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J Med Virol ; 2022 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955920


The surface glycoprotein (S protein) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was used to develop coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. However, SARS-CoV-2, especially the S protein, has undergone rapid evolution and mutation, which has remained to be determined. Here, we analyzed and compared the early (12 237) and the current (more than 10 million) SARS-CoV-2 strains to identify the mutation features and geographical distribution of the S gene and S protein. Results showed that in the early strains, most of the loci were with relative low mutation frequency except S: 23403 (4486 strains), while in the current strains, there was a surge in the mutation strains and frequency, with S: 23403 constantly being the highest one, but tremendously increased to approximately 1050 times. Furthermore, D614 (S: 23403) was one of the most highly frequent mutations in the S protein of Omicron as of March 2022, and most of the mutant strains were still from the United States, and the United Kingdom. Further analysis demonstrated that in the receptor-binding domain, most of the loci with low mutation frequency in the early strains, while S: 22995 was nowadays the most prevalent loci with 3 122 491 strains in the current strains. Overall, we compare the mutation features of the S region in SARS-CoV-2 strains between the early and the current stains, providing insight into further studies in concert with emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants for COVID-19 vaccines.

Life (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524066


SARS-CoV-2 isolates from long-term COVID-19 patients play a significant role in understanding the mechanisms of infection and virus persistence. This study describes a SARS-CoV-2 isolate from a 53-year-old woman from Apulia (Italy), who was COVID-19 positive for approximately four months. In this paper we aimed to investigate any potential correlation between genetic mutations and clinical features of this case of infection. The viral isolate was assigned to lineage B.1.177.51 through whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and harbored a novel set of mutations on the Spike protein (V143D, del144/145 and E484K); furthermore, seroneutralization assays showed impaired response of the surveyed strain to BNT162b2 (Comirnaty) Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine-induced (average reduction of 70%) and convalescent sera (average reduction of 19.04%), when compared to VOC P.1. This study highlights the importance of genomic surveillance for the management of the COVID-19 pandemic, the relevance of monitoring of emerging SARS-CoV-2 mutations in all lineages, and the necessity of testing the response of emerging variants to available therapies and vaccines.