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1.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 11(B):293-298, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20245045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are vulnerable against COVID-19 infection due to physiological and immunological changes. COVID-19 in pregnancy affects fetal well-being with a potential for vertical infection. AIM: This study aims to determine the incidence of vertical infection and anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in infants born to mothers with positive COVID-19 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Amniotic fluid, swabs of the newborn's nasopharynx and oropharynx, and swabs of the placenta were examined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2. Serological examination was performed by Electro-Chemiluminescence Immunoassay on infant's blood. RESULT(S): Four of 33 pregnant women gave birth to infants positive SARS-CoV-2 infection. RT-PCR examination of all amniotic fluid and placental swabs was negative for SARS-CoV-2. Four of 33 infants (12.1%) showed negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results but positive SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, another 4 newborns (12.1%) showed positive PCR results, but no SARS-CoV-2 antibodies detected. The remaining 25 babies (75.8%) showed both negative PCR and serologic results. CONCLUSION(S): No evidence of vertical transmission found in this study.Copyright © 2023 Cut Meurah Yeni, Zinatul Hayati, Sarjani M. Ali, Hasanuddin Hasanuddin, Rusnaidi Rusnaidi, Cut Rika Maharani.

2.
Pediatric Dermatology ; 40(Supplement 2):47, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244353

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Varicella is common infectious disease mainly in childhood, usually is a mild, self-limited illness and complications are usually rare. The incubation period for this disease is generally 14- 16 days but may vary from 7 to 21 days. Varicella in the adults with comorbidities or immunosuppressed children may be severe and prolonged with complications. Method(s): A case report of a 6-year-old girl hospitalized for new-onset manifestations of disseminated vesicular exanthema, the manifestations of which occurred mainly on the chest, back, capillitium, oral cavity, and genital area. The child was suffering from abdominal, knee and lumbosacral pain at that time. The patient's history revealed that 10 days prior to the cutaneous manifestations, she had influenza with bronchopneumonia requiring oxygen therapy, steroids and antibiotics. Result(s): The condition progressed within 48 h, complicated by the development of multi-organ failure, coagulopathy with the development of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy over the course of antiviral, antibiotic and antifungal therapy. Laboratory parameters included high elevation of C-reactive protein, il-6, leukocytosis, neutrophilia and highly elevated liver enzymes. Varicella infection was confirmed by detection of herpes zoster virus - polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from vesicles. The patient received intravenous immunoglobulin therapy at a dose of 2 g/L and fresh frozen plasma, thrombocyte concentrate. The girl was intubated with analogization. Laboratory parameters subsequently revealed high anti CoV-2 positivity, high CoV-2 IgG positivity and negative CoV-2 IgM. The patient's condition did not preclude the course of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) corticosteroids were added to the treatment at a dose of 1 mg/kg weight. Patient's condition stabilized after 1 month. Discussion(s): Our case report presents an example of fulminant complicated life-threatening course of varicella. Even in common respiratory infections, we must think about the risk and consequences of coinfections and post-infectious complications such as in our case especially influenza and COVID-19.

3.
Cancer Research, Statistics, and Treatment ; 5(1):122-130, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20240999
4.
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20237646

ABSTRACT

Objective: Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Although human bocavirus (HBoV) infections are not as common as other seasonal respiratory viruses, children who are infected with HBoV are more likely to suffer from a variety of respiratory conditions, including the common cold, acute otitis media, asthma exacerbations, bronchiolitis pneumonia, some of the affected children require pediatric intensive care unit stay. Here, we aimed to evaluate pediatric bocavirus (HBoV) cases presenting with severe respiratory tract symptoms during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Method(s): This retrospective study evaluated the medical records of children diagnosed with respiratory infections, followed up at the Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University between September 2021 and March 2022. In this study, patients with HBoV identified using nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were considered positive. Cases were analyzed retrospectively for their clinical characteristics. Result(s): This study included 54 children (29 girls and 25 boys) with HBoV in nasopharyngeal PCR samples. The cases ranged in age from 1 month to 72 months (median 25 months). At the time of presentation, cough, fever, and respiratory distress were the most prevalent symptoms. Hyperinflation (48%), pneumonic consolidation (42%), and pneumothorax-pneumomediastinum (7%) were observed on the chest X-ray;54% of the children required intensive care unit stay. The median length of hospitalization was 6 days. Bacterial coinfection was detected in 7 (17%) children, while HBoV and other viruses were present in 20 (37%) children;57% of children received supplemental oxygen by mask, 24% high-flow nasal oxygen, 7% continuous positive airway pressure, and 9% invasive mechanical ventilation support. Antibiotics were given to 34 (63%) cases, and systemic steroid treatment was given to 41 (76%) cases. Chest tubes were inserted in three out of the four cases with pneumothorax-pneumomediastinum. All patients were recovered and were discharged from the hospital. Conclusion(s): The COVID-19 pandemic changed the epidemiology of seasonal respiratory viruses and the clinical course of the diseases. Although it usually causes mild symptoms, severe respiratory symptoms can lead to life-threatening illnesses requiring intensive care admission.Copyright © 2023. The Author(s).

5.
British Journal of Haematology ; 201(Supplement 1):124, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20237251

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) is rare but described after the SARS-CoV- 2 Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. We present a case of severe refractory warm AIHA after this vaccine, managed with emergency splenectomy and complement inhibition with eculizumab. A male in his teens with a history of liver transplant for biliary atresia (aged 2 years) and AIHA (aged 6 years) presented to his district general hospital with jaundice, dark urine, fatigue and chest discomfort 48 h after the first dose of SARS-CoV- 2 Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine (BNT162b2 mRNA). Investigations revealed haemoglobin (Hb) of 70 g/L and bilirubin of 98 mumol/L, which was treated as AIHA. The patient initially responded to prednisolone (1 mg/kg, 60 mg) but subsequently deteriorated and failed to respond to second-line rituximab (375 mg/m2) and two units of packed red blood cells (PRBC). By day 29 the patient had developed life-threatening anaemia culminating in a Hb of 35 g/L (after transfusion), lactate dehydrogenase (LD) of 1293 units/L and bilirubin of 228 mumol/L. This necessitated an immediate transfer to our tertiary centre for specialist support. Further investigations revealed a haptoglobin <0.1 g/L and direct antiglobulin test (DAT) strongly positive for IgG (4+) and negative for C3d. The peripheral blood film showed severe anaemia, nucleated red cells, anisocytosis and spherocytes with no autoagglutination, schistocytes or platelet clumps. Thrombocytopaenia (platelets 49 +/- 109/L) was present. Differentials were ruled out, such as paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria and heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia. HIV and hepatitis serology were negative, as were adenovirus, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus PCR assays. A CT showed splenomegaly of 15.5 cm. Urinalysis found urobilinogen and bilirubin at high concentrations and negative urinary haemosiderin. Together, the investigations were consistent with warm AIHA. On day 29, four units of PRBC were transfused alongside 100 mg methylprednisolone and 1 g/kg IVIG. On day 30 the patient deteriorated despite the escalated treatment: Hb had only increased to 54 g/L, bilirubin was 200 mumol/L and LD was rising. Considering this life-threatening fulminant haemolysis, an emergency splenectomy was performed. This slowed haemolysis but did not completely ameliorate it: by day 33 the patient had received 15 units of PRBC. Thus, eculizumab, a terminal complement pathway inhibitor, was trialled to arrest intravascular haemolysis, alongside rituximab, repeat IVIG 1 g/kg, prednisolone 40 mg and tacrolimus 2 mg. This showed a favourable response, requiring less frequent transfusions and settling haemolysis. This case highlights the rare complication of warm AIHA with the SARS-CoV- 2 Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, the use of emergency splenectomy for disease control, and the potential of eculizumab for refractory cases.

6.
Cancer Research Conference: American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, ACCR ; 83(7 Supplement), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20233149

ABSTRACT

It is known that inflammatory cytokines exacerbate the persistence and severity of various disease states. Breast cancer is the most frequently detected cancer among women worldwide and our recent studies suggest that the inflammatory state of breast (BrCa) cancer, a byproduct of elevated cytokine expression, induces epigenetic modifications leading to increased recurrence. Ongoing NCI clinical trial data (ClinicalTrials.gov, CCC19, NCT04354701) indicates that among patients with cancer and COVID-19, the mortality is high, and the most prevalent malignancies are of breast [21%] and prostate [16%] origin. Due to the risk of cytokine storm during SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is crucial to identify potential mechanisms of hyperinflammation in BrCa patients. In this study, we have evaluated the level of copy number alteration (CNA) of different inflammatory cytokines including IL-8, IL-1b, IL6, IL-8, GM-CSF, TNF-alpha and many others using cBioportal platform which includes over sixty-nine thousand tumor samples (n>69,000 from 213 different studies) from over 33 different cancers. We found that IL-8 has the highest level of amplification in different breast cancers subtypes. Besides, we also analyzed serum samples from BrCa patients, both recurrent and non-recurrent, by different proteomics methods to identify serum cytokines involved in prognosis and recurrence. Comparative data analysis between non-recurrent BrCa against recurrent BrCa patients identified several proteins with very high significance, mostly proteins associated with epigenetic pathways including HDAC9 (P = 0.0035), HDAC5 (P = 0.013), and HDAC7 (P = 0.020). Besides, we identified differential expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and immune regulators (IL-8, IL-4, IL-18, IL-12p70) that were present only in recurrent BrCa patient serum. Our data indicate that inflammatory processes contribute to epigenetic modifications that ultimately play a critical role in breast cancer recurrence. In terms of COVID-19 associated co-morbidity, the already dysregulated inflammatory state of BrCa patients may increase their susceptibility to cytokine-storm, leading to increased severity of COVID-related complications and increased mortality rate. Specifically, we hypothesize that the identified elevated level of IL-8 in BrCa patients may lead to a higher basal level of inflammation and contribute to the risk of attaining cytokine-storm during SARS-CoV-2 infection, making it a valuable target for future studies.

7.
Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S195, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232322

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) Aurum captures primary care electronic healthcare records for ~28% of the population in England. From August 2020-;March 2022, all SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests performed were reported back to the patient's general practitioner (GP), making the CPRD a closed system uniquely positioned to answer COVID research questions. Method(s): We defined persons with COVID as those recorded in primary care with a positive PCR test from August 1, 2020-March 31, 2021. We required continuous registration with their GP practice for >=365 days prior to diagnosis to establish comorbid conditions, and eligibility for linkage to Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) Admitted Patient Care data. Hospitalizations for COVID were defined as persons admitted with a primary diagnosis of COVID (ICD-10-CM U07.1) within 12 weeks of the initial primary care diagnosis record. Result(s): Our cohort included 535,453 persons diagnosed in primary care with COVID, with 2% later hospitalized. The hospitalized group was 57% male, 42% current/former smokers, 35% obese46% with a Charlson Comorbidity Index >1 and 98% had never received any COVID vaccine. Hospitalizations increased with age;<0.1% of patients aged 1-17, 1% aged 18-49, 4% aged 50-64, 9% aged 65-74, 13% aged 74-84, and 11% of COVID cases aged >=85 were hospitalized. Persons living in socially disadvantaged areas were overrepresented in the hospitalized cohort (25% in the Index of Multiple Deprivation's most deprived quintile). Conclusion(s): Consistent with other studies, hospitalized COVID patients were disproportionately those with male sex, smoking history, high body mass index, comorbidity and unvaccinated status. Hospitalizations were more common with age, and for individuals living in socially and economically deprived communities. Understanding the demographic and clinical characteristics of this cohort can help contextualize future work describing healthcare resource utilization and costs, as well as the impact of vaccines, associated with COVID in England.Copyright © 2023

8.
Cytotherapy ; 25(6 Supplement):S258-S259, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232306

ABSTRACT

Background & Aim: The new UCOE models we have recently developed, tested on many cell groups (including mouse ES and human iPS cells) and human mAb recombinant production studies as well, shows a powerful resistance to DNA methylation- mediated silencing and provides a higher and stable transfection profile. By the urgent need of vaccine development for COVID-19 during the pandemic, in this study we aimed to produce a potential recombinant vaccine by using the new generation UCOEs models of our own design. Methods, Results & Conclusion(s): Existing new-generation UCOE models and standard plasmid vectors to be used as control group were provided. Then, the sequences related to the PCR method were amplified for sufficient stock generation and cloning experiments. Verification in the plasmid vector was carried out in gel electrophoresis. Transfection of 293T cells was performed with clone plasmids carrying antigen genes and plasmids carrying genetic information of lentivirus units for the production of lentiviral vectors. Afterwards, 293T cells produced lentiviral vectors carrying antigen genes. Harvesting of these vectors was carried out during 48th and 72nd hours. Afterwards, CHO cells were transduced with appropriate quantity of lentiviral vectors. Isolation and purification of targeted proteins from the relevant medium were performed by HPLC and Q-TOF methods. A part of the spike and nucleocapsid gene sequences of COVID-19 were firstly cloned into our UCOE models. These UCOEs plasmids were then transferred into 293T cells along with plasmids carrying the genes that will form the lentivirus vectors (LVs). After harvesting and calculation of LV vector titers, the cloned vectors were then transfected into the CHO cells which the targeted recombinant production of the antigen proteins will be carried out. Antigenic structures were then isolated from the culture medium of CHO cells in following days for confirmation. Using HPLC and qTOF mass spectrometer methods, these structures in the medium were confirmed to be the units of spike and nucleocapsid proteins of the COVID-19 virus. In order to produce large amount of the recombinant antigens, the culture was then carried out with bioreactors in liters. At the final stage, these recombinantly produced antigen proteins were tested on rats to measure their immunogenic responses, and the study recently been completed successfully as a potential recombinant vaccine against COVID-19.Copyright © 2023 International Society for Cell & Gene Therapy

9.
Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232155

ABSTRACT

Introduction: TBX1 haploinsufficiency is an inborn error of immunity with the phenotype of DiGeorge Syndrome. DiGeorge Syndrome has variable immunodeficiency associated with grade of thymic hypoplasia ranging from mild with no infections to severe requiring thymus implant. Enterovirus is an example of an opportunistic infection that can be fatal in these patients. Case Presentation: A 1 year old girl with TBX1 haploinsufficiency complicated by Tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, high arched palate, and vesicovaginal fistula presented for elective cardiac repair surgery from another country due to failure to thrive and cyanosis. She had no prior infectious history but was on sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim for prophylaxis. She was asymptomatic with a negative COVID test but no other infectious studies performed. Immediately postoperatively, she was febrile and nasal respiratory viral panel was positive for rhinovirus/enterovirus with increased procalcitonin and leukocytosis with left shift. She decompensated with multi-organ failure and cardiac arrest on postoperative day two. She was cannulated to veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Pre-operatively, she had a normal absolute lymphocyte count. No thymus tissue was observed in surgery. She had profound CD3 lymphopenia to 130 cells/cmm when critically ill. Enteroviral meningitis was suspected as no infectious, cardiac, or other pathology could be identified causing decompensation. Enteroviral serum polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was negative while lumbar puncture deferred due to clinical status. She was treated with immunoglobulin. Offlabel investigational drug pocapavir was considered but deferred to patient's irreversible neurological status. The patient was disconnected from ECMO and expired. Discussion(s): Though we cannot confirm that this patient had enteroviral meningitis, invasive enteroviral infections are associated with elevated transaminases, coagulopathy, and seizures all present in our patient. There has also been reported negative serum enteroviral PCR but positive CSF enteroviral PCR in an immunodeficient patient. Additionally, this case highlights the importance of immunologic evaluation in patients with DiGeorge Syndrome and questions if asymptomatic viral screening for viruses like enterovirus should be considered pre-operatively in patients with inborn errors of immunity. This case highlights potential treatment options for invasive enteroviral infections in patients with inborn errors of immunity: high dose immunoglobulin, fluoxetine, and pocapavir.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

10.
Rheumatology (United Kingdom) ; 62(Supplement 2):ii50, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2322913

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims To assess the incidence and vulnerability of rheumatology patients to COVID-19 infection in early stages of pandemic. Methods Self completed questionnaire was posted to patients. Results Patients diagnosed with rheumatic diseases were categorised as people at high risk of infection with COVID-19 (pharmacologically immunosuppressed) and with possible worsening outcomes than the general population. This study was a self-completed questionnaire which was sent to all patients registered under a National Health Services specialist rheumatology department in the UK, between May 2020 and May 2021. A total of 610 responses were received and data was analysed statistically. The aim from this survey was to assess COVID19 infection prevalence amongst rheumatology patients under the care of this department, and to examine the profiles of patients with reported COVID-19 infection, their comorbidities, rheumatoidrelated medications and infection severity and outcome. Of 610 responders diagnosed with rheumatoid diseases, 12 patients (1.96%) received a diagnosis of COVID-19 based on their clinical presentation. However, when patients undertaken a Polymerase Chain Reaction test, only 2 patients (16.6%) returned positive results. In both the COVID-19 and non-COVID groups 60% were shielding (n=361). In our sample infection rate was around 30 times (1 in 50 rheumatoid patients, 2% in the sample population) the prevailing rate for the general population in the region (75 in 100,000, 0.075% in the general population). Negative testing did not preclude the presence of disease, but this may reflect poor efficacy and reliability of testing in the early days of the pandemic. The sample means and SD+/- were 63.96/ 13.23 for age and 27.76/5.79 for BMI. Sample population characteristics presented in Table 1. Conclusion This patient group were more vulnerable to COVID-19 infection compared to the general population but appear not to be at greater risk of severe disease.

11.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S44-S45, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2322377

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), the causative organisms of tuberculosis (TB), has afflicted man for millennia. TB was declared a global health emergency by the World Health Organization in 1993. Before the 2020 Covid pandemic, it was responsible for 10 million new cases annually and was the leading infectious disease killer worldwide. MTBC strain typing represents an important complementary tool to guide TB control measures. TB programmes can use genotyping results in combination with epidemiological information to determine if recent transmission has likely occurred, and hence identify outbreaks that require targeted public health action. MTBC genotyping also can differentiate between relapse or re-infection, detect false-positive cases, and identify and monitor the circulating TB strains in the population over time. Restriction Fragment Length Phenotyping (RFLP), introduced in the 1990s, was labour intensive, required large amounts of DNA and was not easily comparable between laboratories. These disadvantages are overcome by the PCR-based MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping methods. More recently, whole genome sequencing (WGS) of MTBC has been shown to provide high resolution identification of recent transmission chains and their direction, as well as drug resistance prediction. Its increasing reliability and affordability has enabled this technology to transition from the research arena to clinical care and public health functions. Its application in high TB burden countries will hopefully revitalize global TB control efforts which have set back by the Covid pandemic.Copyright © 2023

12.
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine ; 13(3) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2321734

ABSTRACT

Symptomatic patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mostly have flu-like symptoms. However, neurologic manifestations are common and may be the early findings of COVID-19. Data for COVID-19 do not indicate an increased risk of infection in pregnant individuals, but the risk of disease severity and mortality is high in this patient population. We report a case of a pregnant woman in the 10th gestational week, who presented with neurological symptoms of sudden impairment in walking, balance, speech, and consciousness, started the night before, and a seven-day history of fever, chills, myalgia, and general weakness before admission. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was positive for the cerebrospinal fluid sample a day before the positive nasopharyngeal sample. Axial brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed the involvement of the spinothalamic tract. Following treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, the patient's neurological condition gradually recovered, except for lower limb muscle strength, and she was discharged from the hospital on the 10th day of admission. This case is unique as it emphasizes the importance of considering COVID-19 when uncommon neurologic manifestations with negative nasopharyngeal PCR are present.Copyright © 2023, Author(s).

13.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S67, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2321531

ABSTRACT

Intro: Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis with a global health concern. In Malaysia, leptospirosis incidence remains significant, since its first gazettement as a compulsorily notifiable disease in 2010. However, the prevalence of this disease among local forensic cases is unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the frequency of human leptospirosis among post-mortem specimens. Method(s): Archived forensic specimens referred to the Institute for Medical Research (IMR), Malaysia between January 2020 and December 2021 were retrieved. DNA from the specimens were extracted using an automated MagNA Pure 96 instrument and subjected to in-house qPCR targeting LipL32 gene and 16S rRNA gene of the pathogenic group of Leptospira spp. Amplification of RNaseP gene was included as internal amplification control (IAC). Finding(s): A total of 408 forensic specimens from 365 patients were received during the study period. Majority of the specimens were blood (n = 195, 47.8%), followed by tissue (n = 136, 33.3%) and liver (n = 59, 14.5%). Of the tested specimens, 2.2% (n = 9) were positive for leptospiral DNA. These positive specimens belonged to 9 different patients, of which the vast majority were male (n = 8, 88.9%), with an average age of 37.5 years. Conclusion(s): Albeit low detection of leptospiral DNA among forensic specimens in Malaysia, this study highlighted that majority of the positive patients were males of productive age.Copyright © 2023

14.
Journal of Clinical Rheumatology ; 29(4 Supplement 1):S9, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2326177

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Variant-related differences of SARS-CoV-2 have been reported such as higher transmissibility but less disease severity in omicron sublineages when compared to other variants. Although some studies have examined the outcomes of COVID-19 in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), most were conducted during the initial waves. Thus, we sought to compare the clinical outcomes of SLE patients with COVID-19 during the omicron and pre-delta/delta periods. Method(s): A cohort of adults with SLE from a single center in Puerto Rico was studied. SARS CoV-2 infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction or antigen tests. The pre-delta/delta variants period was defined as March 2020 to November 2021 and the omicron period as December 2021 to October 2022. Demographic parameters, cumulative SLE manifestations, disease activity, disease damage, lupus treatments, comorbidities, COVID-19 symptoms, SLE exacerbations, and hospitalizations were compared between the study periods using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Result(s): Of the entire SLE cohort (n = 347), 151 patients (43.5%) had COVID-19. In those with COVID-19, the mean (SD) age was 46.7 (12.5) years and 96.0% were women. Overall, clinical outcomes were favorable with low rates of hospitalizations (2.6%), lupus flares (3.3%), and mortality (0.7%). In 14.6% of cases, COVID-19 occurred during the pre-delta/delta period and in 85.4% during the omicron wave. Patients that had COVID-19 during the predelta/ delta period were younger and had a significantly higher proportion of oral ulcers, psychosis, anti-Smith antibodies, coronary artery disease, and chronic kidney disease compared to those during the omicron wave. Among COVID-19 symptoms, runny nose, cough, and sore throat were more common in the omicron period, whereas anosmia and anorexia were more frequent in the pre-delta/delta period. In the multivariable analyses adjusted by age, all variables retained significance except for psychosis, anti-Smith antibodies, and coronary artery disease. No significant differences were observed for other variables. Conclusion(s): In this group of Puerto Ricans with SLE, a higher proportion had COVID-19 during the omicron wave compared to previous periods. No differences were seen for severe outcomes such as hospitalizations, lupus flares, and mortality. Furthermore, COVID-19 did not appear to have a negative impact on the short-term clinical outcomes of these patients, regardless of the variant period examined.

15.
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition ; 47(Supplement 2):S86-S87, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2325605

ABSTRACT

Background: Several studies suggest an association between serum Vitamin D levels and outcomes in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Prevention measures for COVID-19 continue to be one of the best strategies to combat the virus but identification of individuals at high risk will help clinician's direct preventative care to reduce infections and improve outcomes. This work assesses the vitamin D levels of hospitalized COVID-19 patients at one community hospital in central Pennsylvania. Method(s): This prospective study, conducted on adult, hospitalized patients under the care of clinical nutrition services between April 2021 and April 2022. Inclusion criteria included age >18 years, COVID-19 positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test with associated symptoms, and not receiving vitamin D supplementation prior to or during hospital admission (N = 122). Vitamin D 25 hydroxy laboratory values were obtained, and values were interpreted utilizing the recommended range categories: 25(OH)D level >= 30 ng/ml was representative of adequate vitamin D stores, while values between 21-29 ng/ml signified vitamin D insufficiency. A 25(OH)D value <20 ng/ml is indicative of vitamin D deficiency. Result(s): Over 77% (n = 95) of all patients included in study had vitamin D values below the recommended levels, with one half (n = 61) demonstrating vitamin D deficiency. Only 22.1% (n = 27) were found to have values consistent with a blood level deemed adequate. Conclusion(s): Many hospitalized patients with COVID-19 demonstrate vitamin D levels below acceptable ranges, many with vitamin D deficiencies. Identification of these individuals in the community will allow clinicians an opportunity to treat the vitamin insufficiency or deficiency with the goal of preventing infections and potential morbidity or mortality associated with the disease. (Figure Presented).

16.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S24, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2325477

ABSTRACT

Intro: Delta and Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 are highly contagious, currently dominating the globe and recognized as variant of concern (VOC). The transmissibility efficiency of viruses, disease symptoms, and severity of COVID- 19 is highly heterogeneous. Therefore, testing at the community level is essential to identify the infected people at an early stage-carrying VOC to reduce the spread of virus and combat the pandemic. Method(s): In this study, we analysed thousands of genome sequences representing 30 different SARS-CoV-2 variants and identified Delta and Omicron variants specific nucleic acid signatures in the spike gene. Based on the variant specific nucleic acid sequences we synthesized different oligos and optimized a mPCR assay that can specifically differentiate the Delta and Omicron variants. We further translated our work into a dipstick assay (Tohoku Bio-array, Japan) by adding tag linker sequence to 5' end of the forward primer and adding biotin in 3' end of the oligos. Finding(s): A total of 250 samples were subjected to WGS using MiSeq platform and these confirmed samples were processed for validation of our specific designed probes using PCR assay and the readout was found to be 100% specific to Delta, BA.1 & BA.2 of SARS-CoV-2 variants which were further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The dipstick was used to screen these samples, and specific signals were observed. WGS and Sanger sequencing were used to validate our PCR and dipstick assay results, and the readout was found to be 100% specific. The results can be visualised by the naked eye and interpreted easily. Conclusion(s): This study developed a rapid point-of-care test of SARS-CoV-2 patients, which can differentiate Delta, BA.1 and BA.2 variants at the same time of confirmation of the infection in patient. The current nucleic-acid chromatography-based dipstick assay is highly specific and can work even in the case of low viral load as well.Copyright © 2023

17.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S106-S107, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2324287

ABSTRACT

Intro: It is hypothesized that metagenomics could contribute to the effective sentinel surveillance of emerging infections to identify plausible cause of respiratory symptoms in the population. Method(s): This study forms part of a longitudinal household cohort study involving the collection of respiratory symptoms and vaccination history in Hong Kong. As a pilot, selected households were provided with swab collection kit for collecting nasopharyngeal and throat samples when there was an influenza-like illness (ILI) during a 4-month presumptive period of the year's winter influenza season. Sequence-Independent Single Primer Amplification (SISPA) and nanopore metagenomic sequencing were performed. After basecalling, demultiplexing, and quality filtering, taxonomic classification was done. Unclassified and host reads were removed and only taxon with over 0.1% abundance were included in the analysis. Finding(s): Between December 2021 and April 2022, of 101 collection kits delivered, 36 (36%) participants returned the samples. Two (6%) had previous COVID-19 diagnosis and almost all (97%) received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccination. Metagenomics sequencing was performed on 13 samples collected from participants when ILI was present. Of the 1,592,219 reads obtained, 5308 taxa were identified and 136 had over 0.1% abundance, including 128 bacteria, 6 fungi, and 1 virus, which was a bacteriophage. The five most abundant genera of bacteria included Neisseria (19%), Streptococcus (10%), Haemophilus (9%), Veillonella (3%), and Rothia (3%). Haemophilus parainfluenzae was the most abundant species with 97,542 (6%) reads, followed by Neisseria meningitides (5%). Other bacteria identified included Rothia mucilaginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Lautropia mirabilis, Veillonella atypica, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus pneumonia. Inter-participant abundance profile was significantly different (p<0.001). Conclusion(s): The absence of viral infections identified echoed the extremely low proportion (3/21986, or 0.01%) of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza virus by the government laboratory during the same period. The metagenomic profile could be useful for identifying the likely ILI-causing pathogen.Copyright © 2023

18.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S144-S145, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2324119

ABSTRACT

Intro: Deoxyribozymes (Dz) are short synthetic DNA oligonucleotides that catalyze the cleavage of a phosphodiester bond between nucleotides in the presence of divalent metal ions. The use of DNAzymes in the in vitro diagnostics increases the specificity and versatility of the analysis. Method(s): We took the well-studied Dz 10-23 with high catalytic activity as the basis of our system. The biosensor is divided into two fragments according to the binary probe principle (Dz1 and Dz2), which consist of target RNA binding sites, a fluorescent substrate (Fsub), and half of the Dz 10-23 catalytic center sequence. Assembly of the Dz 10-23 active center with subsequent Fsub cleavage and registration of a fluorescent signal is possible only if the target RNA is present in the sample. Finding(s): To assess the diagnostic potential of the biosensor, we measured FAM fluorescence in a solution containing synthetic RNA 35 nucleotides long (nip35) corresponding to the NiV target sequence, Fsub labeled with the FAM-BHQ1 and Dz_NiV pair. A mixture of Dz_NiV and Fsub was used as a control. The detection limit of the target RNA reached 5 nM, the signal development time was 30 minutes at a temperature of 37 C . Discussion(s): The specificity of Dz_NiV was evaluated in the presence of synthetic RNAs from six other RNA viruses of similar length: Hendra, Machupo, Sabia, Junin, Guanarito, and SARS-CoV. A fluorescent signal was recorded only in the presence of nip35 in the reaction mixture. The efficiency of Dz_NiV on a long fragment was tested using a plasmid with a cloned target sequence. The site is about 700 b.p. was amplified by PCR, followed by transcription. Conclusion(s): It was developed the highly specific biosensor Dz_NiV for the detection of Nipah virus RNA with a sensitivity limit of 5 nM at 37 C .Copyright © 2023

19.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases ; 2023, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2327274

ABSTRACT

Diarrhea outbreaks in piglets on pig farms are commonly attributed to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection. This research analyzed the S gene prevalence variation and recombination patterns in PEDV GII strains. Throughout the previous two years, 172 clinical samples of piglet diarrhea have been collected, from which 24 PEDV isolates have been isolated. Analysis of the evolutionary relationships among all 24 S genes revealed that 21 were most closely related to strains within the GII-a subgroup. The 2 isolates grouped into one clade with the GII-b subgroup. According to the mutation analysis of the amino acids (aa) that encode the S protein, 43 of the common aa in strains of the GII subtype were found to have undergone a change in polarity or charge, and 36 of these aa had a mutation frequency of more than 90%. Three different aa mutation sites were identified as exclusive to GII-a subtype strains. The genomes of three PEDV isolates were sequenced, and the resulting range in genome length was 28,035−28,041 nt. The results of recombination analysis showed that the SD1 isolate is a novel strain recombinant from the foreign S-INDEL strain and a domestic GII subtype strain. Based on the findings, the PEDV GII-a strain has been the most circulating strain in several parts of China during the previous two years. Our study reveals for the first time the unique change of aa mutations in the S protein of the GII-a subtype strain and the new characteristics of the recombination of foreign strains and domestic GII subtype strains, indicating that it is crucial to monitor the epidemic dynamics of PEDV promptly to prevent and control the occurrence of PED effectively.

20.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S85, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2326739

ABSTRACT

Intro: Several rodents, including mice and the brown rat, are synanthropic animals usually found in rural and urban environments in contact with other animals and humans. Rodents are natural reservoirs of infectious agents and could harbour a plethora of zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Taking advantage of a parallel study on presence and distribution of Hantaviruses, we aimed to investigate the occurrence in mice of other viruses with zoonotic or economic impact. Method(s): From May to July 2022, 41 mice (Mus domesticus) were captured and killed by using baited snap traps in 13 selected cattle, goat and poultry farms located in the Piedmont region. Gut and lung samples were homogenised and tested by PCR methods for pan-Coronavirus (CoV) and SARS-CoV-2, pan-Pestivirus, Mammalian orthoreoviruses, Canine Distemper virus (CDV), Flaviviruses, Influenza A (IAV) and D (IDV) viruses. Finding(s): All captured animals did not present at necropsy lesions related to infectious diseases. Virological investigations detected the presence of CoV in six mice. By sequencing Rodent CoVs was identified in two samples (four more pending). Mammalian orthoreovirus was detected in nine animals and typing and characterization are in progress. One mouse, captured in a bovine farm, tested slightly positive for IDV and confirmation of positivity is in progress by complete sequencing with NGS approach. All samples were negative for Flaviviruses, IAV, CDV, pan-Pestivirus and SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion(s): Rodents are well adapted to a wide range of habitats, including peri-urban and rural environments, where they benefit from human activities. These results, although preliminary, underline the importance of enhancing surveillance in rodents in anthropized areas to better assess the presence of zoonotic agents and the potential risk of transmission.Copyright © 2023

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