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1.
International Perspectives on Education and Society ; 42A:59-69, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1922583

ABSTRACT

This essay explores how women scholars grapple with gender and racial inequality during a syndemic. Using a culturally comparative lens, two mother-scholars, one Afro-Boricua who identifies as Black and the other Thai who identifies as Asian, examine this topic through a comparative international womanist theoretical framework. This discussion provides a brief overview of the challenges faculty women of color have faced around the world in contemporary history. It also interrogates how the professional identities of these scholars inform their teaching, scholarship, and personal lives during a period fraught with anti-Blackness and anti-Asian hostility, gender bias, familial demands, and heightened fear and isolation. Through counter-narratives, their lived experiences are placed into a global context and insightful comparisons spotlight specific challenges that uniquely converge for women of color in the academy. This analytical discussion reflects trends in the field of comparative education by examining the impact of gender and racial discrimination on women scholars of color within political, economic, social, and cultural landscapes.

2.
Gac Sanit ; 36 Suppl 1: S26-S29, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914412

ABSTRACT

We failed to adequately launch a gender transformative response to COVID-19 pandemic, data by sex on a variety of indicators for most countries are hard to find. Some symptoms reported as common of COVID-19 infection, are more prominent in men, while others are more prominent in women, one cannot with certainty exclude that some of the differences observed could be due to gender bias in the management of cases in health services. The gender implications of the pandemic reach wide and far. Inequalities can be further aggravated as sex and gender intersect with other axes of inequality. The SAGER guidelines exemplify an effort to improve reporting of sex and gender dimensions and encouraging researchers to integrate these aspects in the research design. these observations and emerging evidence about the persistent gender-blind approach to COVID-19 is a wake-up call to change course. National Gender Equality Institutions can be central in ensuring gender matters are considered in government responses. COVID-19 pandemic is an opportunity to reverse the trend and take action to apply an intersectional feminist approach to global health that enables a just and equal world where everyone's health and wellbeing matter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Global Health , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Sexism
3.
Journal of Enterprising Communities-People and Places in the Global Economy ; : 26, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1886562

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study aims to extend the current debate on refugee entrepreneurship in Jordan. It empirically investigates the impact of COVID-19 on refugee women's entrepreneurship, highlighting their experiences, constraints and opportunities. Design/methodology/approach The study design is epistemologically grounded in the heuristic 8Ms extended gender-cognisant entrepreneurship framework. An interpretive qualitative approach was used involving 30 semi-structured interviews with refugee women entrepreneurs across Jordan, with manual thematic data analysis. Findings Some of the main opportunities available to refugee women were linked with high levels of resilience and push and pull factors. The constraints were mainly pandemic induced and included access to funds;mobility restrictions;access to business knowledge, training and online learning platforms;rising xenophobia and discrimination;exhaustion;and stress. Practical implications The study findings can be used by non-governmental organisations to support refugees in realising their full potential. They also provide practical insights into refugee women entrepreneurs' lived experiences for better policymaking. Originality/value This empirical study contributes to the existing knowledge on refugee women entrepreneurs' constraints and opportunities by presenting a sensitive, in-depth analysis of their current trends and dynamics in the context of Jordan. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to empirically test the extended 8Ms entrepreneurship model to capture the voices and shared experiences of Jordanian refugees.

4.
Journal of International Women's Studies ; 23(5):135-141, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1849300

ABSTRACT

The UN SDG 5 aspires to end all kinds of bigotry and abuse of women, although gender bias still exists in India. Most bank employees are men;few women hold senior positions in India's banking industry because of the country's early history of limiting chances for women to enter the profession. The solution to this is to hire women in leadership positions from international locations if the banking sector opens. The development of the banking industry in India relies on the best talent. The banking sector must open its position for multinational expatriates to maintain diversity and bring forth the inclusivity of a multi-talented global workforce. The concept of liberalization, privatization, and globalization in the Indian context is limited. Privatization and globalization can only be anticipated if they have a multicultural workforce within the country and globally.

5.
Elife ; 112022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766127

ABSTRACT

Publications are essential for a successful academic career, and there is evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic has amplified existing gender disparities in the publishing process. We used longitudinal publication data on 431,207 authors in four disciplines - basic medicine, biology, chemistry and clinical medicine - to quantify the differential impact of COVID-19 on the annual publishing rates of men and women. In a difference-in-differences analysis, we estimated that the average gender difference in publication productivity increased from -0.26 in 2019 to -0.35 in 2020; this corresponds to the output of women being 17% lower than the output of men in 2109, and 24% lower in 2020. An age-group comparison showed a widening gender gap for both early-career and mid-career scientists. The increasing gender gap was most pronounced among highly productive authors and in biology and clinical medicine. Our study demonstrates the importance of reinforcing institutional commitments to diversity through policies that support the inclusion and retention of women in research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Efficiency , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Publishing , Sex Factors
6.
Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice ; 19(1):160-173, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1761775

ABSTRACT

Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET) results play an important role in academic staff performance evaluation, but also in promotion processes. However, there is much evidence to suggest that the SET used in most universities across the Anglosphere has traditionally penalised female academics. As universities manage the recovery phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, they will also need to take into account the effect of remote teaching on the validity of student evaluation data. Given SET are critical to promotion success, it is important to then understand the gendered effect of remote teaching on student evaluations. We aimed to evaluate how intrusions of family life, academics' home environment and competence with remote teaching technology of female academics were viewed by students and if there were noticeable differences in SET data. We analysed 22,485 SET data over 2019 (pre-COVID, face-to-face teaching) and 2020 (COVID-lockdowns, remote teaching) for female and male academics, matched with student gender, in the multidisciplinary First Year College at Victoria University, Melbourne Australia. Our results showed that there were no differences in the score ratings for teacher gender. However, the qualitative data showed that whilst overall there were overwhelmingly positive comments for both male and female teachers, there was an increase in the negative comments on teaching style by male students toward their female teachers during remote teaching and overall more comments relating to attitude. We speculate that this would have a negative impact on the confidence of teaching-intensive female academics hindering their leadership aspirations and career progression in academia.

7.
Soc Sci Med ; 294: 114698, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is often gender bias in access and provision of care. Women fall through the cracks of the healthcare system due to gender-biased norms and poorer socioeconomic status. METHODS: This study uses COVID-19 sex-disaggregated data from 133 countries. Using bootstrapping and imputation methods and heteroscedastic linear regression model, it investigates the effect of biological factors and gender norms on reported differences in male and female COVID-19 case and death rates. RESULTS: Gender norms are significant factors explaining such differences. Countries, where women experience more discrimination in families and have less access to resources, education and finance, report larger differences between male and female rates of COVID-19 cases and deaths. CONCLUSION: Women's lower access to healthcare due to social norms, financial and non-financial barriers may affect women's testing for COVID-19 and access to adequate care, and result in underreported female cases and deaths from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexism , Social Norms , Socioeconomic Factors
8.
Política & Sociedade ; 20(48):153-177, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1732385

ABSTRACT

Este texto, escrito em 2020, em meio a pandemia de Covid-19, parte das tensÐes que se acumularam na sociedade mundial, e particularmente da vivida pela populaçao brasileira, para analisar como os afazeres domésticos e cuidados - remunerados e nao remunerados - estāo no centro das questÐes que envolvem a crise sanitaria e como a pandemia potencializou as desigualdades de genero e raça. Tanto no plano individual, quanto no coletivo, cuidar das pessoas é a raiz do que define as atribules e tarefas do trabalho doméstico remunerado e do cuidado. Em meio ao contexto extremo, analisamos, para além da demanda desse serviço, a sua oferta, ou seja, quem sao as mulheres que dependem do salario propiciado pelo trabalho doméstico, com presença frequente ao longo de toda história do Brasil. Assim, o artigo também apresenta o perfil sociodemográfico e económico dessas trabalhadoras e o impacto da crise económica e sanitaria na ocupaçao em um provável cenário de lenta recuperaçao da economia.Alternate :This essay, written in 2020, in the midst of the Covid pandemicl9, analyzes how domestic work and care - paid and unpaid - are at the center of the challenges brough by the health crisis, and how the pandemic has increased gender and race inequalities. The background is a world where the Welfare States lost their power to provide care for the vulnerable ones, and States are not providing the necessary social policies. We must observe the Brazilian case in this broader scenario. Caring for people is at the heart of what defines the duties and tasks of paid domestic work and care. During the extreme context of 2020, we analyzed not just the demand for this kind of service, but also its offer, that is, who are the women who depend on the income provided by domestic work, considering domestic workers were present throughout the Brazilian history. Thus, the article also presents the sociodemographic and economic profile of these workers and the impact of the economic and health crisis on this occupation in a likely scenario of slow economic recovery.

9.
Gender in Management ; 36(7):858-877, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1713849

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The purpose of this study is to explore how gender influences peer assessment in team-building activities in China.Design/methodology/approach>A nine-player Werewolf game was adopted to conduct the experiment. Nine abilities were defined to evaluate players’ performances. Before the game, players filled out a self-assessment questionnaire (five-point Likert scale). After the game, players evaluated other game members’ performances using the same questionnaire. Data were analyzed using linear regression.Findings>The results showed that gender bias clearly existed in team-building activities, with men more likely to receive better peer assessment than women. In addition, when women presented themselves as actively as men did, they received less favorable evaluations than men, whereas their failures were more likely to be exaggerated.Practical implications>This study may help build harmonious teams for gender equality, and we give practical suggestions respectively from the perspective of female employees, their managers, and their companies.Originality/value>Given the importance of team-building activities in teamwork, fair evaluations of team-building performances are essential. However, gender influences on peer assessment in team-building activities in China remain unclear. This study adds new and important knowledge to research on gender bias in teams.

10.
Journal of Accounting and Public Policy ; : 106941, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1665040

ABSTRACT

While women are hired in equal numbers to men in public accounting, they are not proportionately promoted to partner, reflecting “vertical gender segregation.” This study examines vertical segregation in director positions which are an alternative terminal destination to the partnership. Using a U.S. non-profit setting, our results demonstrate that directors signing single audit reports are more likely to be female after controlling for client and signer characteristics, a clear pattern of gender-based vertical segregation among engagement leaders. This finding provides insights into practices which divert women to lower prestige director positions. In a supplemental test, we also find a fee premium for female partners but a fee discount for female directors, which may lead to gender-bias in compensation. These findings are particularly timely considering the disproportionate effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on women.

11.
Problems of Education in the 21st Century ; 79(5):767-780, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1564524

ABSTRACT

Women are exposed to barriers in their work-life that are not stated clearly. Although these invisible barriers occur in many sectors, they are common in the education sector. So, this study aimed to reveal the relation between the paternalistic leadership displayed by principals in traditional collectivist cultures and the glass ceiling syndrome experienced by female teachers. For this reason, the correlation survey model was used in the research. Female teachers living in Istanbul were selected with the appropriate sampling method due to the COVID-19 outbreak. "The Paternal Leadership Behaviors Scale of School Principals" and "Glass Ceiling Syndrome Scale for Female Teachers" were applied to 358 female teachers. Applied t-test, correlation, ANOVA, and regression analysis. As a result of statistical analysis, it saw that the benevolent, moral, authoritarian, and exploitative leadership behaviors perceived by teachers significantly predicted the perceptions of glass ceiling syndrome. Although benevolent, moral, authoritarian, exploitative paternalistic leadership behaviors mainly indicated teachers' perception of the glass ceiling, they were even low. Especially authoritarian and exploitative paternalistic leadership behaviors explained 5% of the total variance in teachers' perception of the glass ceiling syndrome.

12.
Impacting Education: Journal on Transforming Professional Practice ; 6(2):54-60, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1563925

ABSTRACT

The objective of this article is to amplify the stories of female doctoral students and their passage through role conflicting periods of uncertainty and trauma. Specifically, this article highlights how the COVID-19 pandemic and racial unrest in the U.S. have impacted women pursuing doctorates in education. In addition to sharing personal reflections and experiences, the authors have outlined resources and recommendations for those who support doctoral students. Through the diverse perspectives of five students and one faculty member in the EdD in Higher Education Leadership program at Regis College, this article explores the lived experiences of second-year doctoral students during an incredible period of uncertainty. Douglas T. Hall's model of coping serves to frame content around the many conflicting roles these students have been navigating and found to be exacerbated during the year 2020. This article seeks to empower leaders to re-envision approaches to support doctoral students through future crises and periods of uncertainty.

13.
Front Glob Womens Health ; 2: 774033, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559775

ABSTRACT

Clinical case reports circulate relevant information regarding disease presentation and describe treatment protocols, particularly for novel conditions. In the early months of the Covid-19 pandemic, case reports provided key insights into the pathophysiology and sequelae associated with Covid-19 infection and described treatment mechanisms and outcomes. However, case reports are often subject to selection bias due to their singular nature. To better understand how selection biases may have influenced Covid-19-releated case reports, we conducted a bibliometric analysis of Covid-19-releated case reports published in high impact journals from January 1 to June 1, 2020. Case reports were coded for patient sex, country of institutional affiliation, physiological system, and first and last author gender. Of 494 total case reports, 45% (n = 221) of patients were male, 30% (n = 146) were female, and 25% (n = 124) included both sexes. Ratios of male-only to female-only case reports varied by physiological system. The majority of case reports had male first (61%, n = 302) and last (70%, n = 340) authors. Case reports with male last authors were more likely to describe male patients [X 2 (2, n = 465) = 6.6, p = 0.037], while case reports with female last authors were more likely to include patients of both sexes [OR = 1.918 (95% CI = 1.163-3.16)]. Despite a limited sample size, these data reflect emerging research on sex-differences in the physiological presentation and impact of Covid-19 and parallel large-scale trends in authorship patterns. Ultimately, this work highlights potential biases in the dissemination of clinical information via case reports and underscores the inextricable influences of sex and gender biases within biomedicine.

14.
Public Underst Sci ; 31(2): 239-251, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542035

ABSTRACT

Based on role congruity theory, we investigated how gender bias may influence public attitudes toward the vaccine in Turkey. Using a between-subjects design, we tested whether an emphasis on the female versus the male scientist as the vaccine's inventor in a news story influenced attitudes about the BioNTech vaccine and vaccination intentions. Partly confirming role congruity theory, three-way interaction results from 665 participants demonstrated that among male participants with a stronger belief in traditional gender roles (compared to males with lower belief), the presence of the female inventor, either by herself or together with the male inventor, decreased the perceived efficacy and safety of the vaccine and reduced intentions to be vaccinated by the BioNTech vaccine. We did not observe such differences for women. These findings highlight how gender bias may influence individuals' information processing and decision making in a way that may have negative consequences for public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexism , Vaccination
15.
Gac Sanit ; 36(1): 45-47, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509797

ABSTRACT

In recent years, a great deal of attention has been paid to gender inequities in health. However, while we have a good body of evidence on the impact of gender on the health and vulnerability of women and men, we have not yet been able to generate sufficient evidence on effective interventions that can transform this situation or can influence public health policy making. Only a limited number of educational interventions on gender-sensitivity, gender bias in clinical practice and policies to tackle gender inequalities in health have been formulated, implemented and evaluated. Even in the current pandemic situation caused by SARS-CoV2, we have seen the lack of gender mainstreaming reflected in the global response. This happens even when we have tools that facilitate the formulation and implementation of actions to reduce gender inequities in health. We consider that the current initiatives organized to carry out advocacy activities on gender inequity in health to be very positive. In the same line of these initiatives, we propose that while academic and institutional research on gender and health remains essential, we need to shift the focus towards action. In order to move forward, we need public health researchers questioning what public health practice need to do to address gender inequities and shake structural and social power inequities in order to increase the gender equity in health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Sexism
16.
Food Policy ; 105: 102167, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458545

ABSTRACT

We use the full administrative records from four leading agricultural economics journals to study the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on manuscript submission, editorial desk rejection and reviewer acceptance rates, and time to editorial decision. We also test for gender differences in these impacts. Manuscript submissions increased sharply and equi-proportionately by gender. Desk rejection rates remained stable, leading to increased demand for reviews. Female reviewers became eight percentage points more likely to decline a review invitation during the early stage of the pandemic. First editorial decisions for papers sent out for peer review occurred significantly faster after pandemic lockdowns began. Overall, the initial effects of the pandemic on journal editorial tasks and review patterns appear relatively modest, despite the increased number of submissions handled by editors and reviewers. We find no evidence in agricultural economics of a generalized disruption to near-term, peer-reviewed publication.

17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444202

ABSTRACT

There has long been a gender bias in medicine. This qualitative study aims to identify the experience of sexism among frontline female nurses and further explore their expectations and possible strategies to get rid of gender bias. This is a descriptive phenomenological study of 23 female nurses with 11 ± 3.98 years of experience who spent 36 ± 6.50 days at the frontline during the initial COVID-19 outbreak. We employed Colaizzi's phenomenological analysis method to understand the subjective experiences, revealing the following themes: (a) materialization of gender identity; (b) incoordinate relationships; (c) future voice of female nurses. The gender bias experienced by female frontline nurses further challenges their emotional identity and self-identity. Therefore, it is important to require extensive consciousness-raising and policy support to defend female nurses' rights.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nursing Staff, Hospital , China , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexism
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 952, 2021 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405307

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of an advanced practice physiotherapist has been introduced in many countries to improve access to care for patients with hip and knee arthritis. Traditional models of care have shown a gender bias, with women less often referred and recommended for surgery than men. This study sought to understand if patient gender affects access to care in the clinical encounter with the advanced practice provider. Our objectives were: (1) To determine if a gender difference exists in the clinical decision to offer a consultation with a surgeon; (2) To determine if a gender difference exists in patients' decisions to accept a consultation with a surgeon among those patients to whom it is offered; and, (3) To describe patients' reasons for not accepting a consultation with a surgeon. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 815 patients presenting to a tertiary care centre for assessment of hip and knee arthritis, with referral onward to an orthopaedic surgeon when indicated. We performed a multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for severity to address the first objective and a simple logistic regression analysis to answer the second objective. Reasons for not accepting a surgical consultation were obtained by questionnaire. RESULTS: Eight hundred and fifteen patients (511 women, 304 men) fulfilled study eligibility criteria. There was no difference in the probability of being referred to a surgeon for men and women (difference adjusted for severity = - 0.02, 95% CI: - 0.07, 0.02). Neither was there a difference in the acceptance of a referral for men and women (difference = - 0.05, 95% CI: - 0.09, 0.00). Of the 14 reasons for declining a surgical consultation, 5 showed a difference with more women than men indicating a preference for non-surgical treatment along with fears/concerns about surgery. CONCLUSIONS: There is no strong evidence to suggest there is a difference in proportion of males and females proceeding to surgical consultation in the model of care that utilizes advanced practice orthopaedic providers in triage. This study adds to the evidence that supports the use of suitably trained alternate providers in roles that reduce wait times to care and add value in contexts where health human resources are limited. The care model is a viable strategy to assist in managing the growing backlog in orthopaedic care, recently exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Orthopedic Surgeons , Orthopedics , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexism
19.
Front Psychol ; 12: 687069, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394806

ABSTRACT

Accruing evidence suggest that COVID-19 is more fatal for males and minorities than other sub-populations. In this paper, we study medical dilemmas pertaining to the allocation of medical resources to evaluate whether existing social biases correspond to the demographic disparities of the pandemic. We develop and implement a choice experiment in which participants decide how to allocate scarce medical resources among COVID-19 patients with diverse demographic attributes. We find that participants violate optimal resource allocation significantly more often for the benefit of females. Males are almost half as likely to receive lifesaving resources even if these are medically more beneficial for them. We also find that participants are less likely to assign resources to patients with high compared to low income. Last, we find no evidence of patients' race affecting allocation preferences.

20.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 68: 102684, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351438

ABSTRACT

Social distancing to curb the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted medical and surgical education. This health crisis led us to raise doubts, controversies, and dilemmas in health care in general, and in surgery in particular, understanding that residents are possibly as or more vulnerable than all health professionals. During the 32nd International Congress of General Surgery in Cordoba, which was the first general surgery congress held in Argentina during 2021; The Association of Residents and Concurrent Surgery of Cordoba presented its official report about the current challenges faced by residents during their surgical training.

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