidate for lobectomy. Patient developed arrhythmia and had prolonged QT interval so voriconazole was switched to Isavuconazole. He continued to have hemoptysis and his condition did not improve so family requested to transition care and patient passed away. DISCUSSION: Several studies have proven co-infection of Aspergillus with Covid-19. This case highlights Aspergillus infection approximately 1 year after initial Covid-19 infection. Sars-Cov-2 causes damage to airway lining which can result in Aspergillus invading tissues. IL-6 is increased in severe Covid-19 infection. Tocilizumab is an anti-IL-6 receptor antibody that has been approved for treatment of Covid-19 pneumonia. However, IL-6 provides immunity against Aspergillus so use of tocilizumab decreases protection against Aspergillosis which is usually the reason for co-infection. However, in this case patient developed fungal infection later during Covid-19 fibrosis stage. CONCLUSIONS: Recognizing fungal etiology early on is important in Covid-19 patients as mortality is high and appropriate intervention can reduce morbidity and mortality. Some patient may eventually require lung resection. Reference #1: Kakamad FH, Mahmood SO, Rahim HM, Abdulla BA, Abdullah HO, Othman S, Mohammed SH, Kakamad SH, Mustafa SM, Salih AM. Post covid-19 invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis: a case report. International journal of surgery case reports. 2021 May 1;82:105865. Reference #2: Nasrullah A, Javed A, Malik K. Coronavirus Disease-Associated Pulmonary Aspergillosis: A Devastating Complication of COVID-19. Cureus. 2021 Jan 30;13(1). Reference #3: Dimopoulos G, Almyroudi MP, Myrianthefs P, Rello J. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). Journal of Intensive Medicine. 2021 Oct 25;1(02):71-80. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Maria Haider Baig

5.
Chest ; 162(4):A399, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060584

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Infectious Complications with Obstructions and Connections SESSION TYPE: Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 03:15 pm - 04:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Invasive pulmonary fungal infections are a challenge for diagnosis. One of the most common types is Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. It occurs usually among immunocompromised patients [1], so an early diagnosis is warranted for potential better outcome. Evidence of calcium oxalate can be an early diagnostic tool for such an infection. The presence of calcium oxalate crystals can be detected within 24 hours under polarized light in the microbiology labs. We present this case to highlight the potential importance of pulmonary oxalosis in diagnosing pulmonary aspergillosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old-woman with limited breast cancer was admitted to the hospital seven days after her last cycle of docetaxel and cyclophosphamide with COVID-19 pneumonia and hypoxemic respiratory failure. She was not neutropenic. She received a full course of dexamethasone and remdesivir. Sputum cultures subsequently grew Klebsiella aerogenes for which she was treated with antibiotics but failed to significantly improve over four weeks. Repeat chest computed tomography (CT) showed progressive multifocal airspace opacities with new areas of cavitation. Patient underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsy. Transbronchial biopsy specimen from the right upper lobe showed bronchial mucosa and lung parenchyma with calcium oxalate crystals and no organisms. Biopsy specimen from the right middle lobe showed fungal organisms consistent with Aspergillus invading bronchial mucosa and lung parenchyma. Several days later, serum beta-D-glucan returned within normal limits, serum galactomannan was significantly elevated, and BAL culture grew Aspergillus niger. Patient improved with antifungal therapy. DISCUSSION: Fungal pneumonia has high morbidity and mortality. It is essential to start antifungal therapy as soon as possible. Pulmonary oxalosis or calcium oxalate has been seen among Aspergillus Fumigatus and Aspergillus Niger [2-3]. It is a combination of oxalic acid which is produced by Aspergillus spp. and calcium from blood supply of an invaded tissue. Further progression of lesions can be due to calcium oxalate toxicity itself [4-5]. In our case, clinical suspicion for pulmonary aspergillosis was high and we were able to document fungal invasion of lung parenchyma on one of the lung specimens. Though fungal culture is very sensitive and specific, it can take several days to result. Tissue staining for crystals can be performed quickly and provide more timely information when deciding about starting anti-fungal therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary oxalosis, calcium oxalate deposition, can be seen in aspergillus infection and should be considered as an early diagnostic tool for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Reference #1: Kousha M, Tadi R, Soubani AO. Pulmonary aspergillosis: a clinical review. Eur Respir Rev. 2011;20(121): 156–174, doi: 10.1183/09059180.00001011 Reference #2: U. Pabuccuoglu, Aspects of oxalosis associated with aspergillosis in pathology specimens, Pathol. Res. Pract. 201 (2005) 363–368 Reference #3: Osholowu OS, Kak V, Singh H. Pulmonary oxalosis in pulmonary aspergillosis syndrome. Adv Respir Med. 2020;88(2):153-156. doi: 10.5603/ARM.2020.0090. PMID: 32383468. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Mohammed Alsaggaf No relevant relationships by Daniel Baram No relevant relationships by Ivana Milojevic

6.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 26(9): 1039-1041, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2030242

ABSTRACT

Background: With the development of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there is also increased risk of multiple secondary infections either disease- or drug-related. It includes many bacterial as well as invasive fungal infections. Patients and methods: There was suspicion of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) infection in COVID-19 patients who were critically ill and had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We did radiological evaluation and galactomannan assay in these patients. Result: We have diagnosed COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) in these patients and started antifungal treatment with voriconazole in all of these COVID-19 patients. Conclusion: It is very important to report such cases, so that healthcare professionals and authorities related to healthcare will be aware of and may also prepare for the increasing burden of this complication. We describe a case series of CAPA infection. How to cite this article: Sharma K, Kujur R, Sharma S, Kumar N, Ray MK. COVID-19-associated Pulmonary Aspergillosis: A Case Series. Indian J Crit Care Med 2022;26(9):1039-1041.

7.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26:S16, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006329

ABSTRACT

Aim and objective: To elaborate the challenges faced by an ECMO patient and the issues to be overcome and how to address them and combat with the help of a multidisciplinary team. This is a case of a 34-year-old male patient without any comorbidities who tested positive for COVID on 08/07/21 who was on home quarantine for 8 days and reported to hospital on 16/07 in view of breathlessness, was started on oxygen, bipap and tried on remdesivir, steroids, and tocilizumab and baricitinib. The patient was not maintaining saturations and was intubated on 26/07 and as there was refractory hypoxaemia was initiated on ECMO on the next day. The patient was started on ceftazidime and levoflox along with voriconazole as serum galactomannan was positive and ET cultures showed Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The patient was tracheostomized on 01/08 and was keeping well till 12/08 when there were episodes of desaturation and tachypnoea and blood culture showed Candida auris and BAL culture showed Chryseobacterium and MDR Klebsiella with NDM, OXA-48 AND VIM+. The patient developed septic shock and required dual vasopressors. BAL galactomannan had titres of 4.5 and the patient was initiated on a mixture of ceftazidime, avibactum, voriconazole, and anidulafungin. The patient started having hemoglobinuria subsequently and acute kidney injury secondary to this and required 3 sessions of dialysis and the whole ECMO circuit was changed. Improvement in the parameters followed with normalization of blood pressure and urine output too. When there was a sigh of relief as things were getting normal patient started having heavy bouts of tracheal bleeding and bronchoscopy was done again with endobronchial biopsy showing CMV endobronchitis with focal ulceration and was started on ganciclovir. There were maleana episodes too which normalized after initiation of antivirals and CMV enterocolitis was suspected to be the cause. Now the patient is on trial off mode with decannulation being planned.

8.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003076

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Blastomyces species are thermally dimorphic fungi endemic to North America, especially areas bordering the Mississippi, Ohio and St. Lawrence rivers, and the Great Lakes. Blastomycosis infections are estimated to occur in 3-13% in the pediatric population. Pediatric literature for blastomycosis has been mostly limited to small studies and case series. Recent literature suggests increasing rates of infections, less morbidity and mortality as compared to adults, with asthma as the most common comorbid condition. Although pulmonary disease is the most common presentation, it rarely progresses to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Case Description: A 17- year-old female, living in the Chicago area, and with type 1 diabetes mellitus and childhood asthma, presented to the emergency room with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure after 14 days of cough, dyspnea, chest pain, and fevers as high as 105°F. Her initial radiographic imaging revealed bilateral infiltrates and consolidations in the right middle and lower lobes. She was admitted to the step down unit for further care. A respiratory viral panel, including COVID-19 evaluation, was negative. She was started on low-flow nasal cannula, ceftriaxone, azithromycin, albuterol, and maintenance IV fluids. On hospital day 2, she was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit for worsening respiratory distress and escalated to high-flow nasal cannula. She was treated empirically for presumed bacterial pneumonia with ceftriaxone (7-day course), azithromycin (5-day course), cefepime (5-day course), clindamycin (2-day course), and vancomycin (14-day course). Despite this treatment, repeat chest imaging showed worsening disease and she required escalation to BiPAP for progression of her ARDS and impending respiratory failure. Karius testing results indicated Blastomyces dermatitidis at low levels typically not clinically relevant. Sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage cultures demonstrated no significant pathogenic bacteria. Pathology exam of the biopsy obtained from bronchoscopy was consistent with Blastomyces. Urine antigen test was positive for both Blastomyces and Histoplasma. She clinically improved after initiating Amphotericin B lipid complex (6-day course), with transition to oral itraconazole and adjunctive therapy with IV methylprednisolone. She was discharged home after a 30-day hospital stay. Discussion: Pulmonary blastomycosis presents with a broad variety of signs and symptoms. Timely diagnosis is challenging. Pulmonary blastomycosis has no pathognomonic radiographic patterns. Severe acute pulmonary infection that fails to respond to antibacterial treatment should prompt investigation for fungal infection, including urine antigen tests for Histoplasma and Blastomyces, serum galactomannan, beta-1,3-D-glucan, and next-generation sequencing of microbial cell-free DNA (eg, Karius test). Close respiratory monitoring should occur in a pediatric intensive care unit. Conclusion: Blastomycosis is not typically in the initial differential diagnosis unless the patient has other clinical findings, fails to improve on antibacterial therapy, or has identified risk factors for exposure. Failure of prompt recognition is associated with poor outcomes, increased morbidity and mortality, increased length of hospital stay, and cost.

9.
Journal of General Internal Medicine ; 37:S447-S448, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995714

ABSTRACT

CASE: A 52-year-old male with a past medical history of asthma and uncontrolled OSA presented to the ED ten days after diagnosis of COVID-19 with worsening dyspnea. He had a history of fluticasone propionate and fluticasone salmeterol use for asthma exacerbations. He endorsed cough, fever, chills, and diarrhea, and denied chest pain, leg edema, and anosmia.Vitals showed oxygen saturation of 65%. CBC demonstrated leukopenia consistent with COVID- 19 infection. Blood labs showed hyperglycemia (blood sugar 182 mg/dL, hemoglobin A1c 9.6%). Bilateral crackles were noted on exam. He was placed on high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) immediately due to critical hypoxemia. CT PE was negative;CXR revealed bilateral opacities consistent with COVID-19 pneumonia. He started on dexamethasone and remdesivir and was admitted to the MICU for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Notably, the patient had no known diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and was started on sliding scale insulin and Lantus. Barcitinib was added in the MICU in addition to linezolid and cefepime for fear of bacterial superinfection but were discontinued after receiving negative cultures. He was transferred out of the MICU four days later after successful weaning of oxygen but soon returned due to worsening oxygen needs. New leukocytosis prompted a repeat respiratory culture, which grew mold on the preliminary read. Voriconazole was initiated due to concern for Aspergillus infection and was continued with confirmation on the final read. Repeat CT showed left pneumomediastinum, right apical pneumothorax, and worsening bilateral opacities. Despite ongoing treatment, the patient required NC at rest and HFNC with minimal exertion. He was discharged home with HFNC. IMPACT/DISCUSSION: CAPA is a result of opportunistic fungal infection, causing devastating disease in the immunocompromised. A crucial risk factor is the use of high-dose corticosteroids for a prolonged period. The diagnosis of CAPA is based on a combination of imaging, microbiology, and clinical presentation. Peripheral nodules, air crescent, reverse halo sign, nodular consolidation, ground-glass opacities, crazy paving pattern, pleural effusion, and pulmonary cysts have been reported among CAPA patients. A fungal culture and galactomannan test from respiratory specimens can aid in early diagnosis. The usual presenting symptoms of CAPA include refractory fever, pleuritic chest pain, or dyspnea. Voriconazole is a first-line anti-Aspergillus agent. CONCLUSION: Clinical presentation of CAPA is often subtle but associated with high morbidity and mortality. Multiple reports add support to our observation that CAPA can be a result of worsening COVID-19 pneumonia. Early diagnosis and treatment are vital to prevent worse clinical outcomes. Physicians should demonstrate a heightened awareness of the risk of developing CAPA in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Clinicians should exercise low thresholds to identify and treat CAPA, especially in patients on high-dose steroids long-term.

10.
Mycoses ; 65(10): 960-968, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Galactomannan Enzyme Immunoassay (GM-EIA) is proved to be a cornerstone in the diagnosis of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), its use is limited in middle and low-income countries, where the application of simple and rapid test, including Galactomannan Lateral Flow Assay (GM-LFA), is highly appreciated. Despite such merits, limited studies directly compared GM-LFA with GM-EIA. Herein we compared the diagnostic features of GM-LFA, GM-EIA and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) culture for CAPA diagnosis in Iran, a developing country. MATERIALS/METHODS: Diagnostic performances of GM-LFA and GM-EIA in BAL (GM indexes ≥1) and serum (GM indexes >0.5), i.e. sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) and areas under the curve (AUC), were evaluated using BAL (n = 105) and serum (n = 101) samples from mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients in intensive care units. Patients were classified based on the presence of host factors, radiological findings and mycological evidences according to 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria for CAPA diagnosis. RESULTS: The Aspergillus GM-LFA for serum and BAL samples showed a sensitivity of 56.3% and 60.6%, specificity of 94.2% and 88.9%, PPV of 81.8% and 71.4%, NPV of 82.3% and 83.1%, when compared with BAL culture, respectively. GM-EIA showed sensitivities of 46.9% and 54.5%, specificities of 100% and 91.7%, PPVs of 100% and 75%, NPVs of 80.2% and 81.5% for serum and BAL samples, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study found GM-LFA as a reliable simple and rapid diagnostic tool, which could circumvent the shortcomings of culture and GM-EIA and be pivotal in timely initiation of antifungal treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Antifungal Agents , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Mannans , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Acta Medica Iranica ; 60(6):322-328, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1969892

ABSTRACT

The emerging disease of COVID-19 was announced as a pandemic in 2020, with wide prevalence worldwide. After the duration of the pandemic of the disease, reports based on the invasion of Aspergillus into patients' lungs with COVID-19 and their hospitalization in ICU were published by the researchers, which attracted the attention of other researchers to perform such studies. In this review, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Springer, Wiley, ProQuest, Sid, Cochrane, and the search engine Google Scholar were searched for publications by the keywords include COVID-19, Aspergillus, SARS-CoV-2, Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, fungal and viral co-infection or a combination of them. The data were extracted and descriptively discussed. Not many studies have been performed on the association between aspergillosis and COVID-19. However, although the results of the studies suggest some possible causes of these concomitant infections like underlying diseases and prolonged mechanical ventilation, they also recommend further studies. Since the diagnosis of common fungal and viral infections is difficult, the concurrent incidence of these two infections in patients becomes a therapeutic challenge. Accordingly, this issue increased the mortality rate in this group of patients, especially in those hospitalized in ICU. According to the recently performed studies, various problems, including underlying diseases and difficult diagnostic methods of some dangerous diseases like invasive aspergillosis, are discussed in patients with COVID-19.

12.
Journal of Emergency Medicine, Trauma and Acute Care ; 2022(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1969689

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by SARSCoV- 2, has spread locally in Wuhan, China, and later on, a worldwide outbreak occurred. Invasive fungal infections can cause complications in critically ill immunocompromised patients of COVID-19, especially those admitted to intensive care units and who required mechanical ventilation. Candida albicans have been the most common pathogenic species, followed by other Candida spp. Mannan is a major component of the Candida cell wall and can be detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in blood and other fluids. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is considered a lifethreatening infection, especially among immunocompromised patients. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis has emerged as an important complication among patients in the intensive care units. Galactomannan (GM) is a major cell-wall component of Aspergillus spp. and can be found in body fluids. Blood GM can be detected by the enzyme immunoassay. The aim of the current study is to assess the frequency of aspergillosis and candidiasis among COVID-19 patients in some hospitals in Baghdad by using GM and mannan biomarkers. Methods: During the period from February 2020 to May 2021, 175 COVID-19 blood samples of patients were collected and a sandwich ELISA test was performed to detect GM Ag of Aspergillus spp. and mannan Ag of Candida spp. Results: Regarding C-reactive protein (CRP), significant differences were seen among Aspergillus/- COVID-19 patients ( p 0.029). Regarding sex and age group, the results indicated that of a total of 175 adult patients with positive COVID-19, more than half of the patients were males. Regarding the distribution of mannan Ag and GM Ag in COVID-19 patients, it was seen that out of the 175 patients, 167 (95.43%) Candida mannan Ag were negative and only 8 (4.57%) were positive, and 170 (79.14%) Aspergillus GM Ag were negative and only 5 (2.86%) were positive. It was also seen that 2 patients (1.14%) who had both Candida mannan and Aspergillus GM were positive and 173 (98.6%) were negative. No statistically significant difference was seen in candidiasis and aspergillosis among patients with COVID-19 regarding age group, sex, underlying chronic diseases (hypertension and diabetes mellitus), and biochemical tests. Conclusion: COVID-19 infections increased with age and were seen more in males than in females. The percentage of infection with C. albicans and Aspergillus spp. among COVID-19 patients was not significant, and this may come from the random collection of samples from patients with different stages of illness. A significant correlation was found between Aspergillus GM Ag in COVID-19 patients and the CRP test.

13.
Archives of Razi Institute ; 77(5):1543-1548, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939565

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate some microbial infections and immunological parameters associated with Covid-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Al-Amal Specialized Hospital in AL-Najaf Governorate during February and March 2021. The study included 50 patients who were assigned to two groups: 20 patients aged ≤70 years and 30 patients aged ≥70 years. The method of microbial culture was adopted to isolate bacteria and yeasts by collecting sputum specimens and oral swabs from patients and cultivating them on diagnostic media and then confirming the diagnosis by Vitek. Moreover, serum samples were collected from patients’ blood to diagnose fungal infections. Thereafter, some immunological criteria were assessed, including Covid-19 diagnosis by measuring Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG, as well as examining the concentration of cytokines (Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IF) using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The results demonstrated that bacterial species Streptococcus pneumonia (n=5;25%), Haemophilus Influenzae (n=7;35%), and Moraxella catarrhalis (n=3;15%) were isolated from the first group of patients (≤70 years). The recorded data pointed out that Streptococcus pneumonia (n=10;33.3%), Streptococcus pyogenes (n=5;16.6%), Streptococcus viridans (n=1;3.3%), Haemophilus Influenzae (n=6;20%), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (n=2;6.6%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=2;6.6%) were the isolated and identified microorganisms in the second age group (≥ 70 years). The results revealed that the isolated yeast from the first age group was Candida albicans (n=5;25%) and Candida glabrata (n=3;10%), while in the second age group, 1 (3.3%) Candida albicans was isolated. The results of this study proved that 30% and 10% of patients in the first and second age groups had invasive pulmonary aspergillosis co-infection by detecting Galactomannan (GM) in the blood serum (1.05±0.59, 1.25±0.38), respectively. The results indicated that IgM and IgG levels in the serum of patients in the first age group were 11.42±6.82 and 0.47±6.82, respectively. Moreover, the levels of IgM and IgG in the second age group were 14.84±9.21 and 0.12±0.11, respectively. Furthermore, IFϫ and IL6 levels were 98.37±65.70, and 146.12±46.35 in the first group, while IFϫ and IL6 were obtained at 110.69±47.60 and 133.28±116.94 in the second group, respectively. Elderly patients with severe COVID-19 are more frequently admitted to ICUs since the proportion of severe cases and comorbidities caused by a weakened immune system is higher among this age group. Secondary bacterial infections can also occur, especially Gram-negative bacteria which are among the most significant public health problems worldwide. Moroever, aspergillosis may infect patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and lead to death.

14.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(4): 1421-1424, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939174

ABSTRACT

We present two ICU-hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) presenting with endogenous endophthalmitis in one eye and variable manifestations of chorioretinitis in the fellow eye. Two diabetic patients (57 and 62 years old) showed anterior uveitis and yellowish-white subretinal infiltrations. The fellow eye of one patient showed patches of choroiditis, while the other showed full retinal thickness infiltrations. A workup yielded high serum titers of galactomannan, diagnostic of aspergillosis. The widespread use of high doses of corticosteroids in the management of COVID-19 may predispose to various secondary fungal opportunistic infections and may manifest in different forms of chorioretinal infiltration.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis , COVID-19 , Chorioretinitis , Endophthalmitis , Uveitis, Anterior , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Chorioretinitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Humans , Middle Aged
15.
Biomedicines ; 10(7)2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938688

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has worsened the prognosis of patients with pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The lack of specific diagnosis criteria is an obstacle to the timely initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy. Tracheal aspirate (TA) has been employed under special pandemic conditions. Galactomannan (GM) antigens are released during active fungal growth. (2) Methods: We proposed the term "CAPA in progress" (CAPA-IP) for diagnosis at an earlier stage by GM testing on TA in a specific population admitted to ICU presenting with clinical deterioration. A GM threshold ≥0.5 was set as the mycological inclusion criterion. This was followed by a pre-emptive short-course antifungal. (3) Results: We prospectively enrolled 200 ICU patients with COVID-19. Of these, 164 patients (82%) initially required invasive mechanical ventilation and GM was tested in TA in 93 patients. A subset of 19 patients (11.5%) fulfilled the CAPA-IP criteria at a median of 9 days after ICU admittance. The median GM value was 3.25 ± 2.82. CAPA-IP cases showed significantly higher ICU mortality [52.6% (10/19) vs. 34.5% (50/145), p = 0.036], as well as a much longer median ICU stay than those with a normal GM index [27 (7-64) vs. 11 (9-81) days, p = 0.008]. All cases were treated with a pre-emptive systemic antifungal for a median time of 19 (3-39) days. (4) Conclusions: CAPA-IP highlights a new real-life early approach in the field of fungal stewardship in ICU programs.

16.
Acta Medica Iranica ; 60(6):322-328, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1929215

ABSTRACT

The emerging disease of COVID-19 was announced as a pandemic in 2020, with wide prevalence worldwide. After the duration of the pandemic of the disease, reports based on the invasion of Aspergillus into patients' lungs with COVID-19 and their hospitalization in ICU were published by the researchers, which attracted the attention of other researchers to perform such studies. In this review, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Springer, Wiley, ProQuest, Sid, Cochrane, and the search engine Google Scholar were searched for publications by the keywords include COVID-19, Aspergillus, SARS-CoV-2, Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, fungal and viral co-infection or a combination of them. The data were extracted and descriptively discussed. Not many studies have been performed on the association between aspergillosis and COVID-19. However, although the results of the studies suggest some possible causes of these concomitant infections like underlying diseases and prolonged mechanical ventilation, they also recommend further studies. Since the diagnosis of common fungal and viral infections is difficult, the concurrent incidence of these two infections in patients becomes a therapeutic challenge. Accordingly, this issue increased the mortality rate in this group of patients, especially in those hospitalized in ICU. According to the recently performed studies, various problems, including underlying diseases and difficult diagnostic methods of some dangerous diseases like invasive aspergillosis, are discussed in patients with COVID-19.

17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884188

ABSTRACT

Aspergillosis is a disease caused by Aspergillus, and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is the most common invasive fungal infection leading to death in severely immuno-compromised patients. The literature reports Aspergillus co-infections in patients with COVID-19 (CAPA). Diagnosing CAPA clinically is complex since the symptoms are non-specific, and performing a bronchoscopy is difficult. Generally, the microbiological diagnosis of aspergillosis is based on cultural methods and on searching for the circulating antigens galactomannan and 1,3-ß-D-glucan in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (bGM) or serum (sGM). In this study, to verify whether the COVID-19 period has stimulated clinicians to pay greater attention to IPA in patients with respiratory tract infections, we evaluated the number of requests for GM-Ag research and the number of positive tests found during the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods. Our data show a significant upward trend in GM-Ag requests and positivity from the pre-COVID to COVID period, which is attributable in particular to the increase in IPA risk factors as a complication of COVID-19. In the COVID period, parallel to the increase in requests, the number of positive tests for GM-Ag also increased, going from 2.5% in the first period of 2020 to 12.3% in the first period of 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Revista Chilena de Infectologia ; 38(3):340-343, 2021.
Article in Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1863034

ABSTRACT

Background: The current pandemic due to SARS-CoV-2 has caused a high burden on health. Cases and series of invasive asper-gillosis associated with COVID-19 patients (CAPA) on mechanical ventilation have been described. Aim: To describe the increase in the positivity of the galactomannan (GM) biomarker during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Fifth Region: Valparaíso. Method: Retrospective descriptive study. The GM results in both broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) and serum and the BAL cultures that were sent to the Mycology Laboratory of the University of Valparaíso from January to September 2020 were reviewed;then they were compared with the examinations of the same period of 2019. Re-sults: There was a significant increase in GMs carried out in LBA during the pandemic, concentrating mainly between the months of July-September. Conclusions: There was a significant increase in GM carried out in LBA during the pandemic, concentrating mainly between the months of July-September.

19.
Lung India ; 39(SUPPL 1):S156, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857730

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 and its treatment with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy, mechanical ventilation, contaminated oxygen humidifier systems, prolonged hospital stay and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus increase the risk of fungal infections. Methodology: Inclusion criteria were patients with (i) recovery from moderate to severe COVID 19 & (ii) new onset cavitary lung lesions. Exclusion criteria were rhino orbito cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM). Results: Of all the 44 patients, (40, 90.9%) were males and never smoker (32, 72.7%). Mean age was 59.7 years. Comorbidities were DM (20, 45.4%) with HbA1c>5.4% in 16 (36.3%) and HTN (16, 36.3%). Mean ESR was 81.5 mm/1 hr & CRP was 112 mg/L. 22 (50%) underwent mechanical ventilation. Presenting symptoms were fever (34, 77.27%) and hemoptysis (28, 63.6%). Mean d-dimer was 1.93 g/ dL. Sputum yielded growth on fungal smear culture in 8 (18.18%). BAL galactomannan was raised in 26(59.1%) patients. 30 (68.2%) had cavitatory lesion in right lung with upper lobe involvement in (16, 53.3%). 36 (81.8%) patients underwent FOB. Most common endobronchial appearance was thick whitish mucoid secretions. 2 (4.5%) had endobronchial mass adherent to bronchial wall.BAL fungal culture yielded growth in 18(40.9%). TBLB yielded abnormal histopathology on 8(18.8%) patients. BAL showed mucormycosis in 14 (31.8%), MTB detected by CBNAAT in 8 (18.8%), aspergillosis in 8(18.8%) and candidiasis in 2(4.5%). During antifungal treatment, 12 (27.2%) died. Conclusion: After excluding ROCM, pulmonary mucormycosis followed by aspergillosis were the common fungal lung infections, in patients presenting to Pulmonary Medicine department of a tertiary care centre after recovery from COVID 19.

20.
Lung India ; 39(SUPPL 1):S138, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857681

ABSTRACT

Background: Post COVID -19 infection has wide range of presentation, cavitation and fungal infections were very common in these patients especially when they are immune compromised. This is a case study of a post covid patient with cavitary consolidation and Rasmussen's aneurysm secondary to invasive aspergillus infection. Case Study: A 62 year old gentleman, hypertensive, diabetic and survivor of severe COVID-19 infection presented with low grade fever, breathlessness and cough with expectoration. The CT scan showed bilateral cavitary consolidation . Sputum examination showed aspergillus growth and MTB negative. Serum galactomannan was positive. While getting treated with antifungal therapy for invasive aspergillus infection, he had one episode of massive haemoptysis. CT angiography showed Rasmussen aneurysm and planned for bronchial artery embolization. But the patient was not willing for any urgent intervention and got discharged on request after stabilisation, warning signs were explained. After 5 days patient had massive haemoptysis followed by circulatory collapse. Patient could not be saved even after resuscitation measures and emergency intubation. Discussion: Rasmussen's aneurysm is a pseudo-aneurysmal dilatation of a branch of pulmonary artery secondary to chronic inflammation in a contiguous cavity. The reported incidence of such pathology is around 5% in cavitary lesions. It may ruptures into the cavity, producing massive haemoptysis. Conclusion: Rasmussen aneurysm itself is a very dangerous entity irrespective of its etiology. Early interventions to prevent the fatal haemoptysis is the management strategy as conservative treatment may not give us enough time to act at the time of emergency.

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