Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 718
Filter
1.
JMIR Formative Research ; 6(4), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834131

ABSTRACT

Digital health–enabled community-centered care (D-CCC) represents a pioneering vision for the future of community-centered care. D-CCC aims to support and amplify the digital footprint of community health workers through a novel artificial intelligence–enabled closed-loop digital health platform designed for, and with, community health workers. By focusing digitalization at the level of the community health worker, D-CCC enables more timely, supported, and individualized community health worker–delivered interventions. D-CCC has the potential to move community-centered care into an expanded, digitally interconnected, and collaborative community-centered health and social care ecosystem of the future, grounded within a robust and digitally empowered community health workforce.

2.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1):353, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1833307

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the 2021 Harvard Medical School course Clinical Topics in Global Health was offered for the first time as a remote class. We sought to understand student and faculty perceptions of the elective and evaluate the perceived effectiveness of teaching global health using an online education platform. METHODS: Following the course, students and faculty were invited to complete a combined total of three online surveys, which consisted of closed- and open-response questions assessing the strengths and challenges of online learning. Data analyses included traditional descriptive statistics, Net Promoter Score calculation, and inductive thematic analysis of qualitative data. RESULTS: Thirty-two students and eighteen guest faculty (including four international faculty) participated in the course. Highly-rated course components included guest lecturers, practical skill sessions, polls, and case studies. The Net Promoter Score for the course was excellent at 92, and students reported a greater likelihood of pursuing a career in global health because of the course. While students and faculty highlighted limitations of the remote learning platform (lack of community and interactivity), they also commented on increased accessibility and faculty diversity. Most faculty and students recommended a hybrid model for future versions of the course and suggested strategies to address current limitations. CONCLUSIONS: A remote learning platform can effectively deliver global health education, both in the pandemic setting and beyond.

3.
Nurse Pract ; 47(5):9, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1831367

ABSTRACT

The theme for 2022 International Nurses Day on May 12 is Nurses: A Voice to Lead – Invest in nursing and respect rights to secure global health. The COVID-19 pandemic catapulted nurses to a heightened visibility as the foundation of every healthcare workforce. What healthcare system is able to function effectually without nurses? The World Health Organization (WHO) has traditionally been a strong advocate for recognizing the value and power of nurses in determining the health of individuals, families, and communities and thus collectively, of global populations. The International Council of Nurses makes a statement by placing the phrase “global health” in this year's theme. Why is this significant? One of the most important healthcare professionals you will find in every corner of the globe is a worker known as a nurse.

4.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-334532

ABSTRACT

Do national strategic interests influence how countries respond to a global health crisis? We answer this question in the context of China’s FDI flows into host countries under the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and China’s COVID-19 vaccine distribution. Employing a newly available dataset on Chinese COVID-19 vaccine deliveries for a cross-section of 108 BRI member countries, our analysis shows that recipients of Chinese FDI under the BRI project have received more vaccines and in the form of donations from China. Our findings confirm that bilateral foreign assistance is influenced by donor strategic concerns. The results remain robust to several robustness checks, including endogeneity concerns.

5.
J Diabetes Complications ; 34(9): 107637, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has taken the world by storm. Alongside COVID-19, diabetes is a long-standing global epidemic. The diabetes population has been reported to suffer adverse outcomes if infected by COVID-19. The aim was to summarise information and resources available on diabetes and COVID-19, highlighting special measures that individuals with diabetes need to follow. METHODS: A search using keywords "COVID-19" and "Diabetes" was performed using different sources, including PubMed and World Health Organization. RESULTS: COVID-19 may enhance complications in individuals with diabetes through an imbalance in angiotension-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activation pathways leading to an inflammatory response. ACE2 imbalance in the pancreas causes acute ß-cell dysfunction and a resultant hyperglycemic state. These individuals may be prone to worsened COVID-19 complications including vasculopathy, coagulopathy as well as psychological stress. Apart from general preventive measures, remaining hydrated, monitoring blood glucose regularly and monitoring ketone bodies in urine if on insulin is essential. All this while concurrently maintaining physical activity and a healthy diet. Different supporting entities are being set up to help this population. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is a top priority. It is important to remember that a substantial proportion of the world's population is affected by other co-morbidities such as diabetes. These require special attention during this pandemic to avoid adding on to the burden of countries' healthcare systems.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Emerg Nurs ; 48(3):250-252, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1828834

ABSTRACT

System-based modifications such as resistors, clamps, and valves have enabled varying levels of control in carefully matched patients.10,11 In addition, the ability to monitor, overcome ventilator self-tests, exposure, and alarms have been overcome by recent systems.11 Splitting high flow oxygen delivered by a mask or a nasal cannula is certainly less risky, although the rate of oxygen consumption would be increased without special valving leading to accelerated depletion of oxygen reservoirs. In 2021, insufficient oxygen reserves and widespread use for COVID-19 patients created drastic shortages, leading to increased mortality in India.12 Technologies to cost-effectively expand high-flow nasal oxygen systems without wastage would benefit health care infrastructures experiencing high caseloads.—Shriya S. Srinivasan, PhD, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Project Prana Foundation, Cambridge 02139, Boston 02115, MA, United States;E-mail: shriyas@mit.edu. Twitter: rajibmndl;Khalil B. Ramadi, PhD, Department of Mechanical Engineering and David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology;Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School;Project Prana Foundation, Cambridge 02139, MA, United States.

7.
Études Anglaises ; 75(1):102-108,121-122, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1824517
8.
International Journal of Biomedical Science ; 17(4):40-45, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1820603

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 has quickly become a daunting challenge to global health. In the absence of satisfied therapy, effective treatment interventions are urgently needed. Previous studies have demonstrated that acupuncture is effective at relieving common symptoms of COVID-19 including breath-lessness, nausea, insomnia, leukopenia, fatigue, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Experiments have shown that nitric oxide (NO) inhibits the replication cycle of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavi-rus with similar structures of COVID-19. Increase in level of NO by using NO gas inhalation has been shown to restore lung function by reducing airway resistance and improving virus-induced lung infections in SARS patients. Recent case report showed that a medical acupuncturist with symptoms consistent with severe COVID pneumonia achieved full recovery by self-administered medical acupuncture and cupping therapy at home. Clinical features and pathophysiology demonstrated that NO deficiency and endothelial dysfunction contribute to the development of COVID-19. Several studies from different groups consistently demonstrated that acupuncture increases NO synthase expression and induces an elevation of NO production and release in plasma and the local skin regions in both animals and humans. It is suggested that exogenous NO supplies or interventions that induce increasing levels of NO can play an important role in protective effects against inflammation and acute lung injury. This article reviews the rationale for mechanisms of NO induction induced by acupuncture in the possible treatment of COVID-19 and highlights its potential for contributing to better clinical outcomes and improving future clinical studies of acupuncture on treatment of COVID-19.

9.
Vaccine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819624

ABSTRACT

Background Several early COVID-19 studies aimed to assess the potential acceptance of a vaccine among healthcare providers, but relatively few studies of this population have been published since the vaccines became widely available. Vaccine safety, speed of development, and low perceived disease risk were commonly cited as factors for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among this group. Purpose and Methods In a secondary analysis based on a cross-sectional, structured survey, the authors aimed to assess the associations between self-reported vaccine hesitancy and a number of sociodemographic and COVID-19 vaccine perception factors using data from 3,295 healthcare providers (physicians, nurses, community health workers, other healthcare providers) in 23 countries. Findings 494 (15.0%) of the participants reported vaccine hesitancy, of whom 132 (4.0%) would outright refuse to accept a COVID-19 vaccine. Physicians were the least hesitant. Vaccine hesitancy was more likely to occur among those with less than the median income and, to a lesser degree, younger age. Safety and risk concerns and lack of trust that vaccines would be equitably distributed were strongly associated with hesitancy, less so were concerns about the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines. Interpretation Findings suggest a need to address safety and risk concerns through tailored messaging, training, and/or incentive approaches among healthcare providers, as well as the need for international and national vaccination efforts to ensure equitable distribution.

10.
An. Fac. Med. (Perú) ; 81(4): 453-457, oct.-dic 2020.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1818802

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La globalización y la salud global son consecuencias de las decisiones de los responsables de los gobiernos que generaron las políticas públicas, los modos de producción y desarrollo, sin pensar en el beneficio de las personas y del medio ambiente, actuando sin responsabilidad ética ni social al no centrarse en la persona. El derecho humano prioriza la salud y la equidad para todas las personas, valorando la igualdad en el ámbito de la política global, la globalización económica y tecnológica, y en los problemas globales relacionados al medio ambiente, el calentamiento global y flujos migratorios, cuya comprensión demanda conocer las relaciones entre salud humana, ambiente y riqueza, priorizando la supervivencia óptima de la humanidad, meta final de la bioética global, para garantizar la dignidad humana y los derechos humanos universales, incluido el derecho a la salud. "La moralidad universal es producto histórico de la experiencia humana", al ser prácticas y lecciones aprendidas en el transcurrir del tiempo. Por consiguiente, las decisiones éticas para solucionar conflictos morales durante la pandemia deben ser racionales y no solo emocionales, circunscritas en el ámbito de lo social y de la justicia distributiva con la finalidad de salvar el mayor número de vidas basado en los principios de la ética social, contraponiendo los principios éticos del ámbito individual como la autonomía que es privilegiada cuando no perjudica a otros y la justicia que la limita cuando se priva la libertad con fines de aislamiento.


ABSTRACT Globalization and global health are consequences of the decisions of government officials who generated public policies, modes of production and development, without thinking about the benefit of people and the environment, acting without ethical or social responsibility when not focusing on the person human right that prioritizes health and equity for all people, valuing equality in the field of global politics, economic and technological globalization and in global problems related to the environment, global warming and flows migratory, whose understanding requires knowing the relationships between human health, environment and wealth, prioritizing the optimal survival of humanity, the final goal of global bioethics, to guarantee human dignity and universal human rights, including the right to health, all time, that "universal morality is a historical product of human experience", being practical and practical lessons rendered over time. Therefore, ethical decisions to solve moral conflicts during the pandemic must be rational and not just emotional, circumscribed in the sphere of social and distributive justice in order to save the greatest number of lives based on the principles of ethics, social, contrasting the ethical principles of the individual sphere such as autonomy that is privileged when it does not harm others and justice that limits it when freedom is deprived for isolation purposes.

11.
Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies ; : 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1815851

ABSTRACT

Public health diplomacy is a diplomatic practice that focuses on addressing public health crises, such as infectious diseases. It is mainly implemented by sovereign states and relies on the joint efforts of health and foreign affairs departments, under the leadership and coordination of international organizations such as the WHO. The purpose is to safeguard national interests and promote global health governance through international medical cooperation. Public health diplomacy has presented new characteristics in the 21st century: health and diplomacy are more and more deeply integrated, involving an increasing number of players;Competition, which co-exists with cooperation on public health, is intensifying in this century;Countries endow this diplomacy with their own characteristics by leveraging their advantages. Compared with that of European countries and America, China's public health diplomacy started late, but has shown its unique characteristics.

12.
The New England Journal of Medicine ; 386(17):1638-1645, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1815683

ABSTRACT

Understanding Vaccine SafetyDevelopment and public acceptance of vaccines are crucial for disease control. This review covers the process of evaluating vaccines for safety and efficacy, authorization pathways, and factors that advisory bodies consider when establishing vaccine recommendations.

13.
Pulmonary Circulation ; 12(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1813592
14.
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition ; 46(SUPPL 1):S60-S61, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1813555

ABSTRACT

Background: Malnutrition is a global health crisis that affects up to one out of two older adults and results in an estimated annual cost of $51.3 billion per year in the United States. Malnutrition is linked to weaker immune responses and poor diaphragmatic and respiratory muscle function. While BMI has been associated with mortality risk in COVID-19 patients, less is known about the impact of malnutrition. This study aims to address the current gap in knowledge regarding the impact of pre-existing and hospital-acquired malnutrition on mortality and combined adverse outcomes in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Methods: This retrospective cohort study utilizes data from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C), a data repository containing harmonized, longitudinal electronic health record data from more than 60 health centers across the United States. Using data collected through September 10, 2021, this study includes a cohort of 1,722,890 patients presenting with SARS-CoV-2 infection from 55 data partners who met minimum reporting requirements (sites reporting deaths one standard deviation below the mean were not considered), of whom 246,272 were hospitalized. Hospitalized patients were separated into three malnutrition groups based on diagnostic codes: no history of malnutrition, history of malnutrition (diagnosed before SARS-CoV-2 infection), and hospital-acquired malnutrition (developed on or after SARS-CoV-2 infection). Primary and secondary outcomes included death or transfer to hospice and combined adverse outcomes, respectively. Combined adverse outcomes were defined as the occurrence of one or more of the following during hospitalization: vasopressor exposure, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), invasive mechanical ventilation, or acute kidney injury. Multivariate logistic regression, including relevant confounders, was used to determine if either history of or hospital-acquired malnutrition increased or decreased odds of death or transfer to hospice and occurrence of a combined adverse outcome in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Results: A total of 246,272 individuals hospitalized with COVID-19 were included in the final analysis (Table 1);200,157 with no history of malnutrition, 31,356 (12.7%) with pre-existing, and 14,759 (6.0%) with hospital-acquired malnutrition. Patients without a history of malnutrition were significantly younger and had a higher body mass index (BMI). The Charlson Comorbidity Index scores of patients with a history of malnutrition were significantly higher than those with no history or with hospital-acquired malnutrition. No difference in smoking history was observed among groups. For those with a diagnosis of malnutrition prior to admission, the odds for both death and adverse events while hospitalized were increased (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.24;p < 0.001;OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.16;p < 0.001, respectively). For those diagnosed with malnutrition during hospital admission, odds of death and adverse events were likewise increased (OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.86, 2.08;p < 0.001;OR: 2.89, 95% CI: 2.77, 3.01;p < 0.001). A plot of adjusted odds ratios for death/transfer to hospice is shown in Figure 2. Conclusion: These results indicate that the risk of mortality and adverse outcomes in hospitalized adults with COVID-19 is significantly higher in malnutrition patients. Screening for malnutrition with the implementation of appropriate interventions may improve outcomes in COVID-19 patients.

15.
Neuroepidemiology ; 56(SUPPL 1):94, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1813111

ABSTRACT

There are currently 449,368,894 confirmed cases and 6,033,022 deaths from the coronavirus COVID- 19 outbreak as of March 08, 2022, leaving 443,335,872 survivors. The actual number of global COVID- 19 cases is likely to be two to three times higher than reported. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the novel virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, resulting in unprecedented global health and economic crises with massive social impacts and massively strained health resources globally. COVID-19 is well recognized as a multi-organ disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations. During the early phases of the pandemic, patient advocacy groups, many members of which identify themselves as long COVID, have helped contribute to the recognition of post-acute COVID-19 Neurological Syndrome (PCNS), a syndrome characterized by persistent symptoms and delayed or long-term complications beyond four weeks from the onset of symptoms. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current literature on post-acute COVID- 19 Neurological Syndrome, its pathophysiology, and its organ-specific sequelae. We explore the shared pathobiological profiles of stroke and COVID-19 involvement in the brain with a significant impact on the long-term care of both groups of survivors. The paper will discuss the role of universal biomarker, serial systemic immune-inflammatory indices (SSIIi) in the context of PCNS and potential implications in post-stroke neurological complications to introduce a systems biology approach to promote brain health for all globally.

16.
Lancet ; 396(10331):1266-1278, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1813107

ABSTRACT

Most countries have made little progress in achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target 3.4, which calls for a reduction in premature mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by a third from 2015 to 2030. In this Health Policy paper, we synthesise the evidence related to interventions that can reduce premature mortality from the major NCDs over the next decade and that are feasible to implement in countries at all levels of income. Our recommendations are intended as generic guidance to help 123 low-income and middle-income countries meet SDG target 3.4;country-level applications require additional analyses and consideration of the local implementation and utilisation context. Protecting current investments and scaling up these interventions is especially crucial in the context of COVID-19-related health system disruptions. We show how cost-effectiveness data and other information can be used to define locally tailored packages of interventions to accelerate rates of decline in NCD mortality. Under realistic implementation constraints, most countries could achieve (or almost achieve) the NCD target using a combination of these interventions;the greatest gains would be for cardiovascular disease mortality. Implementing the most efficient package of interventions in each world region would require, on average, an additional US$18 billion annually over 2023-30;this investment could avert 39 million deaths and generate an average net economic benefit of $2.7 trillion, or $390 per capita. Although specific clinical intervention pathways would vary across countries and regions, policies to reduce behavioural risks, such as tobacco smoking, harmful use of alcohol, and excess sodium intake, would be relevant in nearly every country, accounting for nearly two-thirds of the health gains of any locally tailored NCD package. By 2030, ministries of health would need to contribute about 20% of their budgets to high-priority NCD interventions. Our report concludes with a discussion of financing and health system implementation considerations and reflections on the NCD agenda beyond the SDG target 3A and beyond the SDG period.

17.
Journal of Medical Internet Research Vol 23(8), 2021, ArtID e28249 ; 23(8), 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1812989

ABSTRACT

Background: One of the successful measures to curb COVID-19 spread in large populations is the implementation of a movement restriction order. Globally, it was observed that countries implementing strict movement control were more successful in controlling the spread of the virus as compared with those with less stringent measures. Society's adherence to the movement control order has helped expedite the process to flatten the pandemic curve as seen in countries such as China and Malaysia. At the same time, there are countries facing challenges with society's nonconformity toward movement restriction orders due to various claims such as human rights violations as well as sociocultural and economic issues. In Indonesia, society's adherence to its large-scale social restrictions (LSSRs) order is also a challenge to achieve. Indonesia is regarded as among the worst in Southeast Asian countries in terms of managing the spread of COVID-19. It is proven by the increased number of daily confirmed cases and the total number of deaths, which was more than 6.21% (1351/21,745) of total active cases as of May 2020. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore public sentiments and emotions toward the LSSR and identify issues, fear, and reluctance to observe this restriction among the Indonesian public. Methods: This study adopts a sentiment analysis method with a supervised machine learning approach on COVID-19-related posts on selected media platforms (Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and YouTube). The analysis was also performed on COVID-19-related news contained in more than 500 online news platforms recognized by the Indonesian Press Council. Social media posts and news originating from Indonesian online media between March 31 and May 31, 2020, were analyzed. Emotion analysis on Twitter platform was also performed to identify collective public emotions toward the LSSR. Results: The study found that positive sentiment surpasses other sentiment categories by 51.84% (n = 1,002,947) of the total data (N = 1,934,596) collected via the search engine. Negative sentiment was recorded at 35.51% (686,892/1,934,596) and neutral sentiment at 12.65% (244,757/1,934,596). The analysis of Twitter posts also showed that the majority of public have the emotion of "trust" toward the LSSR. Conclusions: Public sentiment toward the LSSR appeared to be positive despite doubts on government consistency in executing the LSSR. The emotion analysis also concluded that the majority of people believe in LSSR as the best method to break the chain of COVID-19 transmission. Overall, Indonesians showed trust and expressed hope toward the government's ability to manage this current global health crisis and win against COVID-19. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

18.
Rivista Sperimentale di Freniatria: La Rivista della Salute Mentale ; 145(2):13-24, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1812636

ABSTRACT

It is largely recognized that the Covid-19 pandemic has a global impact on public mental health and on the psychosocial balance. The authors analyze critically a number of psychosocial factors (behaviors, beliefs, theories, social adjustment, etc.) related to pandemics, throughout history. They describe how social reactions to pandemics can be similar, over time and across cultures, and how strategies of social adjustment are based on the socio-cultural contexts. The authors argue that a historical analysis of pandemics and of their psychosocial factors could indicate political strategies and social interventions, and help promote social adjustment to the present-day global health and economic emergencies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved) (Italian) E stato ampiamente riconosciuto che la pandemia di Covid-19 sta avendo un impatto sulla salute mentale pubblica e sull'equilibrio psicosociale a livello globale. Questo articolo fornisce un'analisi critica dei fattori psicosociali (ad esempio comportamenti, credenze, teorie, adattamento sociale, ecc.) legati alle pandemie nel corso della storia. Verra inoltre evidenziato come le reazioni sociali alle pandemie possano essere simili nel corso dei secoli e tra culture diverse e strategie di adattamento sociale possano basarsi sul contesto socio-culturale. Riteniamo che un'analisi storica dei fattori psicosociali legati alle pandemie nel corso dei secoli possa suggerire strategie politiche e interventi sociali per promuovere l'adeguamento sociale all'attuale emergenza sanitaria ed economica globale. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

19.
Vaccines ; 10(4):633, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810357

ABSTRACT

Despite advances in scaling up new vaccines in low- and middle-income countries, the global number of unvaccinated children has remained high over the past decade. We used 2000–2019 household survey data from 154 surveys representing 89 low- and middle-income countries to assess within-country, economic-related inequality in the prevalence of one-year-old children with zero doses of diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis (DTP) vaccine. Zero-dose DTP prevalence data were disaggregated by household wealth quintile. Difference, ratio, slope index of inequality, concentration index, and excess change measures were calculated to assess the latest situation and change over time, by country income grouping for 17 countries with high zero-dose DTP numbers and prevalence. Across 89 countries, the median prevalence of zero-dose DTP was 7.6%. Within-country inequalities mostly favored the richest quintile, with 19 of 89 countries reporting a rich–poor gap of ≥20.0 percentage points. Low-income countries had higher inequality than lower–middle-income countries and upper–middle-income countries (difference between the median prevalence in the poorest and richest quintiles: 14.4, 8.9, and 2.7 percentage points, respectively). Zero-dose DTP prevalence among the poorest households of low-income countries declined between 2000 and 2009 and between 2010 and 2019, yet economic-related inequality remained high in many countries. Widespread economic-related inequalities in zero-dose DTP prevalence are particularly pronounced in low-income countries and have remained high over the previous decade.

20.
Vaccines ; 10(4):567, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810350

ABSTRACT

An effective Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) framework helps vaccination programme managers determine progress and effectiveness for agreed indicators against clear benchmarks and targets. We aimed to identify the literature on M&E frameworks and indicators used in national vaccination programmes and synthesise approaches and lessons to inform development of future frameworks. We conducted a scoping review using Arksey and O’Malley’s six-stage framework to identify and synthesise sources on monitoring or evaluation of national vaccination implementation that described a framework or indicators. The findings were summarised thematically. We included 43 eligible sources of 4291 screened. Most (95%) were in English and discussed high-income (51%) or middle-income (30%) settings, with 13 in Europe (30%), 10 in Asia-Pacific (23%), nine in Africa (21%), and eight in the Americas (19%), respectively, while three crossed regions. Only five (12%) specified the use of an M&E framework. Most (32/43;74%) explicitly or implicitly included vaccine coverage indicators, followed by 12 including operational (28%), five including clinical (12%), and two including cost indicators (5%). The use of M&E frameworks was seldom explicit or clearly defined in our sources, with indicators rarely fully defined or benchmarked against targets. Sources focused on ways to improve vaccination programmes without explicitly considering ways to improve assessment. Literature on M&E framework and indicator use in national vaccination programmes is limited and focused on routine childhood vaccination. Therefore, documentation of more experiences and lessons is needed to better inform vaccination M&E beyond childhood.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL