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1.
Korean Economic Review ; 38(2):323-345, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820529

ABSTRACT

We examine whether the impacts of COVID-19 on labor supply differ across women with different degrees of childcare burden during the initial stage of the pandemic in South Korea. To identify the effect of the outbreak, we exploit the fact that the first wave of the outbreak in South Korea was concentrated in a specific region due to a largescale religious gathering. Utilizing the Local Area Labour Force Survey, we find that the negative impact was larger for women with young children than for women without young children. Specifically, our preferred specification suggests the employment rate of women with young children decreased by 3.9 percentage points more than that of women without young children due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Women with young children also reduced weekly working hours more than their counterparts without young children. Unlike women, the impacts of COVID-19 on the labor supply among men with and without young children were not different.

2.
Sociology of Health & Illness ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1819864

ABSTRACT

Previous research on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy lacks a gender perspective, and it is unclear whether gender intersects with socioeconomic status to co-produce inequalities in people's intent to take vaccines. The current study draws on intersectionality theory and uses data from the 2021 US Household Pulse Survey (n = 50,359). Both bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted. The results suggest that American women had a higher vaccine hesitancy rate than men. Gender interacts with socioeconomic status to shape people's vaccine hesitancy in a complex way. Specifically, women living in poverty or currently working were more vaccine-hesitant, while poverty and employment status did not affect men's vaccine hesitancy. However, not having a college education contributed to both women's and men's COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Moreover, women were more worried about the safety of the vaccine, but men's hesitancy tended to be driven by lower perceptions of COVID-19 dangers and belief in conspiratorial claims.

3.
World Bank Research Observer ; : 37, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819790

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has struck businesses across the globe with unprecedented impacts. The world economy has been hit hard and firms have experienced a myriad of challenges, but these challenges have been heterogeneous across firms. This paper examines one important dimension of this heterogeneity: the differential effect of the pandemic on women-led and men-led businesses. The paper exploits a unique sample of close to 40,000 mainly formal businesses from 49 countries covering the months between April and September 2020. The findings show that women-led micro-businesses, women-led businesses in the hospitality industry, and women-led businesses in countries more severely affected by the COVID-19 shock were disproportionately hit compared with businesses led by men. At the same time, women-led micro-firms were markedly more likely to report increasing the use of digital platforms, but less likely to invest in software, equipment, or digital solutions. Finally, the findings also show that women-led businesses were less likely to have received some form of public support although they have been hit harder in some domains. In a crisis of the magnitude of the COVID-19 pandemic, evidence tracing the impact of the shock in a timely fashion is desperately needed to help inform the design of policy interventions. This real-time glimpse into women-led businesses fills this need for robust and policy-relevant evidence, and due to the large country coverage of the data, it is possible to identify patterns that extend beyond any one country, region, or sector, but at the cost of some granularity for testing more complex economic theories.

4.
Telecommunications Policy ; : 102371, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819610

ABSTRACT

There is a widely accepted belief in new technologies that the digital divide in using a service will disappear as the service reaches an advanced level of maturity. The work presented here shows that this idea is debatable. Data from Spain, a country where daily internet users are 75.9 percent of the population, prove that the gender gap still exists. The paper explores if this gap can be entirely explained by the socioeconomic differences between men and women. We build a micro panel model and incorporate a set of socioeconomic variables (age, education, income, employment status, digital skills, and resident population) that allow us to isolate the effects of gender on the decision to become a daily Internet user. The results conclude that the Internet gap is a phenomenon with a specific gender component. Other things being equal a woman negatively affects the probability of using the Internet. Applying a similar model to 15 Internet services, we obtain that gender is always significant to explain the likelihood of being a user of each service. However, in some services (7 out of 15), the effect is favorable to women, and for other services (8), the gender effect favors men. The work concludes by analyzing the impact of the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic on the use of Internet services, paying particular attention to its possible implications for the gender gap.

5.
Anesthesiology Clinics ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819424
6.
International Journal of Eating Disorders ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1819353

ABSTRACT

Reviews by Devoe et al. (2022), Linardon et al. (2022), and Schneider et al. (2022) illustrate the profound impact the COVID-19 pandemic has had on people with eating disorders (EDs) or disordered eating (DE) and their families. However, there is a dearth of research on how the pandemic has affected individuals with marginalized identities, who have been historically underrepresented in ED/DE research. The few studies conducted to date suggest that people with marginalized identities, including people of color, LGBTQ?+?people, women, and people experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage, may have had even greater increases in EDs/DE than people without marginalized identities. In this Commentary, I discuss who is missing from research on EDs/DE during the COVID-19 pandemic, strategies for breaking down barriers to participation in research for diverse groups, and the implications of existing research findings for people with marginalized identities. Improved measurement of salient aspects of participants' identities and increased recruitment and retention of participants from diverse backgrounds is necessary to more fully understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on all people affected by EDs and DE. Concurrently, increased access to affordable and culturally sensitive care is urgently required to meet the extensive treatment needs already documented

7.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(3):476-478, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1819187

ABSTRACT

During the Covid-19 epidemic, many variables affected the severity of infection, including age, gender, and chronic conditions. In this study, we compared the levels of some immunological parameters (IL6, IFNγ) in Covid 19 patients and diabetic patients with Covid 19 across age groups and gender. Where the levels of interleukin-6 are higher than the normal range when infected with COVID-19 in all age groups and increased in patients without diabetes, where their levels are (210.04 ± 135.44). An increase in the level of IL6 indicates a severe infection with the COVID-19 virus, and this indicates transmission from moderate to severe or severe, as the results of the study did not show any significant differences at P>0.5, and IL6 levels increase in females than in males. Where it reaches (146.105±149.75) The high rate of IFNγ production also indicates support for immunity against infection with the Covid-19 virus, and the equation of its production indicates a low survival rate for patients, as it is produced by helper T cells. JPY 0.009 Where the levels of IFNγ increase significantly in middle ages, reaching (157.64 ± 158.54), and the levels of IFNγ are close between females and males, as they are (102.7 ± 130.27) (102.2 ± 93.12), respectively.

8.
International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education ; 14(3):213-225, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1819049

ABSTRACT

Several factors seem important to understand the nature of mathematical learning. Byrnes and Miller combined these factors into the Opportunity-Propensity model. In this study the model was used to predict the numberprocessing factor and the arithmetic fluency in grade 4 (n = 195) and grade 5 (n = 213). Gender, intelligence and affect (positive affect for arithmetic fluency and negative affect for calculation accuracy) predicted math learning, and pointed to the importance of the propensity factors. We have to be careful not to interpret gender differences, since this is a social construct, our analyses pointed to the relevance of including antecedent factors in the model as well . The Implications of the study for math learning will be discussed below.

9.
Progress in Nutrition ; 24(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1819020

ABSTRACT

Objective: Body dissatisfaction is an increasing problem in adolescents, and it is thought that mindful eating and body image are related. These problems have become more serious during the pandemic period. This current study was carried out to examine the relationship between adolescents’ mindful eating, body image, and anthropometric measurements during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A total of 200 adolescents (100 boys and 100 girls) aged 11-17 years, were involved in the study. The data were collected by the researcher using the face-to-face interview method through a questionnaire. The Mindful Eating Questionnaire was used to determine mindful eating. The Stunkard body image scale was employed to evaluate the body image of individuals, and all anthropometric measurements were made by the researcher in accordance with technique. Results: The mean age of the individuals was 14.2±2.04 years, and more than half (52%) attended high school. 60.0% of obese boys and 38.0% of obese girls considered themselves obese. A statistically significant difference was found depending on gender in terms of body perception (p<0.05). No significant difference was found between the mindful eating scores of participants according to their body perception (p>0.05). A negative statistically significant correlation was determined between the total mindful eating score of those who described themselves as underweight, overweight, and obese, and BMI (kg/m2), waist circumference (cm), hip circumference (cm), and body fat (%) (p<0.05). It was also found there were negative significant relationships between mindful eating subscales, anthropometric measurements, and BMI (p<0.05). Conclusion: It was concluded that body image in adolescents was affected by gender and BMI, and anthropometric measurements were associated with mindful eating.

10.
Jfr-Journal of Family Research ; 34(1):1-15, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1818925

ABSTRACT

Objective: This chapter introduces the reader to the Special Issue "Family Lives during the COVID-19 Pandemic in European Societies". Background: This Special Issue analyses how families, parents, and children have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and how they have been coping with its related challenges in different societal contexts. Method: The studies collected in this Special Issue are based on qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods approaches and data that have been gathered during 2020 in a range of European countries. It covers the first lockdown period, the reopening phases, and the months thereafter. Results: The 20 contributions of this Special Issue show that families shouldered large responsibilities during the pandemic. While the pandemic did not lead to radical shifts in gendered care patterns, mothers and fathers experienced the pandemic differently, with mothers reporting higher levels of stress. Moreover, there was great heterogeneity in how different types of families and children were affected by the pandemic. Single parents and parents and children in low-income households were most strongly affected in their social and economic wellbeing. Social and economic distress are strongly interwoven, and the developments during the pandemic aggravated existing social disparities. Conclusion: This Special Issue underlines the importance of the family for the functioning of societies during times of crisis. It also shows that policy makers often adopted a too narrow view of what constitutes a family and did not adequately address family diversity in their decision making. This Special Issue furthermore emphasized that there is a danger that the pandemic will increase disparities between families. Thus, parents and their children need adequate support measures that are tailored to their needs, and that are designed to alleviate these social, economic and educational disparities.

11.
Jfr-Journal of Family Research ; 34(1):429-457, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1818922

ABSTRACT

Objective: This paper investigates the impact of the 2020 Covid-19 related Spring Lockdown in Italy on families practicing shared physical custody (SPC) arrangements for their children. Background: Those family configurations partly challenge the dominant 'mother as main carer model' that characterizes Italian society. Here, we consider the lockdown as a "challenge-trial" (Martucelli 2015) to analyze the strategies that these families have developed to cope with lockdown, and to reveal the overarching structures that contributed to shape this experience of lockdown. Method: We draw on semi-structured interviews with 19 parents (9 fathers and 10 mothers), part of 12 families practicing SPC. Results: We propose a typology of custody re-organizations during lockdown and how this affected the division of parental involvement based on a) change/no change in sleepover calendars in favor of mother/father;and b) similar/different arrangements for siblings - a new practice that emerged and also has implications for the division of childcare between parents. Four types are identified where we emphasize new parenting practices and the role played by material housing configurations, relations and tensions between family members, as well as balancing work, school and childcare. Conclusion: We highlight the usefulness of applying a "challenge-trial" lens to the study of family life under lockdown, and the need to complexify research on gender equality in shared parenting and on sibling relationships in post-divorce families.

12.
Jfr-Journal of Family Research ; 34(1):193-220, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1818921

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study investigates the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the employment situation of parents and in turn on the subjective financial well-being of families with children in Austria. Background: The pandemic had strong repercussions on the Austrian labour market. The short-time work (STW) programme covered a third of employees in the first half of 2020 and helped to maintain employment levels. We provide evidence on how an unprecedented labour market crisis of this sort and in particular the exceptionally wide use of STW had affected the employment situation of parents and the financial well-being of different types of families. Method: The study draws on register data and representative panel survey data. The latter cover 905 families with minor children and include information on the employment situation of parents and the financial well-being of families before crisis onset, three months and ten months after its onset. Results: Register data show that mothers were not more strongly affected by the labour market crisis of 2020 than childless women or fathers. According to survey data, about a third of couples with minor children experienced income losses. Despite the wide use of STW and government support to families, the share of families in financial difficulties has substantially increased, especially among those with many children and single parents, many of whom were at risk of poverty already before the crisis. Conclusion: Substantial shares of dual-earner families that had low poverty risks before the crisis were in financial difficulties in 2020. Potential spill-over effects of financial shocks on children are discussed.

13.
Jfr-Journal of Family Research ; 34(1):161-192, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1818916

ABSTRACT

Objective: In this project, we study changes in the working hours of men and women with and without children in the early phase of the COVID-19 crisis in Germany until August 2020. Background: The COVID-19 outbreak in Europe led to a sharp decrease in economic activity, along with temporary closures of childcare facilities and schools. Subsequent changes in working hours in the early phase of the pandemic and during summer 2020 may have contributed to inequalities between men and women or parents and non-parents respectively. Method: We use a unique panel dataset containing monthly survey data of the Institute for Employment Research (the IAB-HOPP) combined with administrative data of the German Federal Employment Agency. We run regression models with the change in working hours (before the crisis vs. working time at each panel wave) as the dependent variable and gender, parental status, and childcare arrangement as the main independent variables. Results: We observe a comparable reduction in working hours for both men and women during the spring lockdown. However, only the working hours of women recover and return to their pre-crisis level in summer 2020. Most surprisingly, having children has an accelerating effect on recovery for mothers but not for fathers. At the end of the observation period, fathers do not recover as fully as mothers do. Conclusion: These results challenge concerns about a temporary or possibly persistent 'retraditionalisation' of gender roles during the COVID-19 crisis.

14.
Jfr-Journal of Family Research ; 34(1):310-332, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1818913

ABSTRACT

Objective: We examine how care arrangements, general and altered working conditions, and worries influenced subjective well-being at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic for working parents in Germany. Background: Prior research suggests several reasons for declines in subjective well-being, particularly for working mothers. We employ Pearlin's (1989) stress process model to explore the role of parental childcare, altered working conditions and amplified worries of working parents in terms of increased stressors and modified resources to cope with the extraordinary situation. Method: We use data from two starting cohorts from the National Educational Panel Study and its supplementary COVID-19 web survey from spring 2020 to examine possible heterogeneities in contextual factors for individual-level changes in the well-being of working mothers and fathers. Results: We confirm a more pronounced decline in well-being for working mothers than fathers. Part-time work and access to emergency care reduce the gender gap in decreased well-being. Conversely, young children in the household and personal worries are associated with lower well-being for both parents. However, we cannot explain the more significant decrease in mothers' well-being by increased childcare responsibilities or altered working conditions. Conclusion: A greater decline in well-being indicates a particular burden among working mothers. However, it cannot be linked solely to gendered inequalities in the changes of paid and unpaid work during the first months of the pandemic.

15.
Jfr-Journal of Family Research ; 34(1):280-306, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1818910

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study examines gender and socioeconomic inequalities in parental psychological wellbeing (parenting stress and psychological distress) during the COVID19 pandemic in Germany. Background: The dramatic shift of childcare and schooling responsibility from formal institutions to private households during the pandemic has put families under enormous stress and raised concerns about caregivers' health and wellbeing. Despite the overwhelming media attention to families' wellbeing, to date limited research has examined parenting stress and parental psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in Germany. Method: We analyzed four waves of panel data (N= 1,771) from an opt-in online survey, which was conducted between March 2020 and April 2021. Multivariable OLS regressions were used to estimate variations in the pandemic's effects on parenting stress and psychological distress by various demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Results: Overall, levels of parenting stress and psychological distress increased during the pandemic. During the first and third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, mothers, parents with children younger than 11 years, parents with two or more children, parents working from home as well as parents with financial insecurity experienced higher parenting stress than other sociodemographic groups. Moreover, women, respondents with lower incomes, single parents, and parents with younger children experienced higher levels of psychological distress than other groups. Conclusion: Gender and socioeconomic inequalities in parents' psychological wellbeing increased among the study participants during the pandemic.

16.
Jfr-Journal of Family Research ; 34(1):134-160, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1818907

ABSTRACT

Objective: This article analyzed gender differences in professional advancement following the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic based on data from open-source software developers in 37 countries. Background: Men and women may have been affected differently from the social distancing measures implemented to contain the Covid-19 pandemic. Given that men and women tend to work in different jobs and that they have been unequally involved in childcare duties, school and workplace closings may have impacted men's and women's professional lives unequally. Method: We analyzed original data from the world's largest social coding community, GitHub. We first estimated a Holt-Winters forecast model to compare the predicted and the observed average weekly productivity of a random sample of male and female developers (N=177,480) during the first lockdown period in 2020. To explain the crosscountry variation in the gendered effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on software developers' productivity, we estimated two-way fixed effects models with different lockdown measures as predictors - school and workplace closures, in particular. Results: In most countries, both male and female developers were, on average, more productive than predicted, and productivity increased for both genders with increasing lockdown stringency. When examining the effects of the most relevant types of lockdown measures separately, we found that stay-at-home restrictions increased both men's and women's productivity and that workplace closures also increased the number of weekly contributions on average - but for women, only when schools were open. Conclusion: Having found gender differences in the effect of workplace closures contingent on school and daycare closures within a population that is relatively young and unlikely to have children (software developers), we conclude that the Covid-19 pandemic may indeed have contributed to increased gender inequalities in professional advancement.

17.
Jfr-Journal of Family Research ; 34(1):512-537, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1818905

ABSTRACT

Objective: The present study aims to investigate changes in the frequency of parent-child contact among Europeans aged 65 years and over within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, while recognizing heterogeneity within the group of older adults. Background: Physical distancing measures have been implemented worldwide to curb the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although this policy has proven to be effective in flattening the curve, it undoubtedly posed a serious challenge to intergenerational relations. Experts hinted that physical distancing measures may have reduced older adults' level of contact with their non-coresident children. However, empirical evidence is lacking. Method: Data from the SHARE COVID-19 questionnaire and previous SHARE waves for 26,077 individuals from 26 European countries and Israel were used and analyzed using multilevel multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results: The analysis revealed that older adults' level of intergenerational contact remained stable or even increased - rather than decreased - during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the overall positive outcome, some subgroups (i.e., older men, residents of nursing homes, less educated older adults and older adults living in countries with less stringent COVID19 measures) were more likely to report reduced intergenerational contact. Conclusion: Although variation was observed among older adults, the pandemic generally did not pose a threat to their level of intergenerational contact with non-coresident children.

18.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(4):DC01-DC05, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818679

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Ever since the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic hit, there have been constant efforts to develop rapid, sensitive and specific diagnostic methods to detect the virus in order to curb the further spread of the disease. There is an array of tests available for the detection of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Time being a very crucial factor, Rapid Antigen Testing (RAT) is very helpful in detecting the virus. Aim: To discuss the importance of rapid testing among symptomatic and asymptomatic cases in different age groups and gender with association to infection. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in Department of Microbiology, Autonomous State Medical College and SNM Hospital, Firozabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, from April 2020-August 2021. A total of 16,258 samples were collected from symptomatic patients having Influenza Like Illness (ILI), Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI), those seeking hospitalisation, contacts (symptomatic and asymptomatic) and travellers were subjected to antigen detection by the Standard Q COVID-19 antigen kit following proper precautions. The cases were divided into Group A of patients who presented with symptoms ≤7 days, Group B of patients who presented with signs and symptoms >7 days and group C comprised of asymptomatic patients. The Chi-square test was done to test the statistical significance of association of symptomatic patients with outcome of the antigen test. Results: Of the total 16,258 samples tested, the maximum number of positive cases were found in the age group 30-39 years (p-value <0.05) followed by 20-29 years. The least number of positive cases (six) was found in the higher (90 years) and lower (below 9 years) age groups. No significant impact was found on the positivity rates on the basis of gender. The percentage positivity as detected by rapid antigen was 2% and maximum patients were found in the group having symptoms <7 days (p<0.05). Conclusion: Rapid Antigen Detection Test (RADT) for SARS-CoV-2 is a simple, portable, fast and easy to perform test. It could be easily used in rural areas as it does not require special laboratory set up. It could be used for mass testing and helped as a good epidemiological tool. However, few symptomatic cases which could not be detected by rapid testing had to be cross checked with Real Time-Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Thus, when used in conjunction with molecular methods, the sensitivity of the test increased.

19.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(4):LC10-LC15, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818678

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the new contagious novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), pandemic in 2020-21 has had a devastating impact on human race. The most common cause of death among hospitalised patient was COVID-19 pneumonia or lung injury. Various studies have shown diurnal variation in human mortality due to all causes with or without intervention. Aim: To identify existence of diurnal variations for mortality among the hospitalised patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Materials and Methods: This hospital-record based, retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral centre of north east India (Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh, Assam, India) which was a dedicated COVID-19 hospital during the pandemic. The study was conducted from September 2021 to December 2021 and the data was collected and recorded from the Cadaver slips issued to families of patient dying of COVID-19 pneumonia during the period January 2021 to August 2021. The data were generated by plotting the number of deaths of COVID-19 cases for each two hour interval as a percent of the mean number of deaths per two-hour interval and as a percentage of cumulative deaths per two-hour interval on a 24 hour scale. The deaths were sub grouped according to gender, age, and reported co-morbid causes of death along with pneumonia. Comparisons of data i.e., mean deaths/2 hour interval (mean±SD) were performed by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), followed by Bartlett's test for equal variances. The p-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Total 743 deaths, with 537 males and 206 females were included in the study. Mean age of the deaths was 56.39 years. There was rise of deaths during 4 PM to 6 PM (16:00 to 18:00) interval for all deaths due to COVID-19 pneumonia. The increase in deaths during this period was mainly due to deaths among males equal or above 65 years and females below age 65 years. However, the deaths of females equal or above the age of 65 years did not show significant diurnal variation. Only 26.51% (n=197) of pneumonia deaths were without co-morbidity. Conclusion: There exists a diurnal variation in mortality among COVID-19 pneumonia patients with evening rise of deaths. Diurnal variation is significantly more among males rather than females above 65 years.

20.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818132

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic forced school closures, resulting in home schooling, more time spent at home and fewer opportunities for physical activity (PA). This study explored factors influ-encing PA and sedentary behaviours (SB) within the home environment during the first lockdown, starting in March 2020. Twenty semi-structured interviews (20 parents and 23 children, 12 years ± 1.25) were conducted. Data were coded using thematic analysis on NVivo© and concepts from McLeroy’s socioecological model for health promotion were used to analyse the data. Findings indicate that children’s PA and SB at home were influenced by: (i) individual-level factors (e.g., gender, compe-tence, attitudes and motivation);(ii) interpersonal-level factors (e.g., siblings, parents, pets, friends and coaches);(iii) organisation-level factors (e.g., school, clubs and societies), (iv) community-level factors (e.g., home and local environment, access to facilities, social norms, time constraints and home equip-ment), and (v) policy-level factors (e.g., lockdown restrictions). Stay-at-home mandates resulted in perceived reductions in PA and increases in SB within the home;however, this provided alternative positive opportunities for families, including more time to spend together and exploring green and blue spaces in the local area.

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