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1.
ERS Monograph ; 2023(99):214-219, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2322899

ABSTRACT

The global burden of TB disease is characterised by inequalities throughout the cascade of care. These inequalities are evident across regions and within countries. Indeed, populations with the highest burden of TB disease have the least access for TB health services for prevention, timely diagnosis, appropriate treatment and follow-up. In the face of global health emergencies such as COVID-19, these inequalities increase, resulting in worse outcomes for key populations that are already disproportionately affected by TB disease. Children bear the biggest brunt of the inequalities in the TB cascade of care. There is therefore an urgent need to address these, in line with the United Nations SDGs for improving health and well-being for all.Copyright © ERS 2023.

2.
Annales Medico Psychologiques. ; 2023.
Article in English, French | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2322858

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this review is to define the feeling of loneliness within a couple while taking into consideration the factors that lead a person to feel lonely in a couple or in a romantic relationship. Our goal is to understand the effects of the feeling of loneliness on these individuals during the global health crisis brought on by COVID-19 and to take these factors into account in designing effective therapeutic care. The different manifestations of loneliness in a couple should also be highlighted. Method(s): We used the PRISMA methodology to select the relevant studies. The keywords ("Solitude" or "Loneliness") and ("Couple" or "Married" or "Partnership") allowed us to select 19 references dealing with the theme. We conducted searches of the following databases: "Cairn", "PsychInfo and Psycarticle", "PubMed and Medline", "ScienceDirect" and finally, "Web of Science" in order to find articles covering a ten-year period. Result(s): There are different definitions for the subjective experience of loneliness. The review of the literature highlights the fact that loneliness can lead to positive or negative psychological consequences (it can lead to the development of creative capacity or, on the contrary, result in depression in some cases). Attachment patterns have been shown to be the basis for the tolerance of feelings of loneliness. Indeed, an anxious attachment would encourage the couple to avoid the feeling of loneliness. According to the literature, this defensive mechanism of seeking presence in the couple would make it possible to limit the impact of loneliness. This solitude depends on the level of relational quality within the couple. A poor relational quality would lead to greater loneliness and would impact intimate relationships. Loneliness is supposedly not experienced in the same way by men and women: Men seem to be more protected by marriage while women's level of loneliness may be higher because of the household chores they have to do. Men and women would nevertheless remain subject to the phenomena of contamination, i.e., when one of the partners feels lonely, the other will also be lonely. However, it seems that marriage protects against feelings of loneliness and its negative consequences. Loneliness does not have only negative effects. It can be beneficial for developing creativity and finding oneself. The periods of confinement during the COVID-19 crisis provided people with an increase in the amount of time they didn't normally have on a daily basis. This may have been beneficial for some people and can be associated with positive emotions. Individuals who spent the lockdowns with others felt less alone and experienced less psychological distress. However, confinements did produce some negative effects on couples. The increased stress of the pandemic and the constant proximity led to an increase in spousal abuse. The consequences of confinement for couples whose relationships were already troubled resulted in frequent separation and/or divorce. The potential for conflict was related to limited financial resources, not working, and the significant risk of contracting SARS COV-2. Conclusion(s): The articles dealing with the feeling of loneliness that we reviewed presented quantitative methods to the detriment of qualitative aspects and focused largely on the negative aspects of the feeling of loneliness. Other academic disciplines, such as sociology, demonstrate a lack of understanding concerning what is at stake with the feeling of loneliness. The articles intersect and tend to highlight the attachment relationships that are formed in childhood as a determining factor in the feeling of solitude later in life. The quality of the relationship, gender, and marital status are also factors to be considered. Loneliness has a clear influence on the well-being of the relationship but it is not an individual characteristic of the relationship itself. It finally appears as an individual characteristic with an impact on the assessment of the quality of the relationship and on the appreciatio of the spouse.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Masson SAS

3.
Hepatology International ; 17(Supplement 1):S19-S20, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2322379

ABSTRACT

In 1990, the seroprevalence of antibody against hepatitis C virus (anti- HCV) in Taiwan was first documented to be 0.95% in volunteer blood donors, 90% in hemophiliacs, and 81% in parenteral drug abusers. The risk factors for HCV infection in Taiwan include iatrogenic transmission (medical injection, hemodialysis, acupuncture, and blood transfusion), tattooing, and sexual transmission. The long-term risk of hepatic and non-hepatic diseases has been well-documented by REVEL-HCV study. A national program of antiviral therapy for chronic viral hepatitis was launched in Taiwan in 2003. Mortality rates of end-stage liver diseases decreased continuously from 2000-2003 to 2008-2011 in all age and gender groups. When the World Health Assembly adopted the Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis in 2016, National program to eliminate hepatitis C was very carefully evaluated. It became a consensus to reach the WHO's 2030 goals in 2025. Taiwan Hepatitis C Policy Guideline 2018-2025 was approved and published at the beginning of 2019. There are triple focuses of hepatitis C elimination in Taiwan including (1) therapy spearheads prevention, (2) screening supports therapy, and (3) prevention secures outcome. A total of US$1.7 billion will be allocated from 2017 to 2025 for the elimination of HCV. The coverage of HCV screening and treatment has been increasing significantly since 2017. The HCV screening coverage was almost 100% for dialytic patients, 96% for HIV-infected patients, 65% for patients under opioid substitution treatment, 63% for patients in the pre-end-stage renal disease care program, 57% for patients in the early chronic kidney disease care program, 52% for patients in diabetes care program, 39% for prisoners, and 38% for adults aged 45-79 years old in the general population by April 30, 2020. The budget to cover the cost of DAA increased from US$101 million in 2017 to US$219 million in 2019. The number of chronic hepatitis C patients receiving DAA therapy increased from 9,538 in 2017, 19,549 in 2018, to 45,806 in 2019. However, the number of DAA-treated CHC patients reduced to 36,159 in 2020 and 20,559 in 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The cure rate based on SVR12 was 96.8% in 2017, 97.4% in 2018, over 98.6% after 2019. It is expected that Taiwan will achieve WHO's HCV elimination goal by 2025.

4.
Human Rights Law Review ; 23(1), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2322186

ABSTRACT

While the right to health has gained significant momentum in international law over the past two years, there is little clarity on what it means for States to comply with this right in times of COVID-19. Taking Articles 2(1) and 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights as a starting point, our article follows an approach guided by the rules of treaty interpretation under the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties to suggest how right to health obligations to prevent, treat and control infectious diseases should be interpreted in relation to COVID-19, and how these obligations interact with general obligations of immediacy, progressive realisation, minimum core and international assistance and cooperation in this context. This article makes a novel contribution to clarifying the right to health during COVID-19, thus enhancing capacity for the oversight of this right;its incorporation in global health law;and the understanding of its corresponding obligations in future global health emergencies. © 2023 The Author(s) [2023].

5.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S36-S37, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2321940

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the causal agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, is related to a group of viruses (Sarbecovirus) that circulate in horseshoe bats. Its origin is still uncertain, as there is lack of an identifiable intermediate host species for the proximal animal ancestor of SARS-CoV-2. Irrespective of its origin, SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to replicate in many mammalian species. So far, over forty species have been found to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and natural infections have been documented in at least 23 species of distant mammalian orders, including Primata, Rodentia, Carnivora, and Arthiodactyla. In two of those species, minks and white tailed deer, continued transmission among conspecifics occurred following introduction of SARS-CoV-2 from humans, at a rate which makes mink farms and deer populations suitable compartments where the virus may be maintained and evolve, and then perhaps spill back to humans or other animals as a new variant, as suggested by molecular evidence. Considering the above, what is truly unique about this pandemic, and adds a major obstacle to attain its control, is its multi-host nature. This is another compelling example of the relevance of the 'One Health' approach. This approach recognizes the inextricable links between people and nature, and visualizes the health and disease phenomenon from an integrative perspective. The COVID-19 pandemic urges us to acknowledge the interconnection between people and the remaining forms of life, and with the environments they share, and demonstrates that the improvement of global health needs a collaborative, multisectoral, and transdisciplinary approach, acting at the local, regional and global levels. This concept becomes paramount when taking into account that most diseases affecting humans in the last decades -not only COVID-19 - have been caused by pathogens originated in animals.Copyright © 2023

6.
Globalisation, Societies and Education ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2321852

ABSTRACT

While COVID-19 has underlined many global interdependencies, it has also made clear the ways in which these globalised connections are structured by profound inequalities. Teaching in this context has been deeply challenging for many educators around the world. For related reasons, though, the pandemic has also created new provocations for global citizenship education (GCE) attuned specifically to the problems of health vulnerability and sub-citizenship caused by socio-economic inequalities. Describing one such educational opportunity, we examine the lessons learned from connecting two university courses across continents through a Collaborative Online International Learning (COIL) collaboration in the middle of the pandemic. Our courses brought together students from India and the US online to study how health vulnerabilities under COVID compared in the two countries. The collaborations of our Indian and American students helped them to develop practical skills in communication across a vast distance, while also offering cosmopolitical opportunities for learning ‘other-wise'. Based on their reflections on their learning in the course, we suggest that the COIL approach provided a useful set of lessons about how global citizenship education can be enhanced through transnational and collaborative, but also critical and comparative attention to sub-citizenship in the world at large. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

7.
2nd International Conference for Innovation in Technology, INOCON 2023 ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2321603

ABSTRACT

The virus SARS-CoV2 was identified in late 2019. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still a threat to global health and safety. Deep Learning (DL) is anticipated to be the most excellent strategy for reliably predicting COVID-19. Convolutional Neural Networks(CNNs) have achieved successful outcomes particularly in categorization and analyzing of medical image data. This work proposes a Deep CNN(DCNN) method for the classification of CX-R(Chest X-Ray) images in prediction of COVID-19. The dataset is preprocessed under many phases with different techniques for creating effective training dataset for the DCNN model to achieve best performance. This is done to deal various complexities like availability of very small sized imbalanced dataset with quality issues. In the first instance, model is trained using the train dataset. Then the model is tested for a separate validate X-ray image dataset and Confusion matrix is displayed. Up to 98.3% Accuracy is obtained, when proposed model was tested using the validate dataset. The Accuracy and Loss graph is plotted for the same. Later, random image prediction is made from prediction dataset which include both COVID and Normal X-rays. Other important performance metrics like F1 score, Recall, Precision for the model is displayed. © 2023 IEEE.

8.
COVID-19 Pandemic, Crisis Responses and the Changing World: Perspectives in Humanities and Social Sciences ; : 1-402, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2327409

ABSTRACT

This book comprehensively analyzes COVID-19 and its impact as well as the response from the perspectives of humanities and social sciences. This book covers topics ranging from geopolitical relations to regional integration, public health governance and even the evolution of professional practices in the time of COVID-19. It constitutes a precious and timely interdisciplinary reference for anyone aspiring not only to grasp the origins and dynamics of the present challenge, but also to identify future opportunities for further growth and holistic progress for humanity. © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021.

9.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S1098, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2327379

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Global health (GH) education is expanding and 23.1% of US medical students acquire international health experience prior to postgraduate training. Digestive diseases carry a high global burden. However, few GH programs and professional societies consider the inclusion of gastroenterology into their standard curriculum. In addition, travel restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic have brought traditional GH rotations to a halt and spurred new educational approaches. Our goal is to develop a comprehensive online learning module on gastroenterology issues in GH for medical students undertaking GH electives. Method(s): A team of faculty and residents was convened between the Center for Community and Global Health and the Division of Gastroenterology. GH curricula across institutions and core competencies across 2 professional societies were examined via literature review. A survey was conducted among 2nd (MS2) and 3rd year medical students (MS3) interested in GH to assess attitudes toward GI-related issues in GH curriculum. An online learning module was developed consisting of 10, video-based lessons each addressing specific GH competencies (Figure 1). Result(s): In total, 41% (28/69) of MS2 and MS3 interested in GH responded to the survey, with a similar distribution of MS2 (13/28) and MS3 (15/28). Nearly all (92.8%) reported that learning GI conditions in a GH curriculum is moderately or very important (Table 1). A majority (78.5%) also reported feeling at least somewhat anxious or more about managing GI conditions during GH electives. Few medical students reported feeling moderately or extremely prepared to identify risk factors for GI conditions in different settings (21.5%) and to define approaches to therapy in resource-limited settings (14.3%). Interestingly, a majority (71.4%) reported feeling not at all prepared or slightly prepared to deliver cost-effective care to challenging populations. Conclusion(s): Our survey responses demonstrated an unmet need for GI-related training and cost-conscious care in the GH curriculum. Developing an online learning module on GI conditions to supplement GH curriculum may be useful and feasible. A randomized controlled trial is underway to examine the effect of this online learning module on medical student knowledge and preparedness to address GI conditions in GH electives.

10.
Clinical Approaches to Hospital Medicine: Advances, Updates and Controversies: Second Edition ; : 321-338, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2327011

ABSTRACT

Despite the United States' unique delivery of healthcare and status as a place of discovery and cutting-edge science, overall life expectancy is actually lower than that of other countries with similar per capita income. In comparison, developing countries around the world are utilizing innovative tactics to provide care to large amounts of people in a cost-effective way. The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, if anything, has proven the interconnectedness of the world, showing how certain health diseases can directly affect those in other countries, bringing the need to understand global health to the forefront of medicine. © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022.

11.
Pacific Review ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2326434

ABSTRACT

This article seeks to advance our understanding of the role of sovereignty for regional governance, with a focus on the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). We argue that important insights into this issue can be gleaned by analyzing how ASEAN has responded to the Covid-19 pandemic. Most existing research on ASEAN considers sovereignty an obstacle to effective regional governance without further interrogating it conceptually. Such a monolithic understanding fails to account for ASEAN's variegated response to the pandemic. To develop a fuller account of the relation between sovereignty and regional governance, we engage with scholarship on sovereignty that emphasizes its performative and contextual character, and develop a framework that distinguishes four different sovereignty scripts. Drawing on expert interviews and document analysis, we show that ASEAN's multifaceted Covid-19 response is a result of member states' parallel enactment of diverging and overlapping sovereignty scripts, which engender competing modes of governance. Our study shows that typical governance problems–institutional proliferation and incoherence as well as implementation gaps–can be understood as emerging from diverging imperatives for practicing sovereignty and statehood. We suggest that our framework can be tested in other policy fields and regional organizations beyond ASEAN. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

12.
Delineating Health and Health System: Mechanistic Insights into Covid 19 Complications ; : 63-95, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2326334

ABSTRACT

Slow acceptance and delayed response of the state/public have been a common feature in the history of infectious disease pandemics. Globalization affects both the genesis and the control strategies of the pandemics. The general public, health professionals, political leaders as well as administrative authorities, all have shown some or other changes in their routine working or living style while handling the COVID-19 situation. Gradually, the new ways of living ‘the new normal' have transformed into new behaviour. The response of different sections of society has also been different. The bulk of the changes was linked to the fear and panic about the chances of spread/catching of infection which brought the world to its knees. The second wave of the Corona pandemic in 2021 saw shortage and black marketeering of medical supply essentials. Vaccination has emerged as the dominant strategy this time. In the atmosphere of too many rumours, fake news, disinformation and so on, a third wave has now been predicted. There is a significant role of public health discipline in controlling any pandemic like Corona. Generic, age-old preventive measures are the only way out for the infections which spread through the respiratory route, with a fast person-to-person spread. Corona pandemic has provided a lesson for us that for communicable disease control, there is a need to inculcate a nature-friendly responsible behaviour to ensure peaceful co-existence between people and microbes. © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021.

13.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S77, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2326123

ABSTRACT

Intro: The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted a need for an open-source repository of line-list case data for infectious disease surveillance and research efforts. Global.health was launched in January 2020 as a global resource for public health data research. Here, we describe the data and systems underlying the Global.health datasets and summarize the project's 2.5 years of operations and the curation of the COVID-19 and monkeypox repositories. Method(s): The COVID-19 repository is curated daily through an automated system, verified by a team of researchers. The monkeypox dataset is curated manually by a team of researchers, Monday-Friday. Both repositories include metadata fields on demographics, symptomology, disease confirmation date, and others1,2. Data is de-identified and ingested from trusted sources, such as government public health agencies, trusted media outlets, and established openaccess repositories. Finding(s): The Global.health COVID-19 dataset is the largest repository of publicly available validated line-list data in the world, with over 100 million cases from more than 100 countries, including 60+ fields of metadata, comprising over 1 billion unique data points. The monkeypox dataset has over 35,000 data entries, from 100 different countries. 7,325 users accessed the COVID-19 repository and 3,005 accessed the monkeypox repository. Conclusion(s): The Global.health repositories provide verified, de-identified case data for two global outbreaks and are used by CDC, WHO, and other national public health organizations for surveillance and forecasting efforts. The repositories were utilized to share insights into the COVID-19 pandemic and track the monkeypox outbreak using real-time data3-6. We are collaborating with WHO Hub for Pandemic and Epidemic Intelligence to improve coordination, data schemas, and downstream use of data to inform and evaluate public health policy7. Future work will focus on creating a 'turnkey' data system to be used in future outbreaks for quicker infectious disease surveillance.Copyright © 2023

14.
Humanities & Social Sciences Communications ; 10(1):243, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2325653

ABSTRACT

The advent of the COVID-19 pandemic and the inequitable response to it has created a space for rethinking the knowledge translation that informs current health policy formulation and planning. Wide recognition of the failure of global health governance and national health systems has led to calls for reviving the Primary Health Care (PHC) agenda for post-COVID health systems development. Despite the joint international declaration on PHC made four decades ago, it has had limited application. This paper argues that the recent attempts to rethink PHC will prove inadequate without analysing and learning from the politics of knowledge (PoK) underlying global health policy and planning. Even with the growing relevance of the spirit of the Alma-Ata Declaration (1978) and its operationalisation as detailed in the report of conference proceedings, reassessment of reasons for its limited implementation continues to be located largely in the political economy of the medical establishment, the international economic order or in national governance flaws. Failure to address the dominant knowledge paradigm in the Alma Ata articulation of PHC has contributed to its limited application. This calls for expansion in the analysis from knowledge translation to generation and hierarchisation of knowledge. The paper discusses how the application of PoK as an analytical lens helps understand the power equations underlying the process of knowledge generation and its translation into policy and practice. Beneath the techno-centric and commodified health system is the dominant ‘knowledge' system whose foundations and assumptions ought to be interrogated. By following a PoK approach, a reorientation of thinking about the relationship between various forms of knowledge and knowledge holders is anticipated. A new health service system design is outlined—translating the spirit of PHC of 1978 into a ‘PHC Version 2.0'—that addresses the PoK gap in operational terms, with an approach to guide all levels of healthcare. It suggests how the world can be empowered to respond better by engaging with diverse ontologies and epistemologies to conceptualise knowledge and frame policies. Further, in the contexts of Asia, Africa and Latin America, it can contribute to the development of self-reliance to democratise general health policy and planning in the post-pandemic period.

15.
Frontiers in Health Informatics ; 11, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2325183

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This critical study was aimed to investigate the utility of the Global Health Security Index in predicting the current COVID-19 responses. Material and Methods: Number of infected patients, deaths, incidence and the death rate per 100,000 populations related to 55 countries per week for 26 weeks were extracted. The relationship of GHSI scores and country preparedness for the pandemic was compared. Results: According to the GHSI, the incidence rate in most prepared countries was higher than the incidence rate in the more prepared countries, and which was higher than the incidence rate in the least prepared countries. However, Prevention, Detection and reporting, Rapid response, Health system, compliance with international norms and Risk environment, as well as Overall, the incidence and death rate per 100,000 people have not been like this. Conclusion: Due to mismatch between the GHSI score and fact about COVID-19 incidence, it seems necessary to investigate the factors involved in this discrepancy. © 2022, Published by Frontiers in Health Informatics.

16.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S81, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2324889

ABSTRACT

Intro: The COVID-19 pandemic remains a public health problem threatening national and global health security. Early during the pandemic, countries and governments including Lebanon declared states of emergency and imposed strict public health measures including national lockdowns and nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce the spread of the virus. Lebanon has been struggling with plethora of challenges at the social, economic, financial, political and healthcare levels before the start of the pandemic in the country in February 2020. Method(s): The aim of this study is to advance the evolution of the COVID-19 epidemiology in Lebanon pre- and post-vaccination as well as the gaps and challenges affecting recovery and response. We will present the evolution of total number of cases, PCR positivity rates, case-fatality rates an hospitalizations. Finding(s): We present the evolution of the clinical and melocular epidemiology of COVID-19 in Lebanon, national response prior and following the introduction of COVID-19 vaccines and the impact of the latter on the course of the pandemic in Lebanon, national challenges and successes as well as the need to reimagine a national health strategy. The COVID-19 pandemic revealed the vulnerability, gaps and needs of the Lebanese health infrastructure including epidemiologic surveillance, genomic surveillance, integrated and concerted data sharing, diagnostic capacity, community mobilization and risk communication. Conclusion(s): The COVID-19 pandemic has been an eye opener about the need to invest in systemic and equal improvement in national health strategies. This is key to prevent future pandemics and to protect global health security. National and international coordinated strategies for emergency preparedness, response and recovery are critically needed in order to support the continuous monitoring of potential threats. The national commitment to these important inherent components of a rapid response requires investment in human and technical expertise to reduce inequality in access to information and care.Copyright © 2023

17.
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education ; 61(2):59-69, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2324637

ABSTRACT

Increased migration and im/migrant (i.e. migrant and immigrant) inequities, particularly during COVID-19, call for experiential global public health teaching to adequately prepare future leaders. We evaluated student perspectives on the benefits, drawbacks, and lessons learned from a migrant health field course in the U.S.-Mexico border region. We analyzed qualitative data from reflexive diary-writing assignments and post-course evaluations from graduate and undergraduate students (N = 12). Students highlighted personal growth and reflexivity, professional development opportunities, and benefits and drawbacks of the immersive course design as key themes. Tri-national learning across Canada, Mexico and the U.S., and an interdisciplinary, cross-cultural learning model allowed for deeper understandings of globally relevant and politically and socially complex issues through community engagement and 'real-world' approaches. Students described benefits of reflexive learning, bridging classroom-based learning with field experiences, and learning about community-engaged research in advancing im/migrant justice, though acknowledged challenges of intensive course design. Narratives highlighted unique needs in navigating challenges inherent in reflexive learning on sensitive topics, such as structural inequities faced by asylum seekers. This evaluation provides unique empirical evidence to inform future experiential learning opportunities rooted in equity-oriented approaches, which are crucial for advancing hands-on learning regarding global issues. Appropriate approaches must ensure ethical, respectful community engagement and ongoing support for students.Copyright © 2021 Institute of Health Promotion and Education.

18.
Health Policy Plan ; 2023 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326377

ABSTRACT

The global health agenda-a high stakes process in which problems are defined and compete for the kind of serious attention that promises to help alleviate inequities in the burden of disease-is comprised of priorities set within and among a host of interacting stakeholder arenas. This study informs crucial and unanswered conceptual and measurement questions with respect to civil society priorities in global health. The exploratory two-stage inquiry probes insights from experts based in four world regions and pilots a new measurement approach, analysing nearly 20 000 Tweets straddling the COVID-19 pandemic onset from a set of civil society organizations (CSOs) engaged in global health. Expert informants discerned civil society priorities principally on the basis of observed trends in CSO and social movement action, including advocacy, program, and monitoring and accountability activities-all of which are widely documented by CSOs active on Twitter. Systematic analysis of a subset of CSO Tweets shows how their attention to COVID-19 soared amidst mostly small shifts in attention to a wide range of other issues between 2019 and 2020, reflecting impacts of a focusing event and other dynamics. The approach holds promise for advancing measurement of emergent, sustained and evolving civil society priorities in global health.

19.
BMJ Evid Based Med ; 28(3): 144-147, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325777
20.
Milbank Q ; 101(S1): 734-769, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323335

ABSTRACT

Policy Points Global health institutions and instruments should be reformed to fully incorporate the principles of good health governance: the right to health, equity, inclusive participation, transparency, accountability, and global solidarity. New legal instruments, like International Health Regulations amendments and the pandemic treaty, should be grounded in these principles of sound governance. Equity should be embedded into the prevention of, preparedness for, response to, and recovery from catastrophic health threats, within and across nations and sectors. This includes the extant model of charitable contributions for access to medical resources giving way to a new model that empowers low- and middle-income countries to create and produce their own diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics-such as through regional messenger RNA vaccine manufacturing hubs. Robust and sustainable funding of key institutions, national health systems, and civil society will ensure more effective and just responses to health emergencies, including the daily toll of avoidable death and disease disproportionately experienced by poorer and more marginalized populations.


Subject(s)
Global Health , Population Health , International Cooperation , Government Programs
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