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1.
Virol J ; 19(1): 103, 2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a new epi-center of COVID-19 in Asia and a densely populated developing country, Indonesia is facing unprecedented challenges in public health. SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.466.2 was reported to be an indigenous dominant strain in Indonesia (once second only to the Delta variant). However, it remains unclear how this variant evolved and spread within such an archipelagic nation. METHODS: For statistical description, the spatiotemporal distributions of the B.1.466.2 variant were plotted using the publicly accessible metadata in GISAID. A total of 1302 complete genome sequences of Indonesian B.1.466.2 strains with high coverage were downloaded from the GISAID's EpiCoV database on 28 August 2021. To determine the molecular evolutionary characteristics, we performed a time-scaled phylogenetic analysis using the maximum likelihood algorithm and called the single nucleotide variants taking the Wuhan-Hu-1 sequence as reference. To investigate the spatiotemporal transmission patterns, we estimated two dynamic parameters (effective population size and effective reproduction number) and reconstructed the phylogeography among different islands. RESULTS: As of the end of August 2021, nearly 85% of the global SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.466.2 sequences (including the first one) were obtained from Indonesia. This variant was estimated to account for over 50% of Indonesia's daily infections during the period of March-May 2021. The time-scaled phylogeny suggested that SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.466.2 circulating in Indonesia might have originated from Java Island in mid-June 2020 and had evolved into two disproportional and distinct sub-lineages. High-frequency non-synonymous mutations were mostly found in the spike and NSP3; the S-D614G/N439K/P681R co-mutations were identified in its larger sub-lineage. The demographic history was inferred to have experienced four phases, with an exponential growth from October 2020 to February 2021. The effective reproduction number was estimated to have reached its peak (11.18) in late December 2020 and dropped to be less than one after early May 2021. The relevant phylogeography showed that Java and Sumatra might successively act as epi-centers and form a stable transmission loop. Additionally, several long-distance transmission links across seas were revealed. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 variants circulating in the tropical archipelago may follow unique patterns of evolution and transmission. Continuous, extensive and targeted genomic surveillance is essential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(9)2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952159

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variant proportions in a population can be estimated through genomic sequencing of clinical specimens or wastewater samples. We demonstrate strong pairwise correlation between statewide variant estimates in Oregon, USA, derived from both methods (correlation coefficient 0.97). Our results provide crucial evidence of the effectiveness of community-level genomic surveillance.

3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2511: 407-413, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941393

ABSTRACT

The continuing emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants has perpetuated the current pandemic far beyond initial expectations. It is now likely that this virus is here to stay. Thus, a new infrastructure is required for monitoring and tracking of viral outbreaks which includes epidemiological and genomic surveillance. More effective monitoring will support rapid response times required for development of new treatments and vaccines to help manage the spread of the current virus and prepare the platforms required for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927317

ABSTRACT

We enrolled arriving international air travelers in SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance, using molecular testing of pooled nasal swabs, and sequencing positive samples for viral sublineage. Traveler-based genomic surveillance provided early warning variant detection; we reported the first U.S. Omicron BA.2 and first BA.3 in North America, weeks before next reported detection.

5.
Virus Evol ; 8(2): veac052, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922335

ABSTRACT

The long-term evolution of viruses is ultimately due to viral mutants that arise within infected individuals and transmit to other individuals. Here, we use deep sequencing to investigate the transmission of viral genetic variation among individuals during a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak that infected the vast majority of crew members on a fishing boat. We deep-sequenced nasal swabs to characterize the within-host viral population of infected crew members, using experimental duplicates and strict computational filters to ensure accurate variant calling. We find that within-host viral diversity is low in infected crew members. The mutations that did fix in some crew members during the outbreak are not observed at detectable frequencies in any of the sampled crew members in which they are not fixed, suggesting that viral evolution involves occasional fixation of low-frequency mutations during transmission rather than persistent maintenance of within-host viral diversity. Overall, our results show that strong transmission bottlenecks dominate viral evolution even during a superspreading event with a very high attack rate.

6.
Virus Evol ; 8(1): veac040, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915851

ABSTRACT

Emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants continue to be responsible for an unprecedented worldwide public health and economic catastrophe. Accurate understanding and comparison of global and regional evolutionary epidemiology of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants are critical to guide current and future interventions. Here, we utilized a Bayesian phylodynamic pipeline to trace and compare the evolutionary dynamics, spatiotemporal origins, and spread of five variants (Alpha, Beta, Delta, Kappa, and Eta) across the Arabian Peninsula. We found variant-specific signatures of evolution and spread that are likely linked to air travel and disease control interventions in the region. Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants went through sequential periods of growth and decline, whereas we inferred inconclusive population growth patterns for the Kappa and Eta variants due to their sporadic introductions in the region. Non-pharmaceutical interventions imposed between mid-2020 and early 2021 likely played a role in reducing the epidemic progression of the Beta and the Alpha variants. In comparison, the combination of the non-pharmaceutical interventions and the rapid rollout of vaccination might have shaped Delta variant dynamics. We found that the Alpha and Beta variants were frequently introduced into the Arab peninsula between mid-2020 and early 2021 from Europe and Africa, respectively, whereas the Delta variant was frequently introduced between early 2021 and mid-2021 from East Asia. For these three variants, we also revealed significant and intense dispersal routes between the Arab region and Africa, Europe, Asia, and Oceania. In contrast, the restricted spread and stable effective population size of the Kappa and the Eta variants suggest that they no longer need to be targeted in genomic surveillance activities in the region. In contrast, the evolutionary characteristics of the Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants confirm the dominance of these variants in the recent outbreaks. Our study highlights the urgent need to establish regional molecular surveillance programs to ensure effective decision making related to the allocation of intervention activities targeted toward the most relevant variants.

7.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911633

ABSTRACT

This retrospective multi-center matched cohort study assessed the risk for severe COVID-19 (combination of severity indicators), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and in-hospital mortality in hospitalized patients when infected with the Omicron variant compared to when infected with the Delta variant. The study is based on a causal framework using individually-linked data from national COVID-19 registries. The study population consisted of 954 COVID-19 patients (of which, 445 were infected with Omicron) above 18 years old admitted to a Belgian hospital during the autumn and winter season 2021-2022, and with available viral genomic data. Patients were matched based on the hospital, whereas other possible confounders (demographics, comorbidities, vaccination status, socio-economic status, and ICU occupancy) were adjusted for by using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. The estimated standardized risk for severe COVID-19 and ICU admission in hospitalized patients was significantly lower (RR = 0.63; 95% CI (0.30; 0.97) and RR = 0.56; 95% CI (0.14; 0.99), respectively) when infected with the Omicron variant, whereas in-hospital mortality was not significantly different according to the SARS-CoV-2 variant (RR = 0.78, 95% CI (0.28-1.29)). This study demonstrates the added value of integrated genomic and clinical surveillance to recognize the multifactorial nature of COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Seasons
8.
Microbiol Res ; 262: 127099, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs at different time points through COVID-19 pandemic raised concern for increased transmissibility, infectivity and vaccination breakthroughs. METHODS: 1567 international travellers plus community transmission COVID-19 cases were analysed for mutational profile of VOCS, that led to notable waves in India, namely Alpha, Delta, and Omicron. Spike mutations in Linkage Disequilibrium were investigated for potential impact on structural and functional changes of Spike-ACE2. RESULTS: ORF1ab and spike harboured diverse mutational signatures for each lineage. B.1.617.2 and AY. * demonstrated comparable profile, yet non-clade defining mutations were majorly unique between international vs community samples. Contrarily, Omicron lineages showed substantial overlap in non-clade defining mutations, signifying early phase of transmission and evolution within Indian community. Mutations in LD for Alpha [N501Y, A570D, D1118H, S982A], Delta [P681R, L452R, EFR:156-158 G, D950N, G142D] and Omicron [P681H, D796Y, N764K, N969K, N501Y, S375F] resulted in decreased binding affinity of Spike-ACE2 for Alpha and BA.1 whereas Delta, Omicron and BA.2 demonstrated strong binding. CONCLUSION: Genomic surveillance tracked spread of VOCs in international travellers' vs community transmission. Behavioural transmission patterns of variants, based on selective advantage incurred by spike mutations, led us to predict sudden takeover of Delta over Alpha and BA.2 over BA.1 in India.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , Mutation , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
9.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905894

ABSTRACT

The emergence of different variants of concern of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in upsurges of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases around the globe. Pakistan faced the fourth wave of COVID-19 from July to August 2021 with 314,786 cases. To understand the genomic diversity of circulating SARS-CoV-2 strains during the fourth wave of the pandemic in Pakistan, this study was conducted. The samples from 140 COVID-19-positive patients were subjected to whole-genome sequencing using the iSeq Sequencer by Illumina. The results showed that 97% (n = 136) of isolates belonged to the delta variant while three isolates belonged to alpha and only one isolate belonged to the beta variant. Among delta variant cases, 20.5% (n = 28) isolates were showing B.1.617.2 while 23.5% (n = 25), 17.59% (n = 19), 14.81% (n = 16), and 13.89% (n = 15) of isolates were showing AY.108, AY.43 AY.127, and AY.125 lineages, respectively. Islamabad was found to be the most affected city with 65% (n = 89) of delta variant cases, followed by Karachi (17%, n = 23), and Rawalpindi (10%, n = 14). Apart from the characteristic spike mutations (T19R, L452R, T478K, P681R, and D950N) of the delta variant, the sublineages exhibited other spike mutations as E156del, G142D, T95I, A222V, G446V, K529N, N532S, Q613H, and V483A. The phylogenetic analysis revealed the introductions from Singapore, the United Kingdom, and Germany. This study highlights the circulation of delta variants (B.1.617.2 and sublineages) during the fourth wave of pandemic in Pakistan.

10.
IJID Reg ; 3: 106-113, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899827

ABSTRACT

Background: : SARS-CoV-2 variants have been emerging and are shown to increase transmissibility, pathogenicity, and decreased vaccine efficacies. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution, prevalence, and dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 variants circulating in Brazzaville, the Republic of Congo (ROC). Methods: : Between December 2020 and July 2021, a total of n=600 oropharyngeal specimens collected in the community were tested for COVID-19. Of the samples tested, 317 (53%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive. All samples that had a threshold of Ct <30 (n=182) were sequenced by next-generation sequencing (NGS), and all complete sequenced genomes were submitted to GISAID; lineages were assigned using pangolin nomenclature and a phylogenetic tree was reconstructed. In addition, the global prevalence of the predominant lineages was analysed using data from GISAID and Outbreak databases. Results: : A total of 15 lineages circulated with B.1.214.2 (26%), B.1.214.1 (19%) and B.1.620 (18%) being predominant. The variants of concern (VOC) alpha (B.1.1.7) (6%) and for the first time in June delta (B.1.617.2) (4%) were observed. In addition, the B.1.214.1 lineage first reported from ROC was observed to be spreading locally and regionally. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the B.1.620 variant (VUM) under observation may have originated from either Cameroon or the Central African Republic. SARS-CoV-2 lineages were heterogeneous, with the densely populated districts of Poto-Poto and Moungali likely the epicenter of spread. Conclusion: : Longitudinal monitoring and molecular surveillance across time and space are critical to understanding viral phylodynamics, which could have important implications for transmissibility and impact infection prevention and control measures.

11.
Epidemics ; 39: 100578, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873031

ABSTRACT

From 24 December 2020 to 8 February 2021, 163 cases of SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant of concern (VOC) were identified in Chieti province, Abruzzo region. Epidemiological data allowed the identification of 14 epi-clusters. With one exception, all the epi-clusters were linked to the town of Guardiagrele: 149 contacts formed the network, two-thirds of which were referred to the family/friends context. Real data were then used to estimate transmission parameters. According to our method, the calculated Re(t) was higher than 2 before the 12 December 2020. Similar values were obtained from other studies considering Alpha VOC. Italian sequence data were combined with a random subset of sequences obtained from the GISAID database. Genomic analysis showed close identity between the sequences from Guardiagrele, forming one distinct clade. This would suggest one or limited unspecified viral introductions from outside to Abruzzo region in early December 2020, which led to the diffusion of Alpha VOC in Guardiagrele and in neighbouring municipalities, with very limited inter-regional mixing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genomics , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869819

ABSTRACT

In this study, we analyzed the sequences of SARS-CoV-2 isolates of the Delta variant in Mexico, which has completely replaced other previously circulating variants in the country due to its transmission advantage. Among all the Delta sublineages that were detected, 81.5 % were classified as AY.20, AY.26, and AY.100. According to publicly available data, these only reached a world prevalence of less than 1%, suggesting a possible Mexican origin. The signature mutations of these sublineages are described herein, and phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks are used to track their spread across the country. Other frequently detected sublineages include AY.3, AY.62, AY.103, and AY.113. Over time, the main sublineages showed different geographical distributions, with AY.20 predominant in Central Mexico, AY.26 in the North, and AY.100 in the Northwest and South/Southeast. This work describes the circulation, from May to November 2021, of the primary sublineages of the Delta variant associated with the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico and highlights the importance of SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance for the timely identification of emerging variants that may impact public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
13.
J Med Virol ; 2022 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866549

ABSTRACT

The massive sequencing of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and global genomic surveillance strategies allowed the detection of many variants of concern and interest. The variant of interest Lambda (C.37), which originated in South America, has been the most prevalent in Peru and Chile, but its dispersion in other continents still remains unknown. The current study aims to determine the phylogenetic relationship among C.37 isolates worldwide, focusing on spike mutations to understand the spread of Lambda in pandemics. A total of 7441 sequences identified as C.37 were downloaded from the GISAID database; local analysis was carried out to identify spike mutations and phylogenetic analysis was carried out to determine the rate of spread of the virus. Our results showed some spike mutations of Lambda that allowed us to detect small local outbreaks in different countries that occurred in the past and identify several clades that have not yet been designated. Although the lineage C.37 is not epidemiologically relevant in Europe or North America, the endemic behavior of this variant in Peru had a major impact on the second SARS-CoV-2 wave.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 2): 155828, 2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852047

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 RNA quantification in wastewater is an important tool for monitoring the prevalence of COVID-19 disease on a community scale which complements case-based surveillance systems. As novel variants of concern (VOCs) emerge there is also a need to identify the primary circulating variants in a community, accomplished to date by sequencing clinical samples. Quantifying variants in wastewater offers a cost-effective means to augment these sequencing efforts. In this study, SARS-CoV-2 N1 RNA concentrations and daily loadings were determined and compared to case-based data collected as part of a national surveillance programme to determine the validity of wastewater surveillance to monitor infection spread in the greater Dublin area. Further, sequencing of clinical samples was conducted to determine the primary SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in Dublin. Finally, digital PCR was employed to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 VOCs, Alpha and Delta, were quantifiable from wastewater. No lead or lag time was observed between SARS-CoV-2 wastewater and case-based data and SARS-CoV-2 trends in Dublin wastewater significantly correlated with the notification of confirmed cases through case-based surveillance preceding collection with a 5-day average. This demonstrates that viral RNA in Dublin's wastewater mirrors the spread of infection in the community. Clinical sequence data demonstrated that increased COVID-19 cases during Ireland's third wave coincided with the introduction of the Alpha variant, while the fourth wave coincided with increased prevalence of the Delta variant. Interestingly, the Alpha variant was detected in Dublin wastewater prior to the first genome being sequenced from clinical samples, while the Delta variant was identified at the same time in clinical and wastewater samples. This work demonstrates the validity of wastewater surveillance for monitoring SARS-CoV-2 infections and also highlights its effectiveness in identifying circulating variants which may prove useful when sequencing capacity is limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Ireland/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Waste Water/analysis , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
15.
J Med Virol ; 94(7): 3394-3398, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844084

ABSTRACT

Delta VOC is highly diverse with more than 120 sublineages already described as of November 30, 2021. In this study, through active monitoring of circulating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants in the state of São Paulo, southeast Brazil, we identified two emerging sublineages from the ancestral AY.43 strain which were classified as AY.43.1 and AY.43.2. These sublineages were defined by the following characteristic nonsynonymous mutations ORF1ab:A4133V and ORF3a:T14I for the AY.43.1 and ORF1ab:G1155C for the AY.43.2 and our analysis reveals that they might have a likely-Brazilian origin. Much is still unknown regarding their dissemination in the state of São Paulo and Brazil as well as their potential impact on the ongoing vaccination process. However, the results obtained in this study reinforce the importance of genomic surveillance activity for timely identification of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants which can impact the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and public health policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
Gene ; 823: 146387, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814425

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quickly swept over the world, becoming one of the most devastating outbreaks in human history. Being the first pandemic in the post-genomic era, advancements in genomics contributed significantly to scientific understanding and public health response to COVID-19. Genomic technologies have been employed by researchers all over the world to better understand the biology of SARS-CoV-2 and its origin, genomic diversity, and evolution. Worldwide genomic resources have greatly aided in the investigation of the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has ushered in a new era of genomic surveillance, wherein scientists are tracking the changes of the SARS-CoV-2 genome in real-time at the international and national levels. Availability of genomic and proteomic information enables the rapid development of molecular diagnostics and therapeutics. The advent of high-throughput sequencing and genome editing technologies led to the development of modern vaccines. We briefly discuss the impact of genomics in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in this review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Genomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/classification
17.
Front Genet ; 13: 858252, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809380

ABSTRACT

The global efforts to control COVID-19 are threatened by the rapid emergence of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants that may display undesirable characteristics such as immune escape, increased transmissibility or pathogenicity. Early prediction for emergence of new strains with these features is critical for pandemic preparedness. We present Strainflow, a supervised and causally predictive model using unsupervised latent space features of SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences. Strainflow was trained and validated on 0.9 million sequences for the period December, 2019 to June, 2021 and the frozen model was prospectively validated from July, 2021 to December, 2021. Strainflow captured the rise in cases 2 months ahead of the Delta and Omicron surges in most countries including the prediction of a surge in India as early as beginning of November, 2021. Entropy analysis of Strainflow unsupervised embeddings clearly reveals the explore-exploit cycles in genomic feature-space, thus adding interpretability to the deep learning based model. We also conducted codon-level analysis of our model for interpretability and biological validity of our unsupervised features. Strainflow application is openly available as an interactive web-application for prospective genomic surveillance of COVID-19 across the globe.

18.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0151121, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794530

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 P.1 lineage emerged in Amazonas (AM), North Brazil and its evolution has been dynamically reported associated with increased transmissibility and/or immune evasion. Here, we evaluated the lineages circulating in 29 cities in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil between March 2020 and May 2021 and investigated the genetic events associated with the emergence of the P.1. A total of 202 oro/nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 specimens from patients during routine hospital care were submitted to whole-genome sequencing. Phylogenetic and Bayesian Evolutionary Analyses of the P.1 lineage were carried out to determine the relationship between sequences from RS and AM and dated their common ancestor and origin. One hundred six (53%) sequences were assigned as P.1 and most carried the 22 lineage-defining mutations. All the P.1 sequences included other important mutations, such as P314L and R203K/G204R, and revealed a high genetic diversity in the phylogenetic tree. The time-scaled inference suggests that the oldest P.1 sequences from different Brazilian states share a ancestor with those from AM, but the origin of some sequences from RS is unknown. Further, the common ancestor of sequences from RS is dated to mid-June/July 2020, earlier than those previously reported from AM. Our results demonstrate that there is a high degree of genetic diversity among P.1 sequences, which suggests a continuous evolution and community spread of the virus. Although the first P.1 outbreak was reported in AM, the lineage was associated with multiple introductory events and had already been circulating in Southern Brazil prior to November 2020. IMPORTANCE The SARS-CoV-2 P.1 lineage is associated with increased transmissibility and/or immune evasion and presents a dynamic evolution in Brazil. The significance of our research relies in the fact that we evaluated the SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in Southern Brazil between March 2020 and May 2021. This evaluation allowed us to detect the genetic events associated with the emergence of the P.1 and its sublineages. This study is important because we were able to establish that the common ancestor of P.1 sequences from Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, is dated of mid-June/July 2020, earlier than the P.1 sequences previously reported from Amazonas (AM) state. Noteworthy, the high degree of genetic diversity among P.1 sequences found in this study suggests a continuous evolution and community spread of the virus. Moreover, the oldest P.1 sequences from different Brazilian states share a ancestor with those from AM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Genomics , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing , Young Adult
19.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786076

ABSTRACT

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has played a significant role in understanding the epidemiology and biology of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Here, we investigate the use of SARS-CoV-2 WGS in Southeast and East Asian countries as a genomic surveillance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nottingham-Indonesia Collaboration for Clinical Research and Training (NICCRAT) initiative has facilitated collaboration between the University of Nottingham and a team in the Research Center for Biotechnology, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), to carry out a small number of SARS-CoV-2 WGS in Indonesia using Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT). Analyses of SARS- CoV-2 genomes deposited on GISAID reveal the importance of clinical and demographic metadata collection and the importance of open access and data sharing. Lineage and phylogenetic analyses of two periods defined by the Delta variant outbreak reveal that: (1) B.1.466.2 variants were the most predominant in Indonesia before the Delta variant outbreak, having a unique spike gene mutation N439K at more than 98% frequency, (2) Delta variants AY.23 sub-lineage took over after June 2021, and (3) the highest rate of virus transmissions between Indonesia and other countries was through interactions with Singapore and Japan, two neighbouring countries with a high degree of access and travels to and from Indonesia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Mutation , Pandemics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 797569, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779967

ABSTRACT

Vaccine administration is one of the most efficient ways to control the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the appearance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants can avoid the immunity generated by vaccines. Thus, in patients with a complete vaccine schedule, the infection by SARS-CoV-2 may cause severe, mild, and asymptomatic manifestations of the disease. In this case report, we describe for the first time the clinical symptoms of four patients (three symptomatic; one asymptomatic) from Santiago of Chile, with a complete vaccination schedule with two doses of CoronaVac (Sinovac Life Science) infected with the variant of interest (VOI) B.1.621 (Mu). They were compared with four unvaccinated patients, who had a higher prevalence of symptoms after infection compared to vaccinated patients. In the CoronaVac-vaccinated group, an 80-year-old patient who registered various comorbidities required Invasive mechanical ventilation for 28 days with current home medical recovery discharge. By contrast, in the unvaccinated group, a 71-year-old presented more symptoms with more than 45 days of Invasive mechanical ventilation, which continues to date, presenting greater lung damage than the vaccinated hospitalized patient. This first report evidence differences in the clinical symptomatology of patients vaccinated and non-vaccinated infected with the VOI B.1.621 (Mu) and suggest the protective effects of CoronaVac against this variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chile , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
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