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1.
Issues in Science and Technology ; 38(4):39-44, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958458

ABSTRACT

Decades before the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated how rapidly infectious diseases could emerge and spread, the world faced the AIDS epidemic. Initial efforts to halt the contagion were slow as researchers focused on understanding the epidemiology of the virus. It was only by integrating epidemiological theory with behavioral theory that successful interventions began to control the spread of HIV. As the current pandemic persists, it is clear that similar applications of interdisciplinary theory are needed to inform decisions, interventions, and policy. Continued infections and the emergence of new variants are the result of complex interactions among evolution, human behavior, and shifting policies across space and over time. Due to this complexity, predictions about the pandemic based on data and statistical models alone--in the absence of any broader conceptual framework--have proven inadequate. Classical epidemiological theory has helped, but alone it has also led to limited success in anticipating surges in COVID-19 infections. Integrating evolutionary theory with data and other theories has revealed more about how and under what conditions new variants arise, improving such predictions.

2.
Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology ; 16(2):326-333, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957671

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 discovered in December 2019, Wuhan, China. It was transmitted globally producing the present COVID-19 pandemic. Concerns have been raised about the potential impact of COVID-19 on male reproductive organs and male fertility as the number of infections in the male community has increased. The objectives of current study are studying the relationship between the plasma levels of testosterone and the markers of immune reaction with the severity and mortality in a sample of COVID-19 patients. A cross section study included NO= 103 male patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, diagnosed by PCR and chest CT scan, (≥ 18 years old), and recovered in the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU). Several biochemical risk factors were determined Free Testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay(ELISA), D-dimer, Ferritin, CRP, Urea, Creatinine were measured by automated method by using Abbott Architect c4000 and Complete Blood Count(CBC). The results show that the serum free testosterone and SHBG levels a significant lower in non-survivor patients than survivor patients with COVID-19. While the other biomarkers (D-dimer, Ferritin, Urea, Creatinine) were significant higher in non-survivor patients than survivor patients. The CRP, WBC and lymphocyte showed that no significant between the both group of patients. In conclusion the study showed that lower free testosterone and SHBG levels enable significant role in increasing risk of COVID-19 mortality amongst adult male patients.

3.
Medical Immunology (Russia) ; 24(2):389-394, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957613

ABSTRACT

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is widely considered a chronic inflammatory disorder, and dysfunction of epicardial adipose tissue could be an important source of the inflammation. Amino-terminal fragment of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a known marker of cardiovascular disorders of cardiac origin. Recent studies show that inflammatory stimuli may influence its secretion. Our purpose was to evaluate NT-proBNP serum concentration in relation to immune cell ratios in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), and cytokine levels in the patients with stable CAD. Patients with stable CAD and heart failure classified into classes II-III, according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA) scale, scheduled for the coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, were recruited into the study (n = 10;59.5 (53.0-65.0) y. o.;50% males). The EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) specimens were harvested in the course of CABG surgery. Immunostaining with anti-CD68, anti-CD45, anti-IL-1β and anti-TNFα monoclonal antibodies was performed to evaluate cell composition by differential counts per ten fields (400 magnification). Fasting venous blood was obtained from patients before CABG. Blood was centrifuged at 1500g, aliquots were collected and stored frozen at -40 °С until final analysis. Concentrations of NT-proBNP, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNFα were determined in serum samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We have found increased production of IL-1β and TNFα cytokines in EAT compared to SAT. Concentrations of NT-proBNP exceeded 125 pg/ml in 4 patients, and correlations between the CD68+ macrophage counts in both EAT and SAT samples (rs = 0.762;p = 0.010 and rs = 0.835;p = 0.003, respectively). NT-proBNP levels showed positive relations with CD45+ leukocyte counts (rs = 0.799;p = 0.006), and with IL-1β+ cell numbers (rs = 0.705;p = 0.023) in EAT samples only. As for the serum biomarkers, NT-proBNP levels showed negative correlation with fasting glucose levels (rs = -0.684;p = 0.029), and positive correlation with serum IL-6 concentrations (rs = 0.891;p = 0.001). Increased serum concentrations of NT-proBNP in CAD patients correlate with accumulation of macrophages in EAT, which is associated with increased production of IL-1β in EAT and correlates with some metabolic parameters.

4.
Pharmacognosy Journal ; 14(3):591-597, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957551

ABSTRACT

Currently, Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is an enteric pathogen of the Alphacoronavirus-1 species that causes mild to severe diarrhea in puppies. The pathogenesis of this infection will cause severe lymphopenia and lead to death in puppies. This study aimed to determine the administration of probiotics on TNF-α expression, histological findings of the liver and lung in mice infected with CCoV. A total of 28 mice were randomly assigned into seven treatment groups, i.e. (C-) placebo;(C+) active CCoV vaccine induction;(T1) CCov + Isopronosin;(T2) CCoV + Lactobacillus acidophilus probiotic;(T3) CCoV + Lactobacillus Acidophylus and Bifidobacterium probiotics;(T4) CCoV + colustrum fermentation probiotic;(T5) CCoV + ginger, turmeric and ginger probiotics. Thereafter, the expression of TNF-α in the duodenum was stained using immunohistochemistry, liver and lung were stained using hematoxylin eosin. The data were analyzed using the ANOVA test followed by the Tukey test with a significance level (p<0.05). TNF-α expression on T4 and T5 decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared to C+, T1, T2 and T3. Histologic findings of the liver in the C- and T4 groups showed normal features in the central vein. On the other hand, glycogen accumulation was found in hepatocyte cells, hemorrhage with sinusoid dilation, lymphocyte infiltration in centro lobular area in group C+. Lung histology showed normal features of sinusoids and alveolar septa in groups C- and T4. Meanwhile, intra-alveolar hemorrhage was found with neutrophil cell infiltration and fibrin plasma accumulation in group C+. In conclusion, colostrum fermentation probiotics can reduce TNF-α expression in the duodenum and improve the liver and lung physiology in mice infected with CCoV.

5.
British Journal of Dermatology ; 186(6):e258, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956701

ABSTRACT

A 21-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of swollen, painful, purple discolouration of her toes and fingers, which began 6 weeks after COVID-19 infection. This was refractory to ibuprofen and clobetasol 0.05% w/w ointment. She reported no other associated symptoms. On examination she had erythematous mottling of the tips of the toes and nail folds of the right foot and sausage-shaped deformities of the left second and fourth toes, consistent with dactylitis. Her blood work-up for COVID toes revealed a raised serum angiotensin- converting enzyme (ACE) level (64 U L-1) with no other abnormalities. Her chest X-ray was unremarkable. Plain radiographs of the feet showed soft tissue swelling and lacelike bony appearances with discrete areas of lucency, particularly affecting the middle phalanx of the left second toe. This pattern has been described in sarcoid arthropathy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the left foot demonstrated features of inflammatory arthropathy, including subarticular bone marrow oedema, periarticular soft tissue oedema and flexor tendon tenosynovitis. The findings were consistent with COVID toes;however, some features of the dactylitis extended beyond the expected presentation of a vascular manifestation of COVID-19. She displayed overlap features seen in sarcoid-related pathologies, including raised ACE levels and a lace-like bony appearance. We believe this to be a sarcoid-like immune reaction to COVID-19 presenting with COVID toes and dactylitis. A sarcoid-like immune reaction to COVID-19 with granulomatous skin lesions rather than dactylitis has been reported. Viral infections are a documented trigger for sarcoid- like immune reactions. This case suggests that COVID-19 can trigger sarcoid-like immune reactions, albeit with a more discrete presentation.

6.
British Journal of Dermatology ; 186(6):e250, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956695

ABSTRACT

While our knowledge about the short-term side-effects of COVID-19 vaccination in adults has rapidly evolved, data about the long-term systemic side-effects and potential new onset autoimmune disorders has been limited. Here we present a case series of patients with new onset autoimmune skin conditions between 10 days and 4 weeks post mRNA COVID-19 vaccination and discuss the underlying pathophysiological changes contributing to these side-effects. Exclusions included any patients who have previously tested positive for COVID-19 or had COVID-19 symptoms. Our cases include new onset discoid lupus, localized cutaneous lupus, dermatomyositis, linear IgA bullous disease, pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid, lichen planus pemphigoides, erosive lichen planus, psoriasis and vitiligo. In addition, we are reporting significant flare-up of pre-existing autoimmune skin conditions after a long period of remission. These include three cases of psoriasis, two cases of systemic lupus, one pemphigus vulgaris koebnerizing within a previous shingles site, and a case of pyoderma gangrenosum flare. The BNT162b2 vaccine is a potent activator of the T- and B-cell pathways. The production of interleukin (IL)-17 and IL- 21 seems to play an important role in vaccine-induced immunological protection, which is also linked to germinal centre activation linked to autoimmune disorders. This report improves our knowledge regarding some rarer potential sideeffects associated with these new vaccines and highlights the importance of further studies.

7.
Cardiovascular Research ; 118:i90, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956562

ABSTRACT

Myocardial infarction is a global health burden for which there is no treatment available that aims to recover the damaged tissue after the ischemic event. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) represent a well characterized class of mRNA delivery systems, which were recently approved for clinical usage in their application for mRNA-based covid-19 vaccines. After myocardial infarction, endogenous mechanisms that enable repair of the functional damaged tissue can be triggered by modified mRNA (modRNA) delivery, locally in the infarcted area. As a first step, in order to optimize the LNP formulation for effective myocardial delivery and study cellular tropism of the LNPs in the heart, different LNPs formulations will be evaluated as delivery systems in a murine healthy heart model. Different LNP formulations varying in type and amount of helper lipid were used as delivery systems for modRNA encoding the reporter genes luciferase or eGFP. In vitro, LNPs were evaluated for modRNA delivery in a human endothelial cell line (HMEC-1), induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CMs) and induced pluripotent stem cell -derived fibroblasts (iPS-FBs). In vivo, modRNA delivery was evaluated in C57BL-6 mice, undergoing open chest heart surgery under general anaesthesia in order to infuse LNPs into the left ventricular wall. For determination of luciferase expression levels, animals were infused with luciferin substrate intraperitoneally 24 hrs after injection. Heart, liver, lungs, spleen and kidneys were extracted for imaging in a bioluminescence imaging system. The organs were then stored in liquid nitrogen for further ex-vivo modRNA delivery analysis. For determining cellular tropism, histology was performed on mice treated with eGFP modRNA. Both bioluminescence imaging and luminescence analysis in tissue lysates showed that mRNA transfection is achieved in the myocardium 24 hours after LNP intramyocardial administration. However, all LNP formulations also resulted in high expression levels in other organs, including liver and spleen. Changes in type or amount of helper lipid in LNPs strongly affected transfection levels. Histology of the treated hearts revealed a distinct transfection pattern. The targeted, interstitial cells were negative for CD31 (marker for endothelial cells and monocytes) and Troponin I3 (marker for cardiomyocytes) (Figure 1). We show that, using an optimized LNP formulation, a significant degree of modRNA local transfection of the heart can be achieved. However, despite the local route of administration (into the left ventricular wall), the highest LNP transfection is shown in remote organs such as liver and spleen. More improvements of the LNP formulations must be done to increase their tropism towards the heart tissue for their optimization as cardiac delivery systems. Determining which cell types are being targeted is also important in order to establish a therapeutic target when applying the LNPs for cardiac therapy. (Figure Presented).

8.
Cardiovascular Research ; 118:i19, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956561

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose: Increased inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), are associated to enhanced arrhythmogenic risk, including atrial fibrillation [1]. Moreover, direct effects of cytokines on ion channels are emerging as important mediators of arrhythmogenic remodeling [2]. In line with this, enhanced arrhythmogenesis in COVID-19 patients is hypothesized to be driven by cytokine storms, a well demonstrated condition in this setting [3]. To dissect the underlying mechanisms explaining such an association, we evaluated the proarrhythmogenic alterations of IL-6, assessing the impact on the expression of Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, of the regulatory subunits MiRP1, and on the action potential (AP) profile in HL-1 cardiomyocytes (CMs). In human left atrial samples we studied the relation occurring between the expression levels of IL-6 and of HCN channels. In human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived CMs we evaluated the acute effects of IL-6 on pacemaker activity. Methods: HL-1 CMs exposed to 50 ng/ml IL-6 or vehicle were collected after 0, 0.5, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h to study intracellular signaling, ion channel expression and AP profile. The latter was assessed through a high-throughput system allowing optical detection of APs with optical stimulation. In human atrial samples obtained from patients undergoing surgery, IL-6 and HCN mRNA expression were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The acute effects on pacemaker activity were evaluated in hiPSC-derived CMs exposed to increasing concentrations of IL-6. Results: In HL1 CMs IL-6 rapidly induces STAT3 phosphorylation, demonstrating the activation of IL-6 signaling cascade. IL-6 modifies HCN channel transcript and proteins at different time points, evidencing a significant downregulation of HCN4 isoform and significant upregulations of HCN1, HCN2 and MiRP1. In line with this, in human left atrial samples, expression levels of IL-6 were linearly and directly related to HCN1 channel, while they were linearly and inversely related to HCN4. Electrophysiological recordings on HL-1 CMs showed a decreasing trend of AP amplitude and of maximum diastolic potential, while AP durations tended to increase. In hiPSC-derived CMs IL-6 reduces the frequency of AP in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that in HL-1 CMs IL-6 activates a STAT3 dependent intracellular signaling that is associated to subsequent variation of HCN channel expression and a concurrent alteration of AP profile. The relation between IL-6 and HCN1,4 expression in human samples suggests a mechanistic link between IL-6 levels and ionic channel targets, including HCN channels. The reduction of AP frequency in hiPSC-derived CMs suggests a direct interaction with ion channels. We hypothesize that these modifications may lay the basis to enhance the propensity of atria to develop arrhythmias in condition of elevate IL-6 levels.

9.
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956443

ABSTRACT

Objective: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a hyperinflammatory syndrome associated with multiorgan damage that occurs following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Research on clinical and laboratory findings, and imaging studies, aiming to predict the progression to severe disease state is limited. This study recruited patients with MIS-C who presented with mild or severe symptoms from a single center in Turkey and evaluated factors related to their symptoms. Methods: This retrospective study included 25 pediatric patients with mild and severe presentations of MIS-C. We explored the differences in demographic and clinical data on clinical severity to understand their possible diagnostic and prognostic values. Results: Patients with MIS-C had cardiovascular symptoms (68%), gastrointestinal symptoms (64%), dermatologic/mucocutaneous findings (64%), lung involvement (36%), and neurological symptoms (16.0%). About 45.1% of patients with MIS-C had manifestations that overlapped with Kawasaki disease. Eleven patients (44%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, and one (4%) patient died. Grouping based on clinical severity did not differ statistically in terms of gender, age, height, weight, body mass index, and duration of hospital stay. Procalcitonin and ferritin levels correlated with disease severity. The receiver operating characteristic curve for D-dimer gave the highest value of area under the curve, among other biomarkers. The cutoff value for D-dimer was determined as more than 6780. Conclusions: Although COVID-19 is usually mild in children, some can be severely affected, and clinical severity in MIS-C can differ from mild to severe multisystem involvement. This study shows that procalcitonin, ferritin, and D-dimer levels may give us information about disease severity.

10.
TH Open ; 6(3):E194-E212, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956435

ABSTRACT

Thrombomodulin (TM) is a type-I transmembrane protein that is mainly expressed on endothelial cells and plays important roles in many biological processes. Circulating TM of different forms are also present in biofluids, such as blood and urine. Soluble TM (sTM), comprised of several domains of TM, is the major circulating TM which is generated by either enzymatic or chemical cleavage of the intact protein under different conditions. Under normal conditions, sTM is present in low concentrations (<10 ng/mL) in the blood but is elevated in several pathological conditions associated with endothelial dysfunction such as cardiovascular, inflammatory, infection, and metabolic diseases. Therefore, sTM level has been examined for monitoring disease development, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) recently. In addition, microvesicles (MVs) that contain membrane TM (MV-TM) have been found to be released from activated cells which also contribute to levels of circulating TM in certain diseases. Several release mechanisms of sTM and MV-TM have been reported, including enzymatic, chemical, and TM mutation mechanisms. Measurements of sTM and MV-TM have been developed and explored as biomarkers in many diseases. In this review, we summarize all these advances in three categories as follows: (1) release mechanisms of circulating TM, (2) methods for measuring circulating TM in biological samples, and (3) correlation of circulating TM with diseases. Altogether, it provides a whole picture of recent advances on circulating TM in health and disease.

11.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology ; 142(8):S107, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956224

ABSTRACT

The COVID pandemic caused an increase in virtual meetings & work from home scenarios that resulted in people spending increased time in front of computer screens & electronic devices. Studies have shown that blue light can produce cytotoxic effects, primarily through the production of reactive oxygen species & increased inflammation. However, the topic has been controversial with some studies claiming no adverse effects of blue light on the skin. Methods for testing the effects of blue light using in vitro testing models are lacking. Our work was conducted in order to develop a reproducible, validated testing method for assessing the effects of blue light on the skin. We designed a custom blue-light box that can be used to generate blue light at 460 nm wavelength. We performed a series of studies to optimize the dose and timing of the exposure & skin-culture conditions. Our work demonstrates that 6 hours of daily blue light for 5 consecutive days (total 30 J/cm2) produced a dose-and-time dependent decrease in skin health in 3D full thickness in vitro skin tissues. In addition, gene expression data showed an increase in the expression of genes that regulate inflammation and oxidative stress pathways (IL1A, IL6, CXCL8, COX2, CYP1B1, & NQO1) & a decrease in the expression of genes that maintain skin barrier and integrity (KRT1, KRT10, LOR, DSC and Collagen). Genes regulating skin aging & hydration including MMP1 & FLG were also regulated by exposure to blue light. Enzyme-linked immunoassays were performed to confirm changes in specific proteins. Exposure to blue light significantly increased 8-hydroxy-2' -deoxyguanosine, a marker for oxidative stress, & MMP1, markers for photoaging. Immunohistochemistry staining was performed to confirm changes in Collagen, Filaggrin & NQO1 protein expression in skin tissue. Our results showed that consistent blue light exposure produced skin damage via alterations in key biological pathways. This work provides a new, reproducible in vitro testing method for assessing the effects of blue light on human skin using gene expression, protein ELISA and IHC staining.

12.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 14(7):163-167, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955728

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Corona virus disease has several dermatological symptoms. Telogen effluvium is one of them. The present study presents a case series of post COVID Telogen effluvium from Central India region. Material and Method: This retrospective observational study included 72 patients (61 females & 11males), aged 29 to 62 years (median 49 yrs). The patient’s demography, history of hair fall, signs and symptoms, co morbidities and the treatment received for COVID-19 infection, Psychological perceived stress score, triggering factors for Telogen effluvium, Vitamin B12, Vitamin D and Ferritin levels were recorded & analysed. Result: The included patients were suffering from at least one co morbidity. Thirty patients had severe COVID-19 infection and were hospitalized. Psychological perceived stress score was low (12) in two, moderate (16-24) in twenty and high (29-38) in fifty patients. Vitamin B12 was low in twelve and Ferritin in ten patients. Seventy patients (97.2%) had positive hair pull test and 69 (95.8 %) had diffuse loss of hair. Discussion: Post covid Telogen effluvium was seen generally in females, and in middle aged. Most, 70/72 had moderate to severe psychological stress, Psychological perceived stress score was more than 16. Patients reported 2.2 to 6 months (median 3.5 months) after COVID-19 infection. Most 69 (95.8%) had diffuse hair loss. Post Covid patients may have several triggering factors for Telogen effluvium like psychological stress, nutritional deficiency or the drugs (heparin). Conclusion: Post Covid Telogen effluvium could be triggered by psychological stress, nutritional deficiencies (Vitamin B12, Iron) or drugs (heparin). Such cases could be managed by identification of triggering factors, proper counselling, high protein diet with vitamin supplementation.

13.
International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics ; 13(1):1-14, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955716

ABSTRACT

Some blood group antigens are reported as a susceptibility marker for some diseases. For instance, HBGA (Histo-blood group antigen) which is controlled by gene FUT2 also considered as a susceptible marker. The FUT2 gene which exhibits the expression of alpha-1, 2-L-fucosyltransferase enzyme also leads to HBGA expression for the gut, and it provides a composition of the phenotypical profile that exists in some populations with unique histories of evolution and it can be considered as a marker of the genetic population. It is found to have an association with many diseases which is discussed in this review. Polymorphic mutations are known to inhibit and reduce its function which are population specific. Detailed understanding and deeper knowledge of its role in the pathogenesis and prevention of many diseases is required. FUT2 may also have a potential role in the case of COVID-19 as a susceptible marker due to its association with respiratory diseases and the ABO blood group. There is an utmost need for this kind of review knowing its importance and owing to limited collective information.

14.
Diabetes ; 71, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1952109

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent evidence suggests a bidirectional relationship between COVID-infection and new-onset diabetes (NOD) presenting with DKA. Methodology: This one-year prospective study comprised of 29 COVID-negative DKA (controls) and 52 COVID-positive-DKA patients (18 NOD, 15 T1DM ,T2DM) . NOD were previously normoglycemic and negative for GAD/IA-2/ZnT8 autoantibodies. After 75g- OGTT with estimation of glucose, C-peptide, FFA and insulin at 0,15, 30,45, 60,90 ,120, 150 and 180minutes, Insulin secretion rate (ISR) [C-peptide-deconvolution] , Hepatic insulin sensitivity [AUC-glucose × AUC-insulin during first 30-minutes of OGTT ], Peripheral insulin sensitivity [ dG/dt ÷ mean plasma insulin concentration;dG/dt rate of decline in plasma glucose concentration]were calculated alongwith Metabolomics and Adipose tissue gene expression. All tests were performed at admission and 4, 8, and 12-months of followup. Results: At baseline, ISR in NOD was significantly reduced than controls (p=0.001) but similar to T1DM (p=0.15) . Nearly 83% (n=17) of NOD with DKA had near-complete recovery of ISR on follow-up compared to T1DM (all p<0.01) ,with non-remitters (n=3) having significantly worse admission Hba1c and IL-6 (all p<0.01) . NOD had significantly increased hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance compared to T1DM (all p<0.05) ,but similar to T2DM (all p>0.05) . Their Metabolomics revealed increased inflammatory phosphatidylcholines, that correlated with peripheral glucose uptake (p<0.01) ,while RNA sequencing showed significantly enhanced WNT5A , TLR4 (Toll-like Receptor-4) and RETN (resistin) than T1DM and T2DM (both p=0.001) . Conclusion: Our study provides novel insights into COVID-associated NOD with DKA. Majority have near-complete recovery of insulin secretion while simultaneous multi-tissue insulin resistance and inflammatory adipose tissue profiles persist as drivers of hyperglycemia.

15.
Inform Med Unlocked ; 31: 100979, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945263

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 is one of the most infectious and deadly coronaviruses, which has gripped the world, causing the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the numerous studies being conducted on this virus, many uncertainties are with the disease. This is exacerbated by the speedy mutations acquired by the viral strain, which enables the disease to present itself differently in different people, introducing new factors of uncertainty. This study aims at the identification of regulatory pathways across two cell lines, namely, the peripheral blood mononuclear cell line (PBMC) and the normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell line. Both the above-mentioned cell lines were considered because they support viral replication. Furthermore, the NHBE cell line captures vital changes in the lungs, which are the main organs affected by the COVID-19 patients, and the PBMC cell line is closely linked to the body's immune system. RNA-Seq analysis, differential gene expression and gene set enrichment analysis for pathway identification were followed. Pathway analysis throws light upon the various systems affected in the body due to the COVID-19. Gene regulatory networks associated with the significant pathways were also designed. These networks aid in identifying various gene targets, along with their interactions. Studying the functionality of the pathways and the gene interactions associated with them, aided by long COVID studies, will provide immense clarity about the current COVID-19 scenario. In the long term, this will help in the design of therapeutic approaches against the SARS-CoV-2 and can also contribute to drug repurposing studies. Ultimately, this study identifies and analyses the relationship of various undiscovered or lesser explored pathways in the human body to the SARS-CoV-2 and establish a clearer picture of the association to help streamline further studies and approaches.

16.
Clinical and Translational Discovery ; 2(3):e104, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1935673

ABSTRACT

Background The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has swept through every part of the world. Because of its impact, international efforts have been underway to identify the variants of SARS-CoV-2 by genome sequencing and to understand the gene expression changes in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy donors using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) assay. Within the last two and half years since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, a large number of OMICS data of COVID-19 patients have accumulated. Yet, we are still far from understanding the disease mechanism. Further, many people suffer from long-term effects of COVID-19;calling for a more systematic way to data mine the generated OMICS data, especially RNA-seq data. Methods By searching gene expression omnibus (GEO) using the key terms, COVID-19 and RNA-seq, 108 GEO entries were identified. Each of these studies was manually examined to categorize the studies into bulk or single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) followed by an inspection of their original articles. Results The currently available RNA-seq data were generated from various types of patients? samples, and COVID-19 related sample materials have been sequenced at the level of RNA, including whole blood, different components of blood [e.g., plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, T cells], nasal swabs, and autopsy samples (e.g., lung, heart, liver, kidney). Of these, RNA-seq studies using whole blood, PBMCs, nasal swabs and autopsy/biopsy samples were reviewed to highlight the major findings from RNA-seq data analysis. Conclusions Based on the bulk and scRNA-seq data analysis, severe COVID-19 patients display shifts in cell populations, especially those of leukocytes and monocytes, possibly leading to cytokine storms and immune silence. These RNA-seq data form the foundation for further gene expression analysis using samples from individuals suffering from long COVID.

17.
Sleep Science ; 15:4, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1935307

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Sleep is the main determinant of human wellbeing, mental and physical health. Sleep effectiveness can be reported through its quality and depth. Based on this principle, individuals infected by the SARS - CoV-2 virus from the family of coronavirus viruses, develop tissue inflammation and cell damage, causing an increase in inflammatory cytokines in the organism of the infected. There are several common causes of sleep disorders in hospitalized patients, including medical conditions and underlying psychological problems. There are also several modifiable factors that promote sleep disturbances in critically ill patients, such as noise, light, interactions with patient care, medications, mechanical ventilation and very commonly pain. The lack of sleep, therefore, can negatively compromise immunity, increasing the chances of disease onset. There is also the influence of sleep on emotional processing, with a role in maintaining mood and emotional state. Sleep deprivation also has a strong negative impact on daily behavior and, consequently, on daily mental health. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sleep characteristics of patients during hospitalization, with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID. Methods: This is a quantitative, descriptive study, carried out from July to September 2020 in patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 infection through the RT-PCR test of nasopharyngeal swabs, aged ≥ 18 years, of both sexes, admitted to the hospital's infirmary in the north of Rio Grande do Sul. The evaluation methods used were the sleep diary and a free application (Sleep As Android) available for smartphones. Results: Thirty patients were evaluated, the majority of whom were male (53%) and the average age was 52 years. Only 1 patient was previously healthy and the main associated comorbidities were hypertension and obesity. Less than 50% of individuals used sleeping pills. However, C-reactive protein levels were altered in most patients. As for the outcomes related to sleep characteristics, significant correlations were observed between increased nighttime awakenings and prolonged hospital stay. In addition, patients diagnosed with depression (23%) had a greater total sleep deficit in a hospital setting. Conclusion: Patients with COVID admitted to hospital nurse units destined for a pandemic have important changes in sleep which are directly related to their lower quality.

18.
Sleep Science ; 15:55, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1935283

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Previous studies have reported that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may decrease the antibody response after vaccination for H1N1, influenza and hepatitis A. Since the emergence of the current pandemic, the same was wondered for vaccination against COVID-19. This possible effect would be especially relevant among older adults, who are subjected to a high prevalence of sleep disorders (mainly obstructive sleep apnea - OSA) and who are at increased risk for severe COVID-19. Objective: To evaluate the effect of OSA on IgG antibody response after vaccination against COVID-19 among older adults. Methods: This study was based on a convenience sample of older adults who underwent polysomnography at the Sleep Institute (São Paulo, Brazil). It was considered eligible those who were 60 years or older, were undergoing full night type-I polysomnography, and have been fully vaccinated against COVID-19. The following exclusion criteria was applied: previous COVID-19 diagnosis, less than 15 days between last vaccine shot and IgG testing, or CPAP use in the last 3 months. All eligible participants undergone blood sampling for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG analysis. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was used to categorize the participants in the following groups: no/mild OSA (IAH < 15), moderate OSA (AHI ≥ 15 and < 30) and severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30). The association between IgG reactive status (seronegative or seropositive) and OSA was evaluated by a X2 test. Log-transformed IgG levels were compared among OSA severity groups using a 1-way ANOVA with Welch's correction. Statistical analyses were performed using Jamovi 1.6 and the significance level was set as p<0.05. Results: The final sample comprised 122 participants, of which 35 had no/mild OSA, 31 had moderate and 56 had severe OSA. Seronegative anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG results were observed in 9.8% of the sample, and the median IgG levels was 273 AU/ mL (IQR: 744) with no statistically significant differences among OSA severity groups in neither case. Conclusion: OSA does not appear to affect IgG antibody response following vaccination against older adults. This is a positive result from a public health perspective, since even being at increased risk for negative COVID-19 outcomes, vaccination among individuals with OSA seems to be equally effective as among those without OSA.

19.
Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System ; 27, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1935098

ABSTRACT

The proceedings contain 69 papers. The topics discussed include: chemotherapy induced peripheral neurotoxicy: why should we care?;studying the caudal nerve anatomy and physiology to refine detection of peripheral nerve damage in rodent models;anxiety and depression in Charcot-Marie-tooth disease: data from the Italian CMT National Registry;fatigue in CMT: a web based survey from the Italian CMT National Registry;early molecular diagnosis of mutations on the transthyretin gene as a strategy to improve the prognosis of hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis - an update of the GENILAM project;THR124MET myelin protein zero mutation mimicking motor neuron disease;torsional neuropathy in parsonage turner syndrome following anti-COVID19 vaccination. how to detect and manage with it?;isolated musculocutaneous involvement in parsonage-turner syndrome associated with SARS-COV2 vaccination;neonatal FC receptor expression in patients with chronic dysimmune neuropathy. a feasibility study;and peripheral neuropathies after common organ transplantations. literature review and the use of electrophysiological tests and ultrasound.

20.
Archives of Razi Institute ; 77(5):1543-1548, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939565

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate some microbial infections and immunological parameters associated with Covid-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Al-Amal Specialized Hospital in AL-Najaf Governorate during February and March 2021. The study included 50 patients who were assigned to two groups: 20 patients aged ≤70 years and 30 patients aged ≥70 years. The method of microbial culture was adopted to isolate bacteria and yeasts by collecting sputum specimens and oral swabs from patients and cultivating them on diagnostic media and then confirming the diagnosis by Vitek. Moreover, serum samples were collected from patients’ blood to diagnose fungal infections. Thereafter, some immunological criteria were assessed, including Covid-19 diagnosis by measuring Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG, as well as examining the concentration of cytokines (Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IF) using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The results demonstrated that bacterial species Streptococcus pneumonia (n=5;25%), Haemophilus Influenzae (n=7;35%), and Moraxella catarrhalis (n=3;15%) were isolated from the first group of patients (≤70 years). The recorded data pointed out that Streptococcus pneumonia (n=10;33.3%), Streptococcus pyogenes (n=5;16.6%), Streptococcus viridans (n=1;3.3%), Haemophilus Influenzae (n=6;20%), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (n=2;6.6%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=2;6.6%) were the isolated and identified microorganisms in the second age group (≥ 70 years). The results revealed that the isolated yeast from the first age group was Candida albicans (n=5;25%) and Candida glabrata (n=3;10%), while in the second age group, 1 (3.3%) Candida albicans was isolated. The results of this study proved that 30% and 10% of patients in the first and second age groups had invasive pulmonary aspergillosis co-infection by detecting Galactomannan (GM) in the blood serum (1.05±0.59, 1.25±0.38), respectively. The results indicated that IgM and IgG levels in the serum of patients in the first age group were 11.42±6.82 and 0.47±6.82, respectively. Moreover, the levels of IgM and IgG in the second age group were 14.84±9.21 and 0.12±0.11, respectively. Furthermore, IFϫ and IL6 levels were 98.37±65.70, and 146.12±46.35 in the first group, while IFϫ and IL6 were obtained at 110.69±47.60 and 133.28±116.94 in the second group, respectively. Elderly patients with severe COVID-19 are more frequently admitted to ICUs since the proportion of severe cases and comorbidities caused by a weakened immune system is higher among this age group. Secondary bacterial infections can also occur, especially Gram-negative bacteria which are among the most significant public health problems worldwide. Moroever, aspergillosis may infect patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and lead to death.

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