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1.
Science of The Total Environment ; : 161316, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165834

ABSTRACT

This study proposes the top gainer principle (TGP) and builds a calculation model based on the TGP to measure production carbon emissions transfer (PCET) in the context of global value chains. Compared with embodied carbon research, the innovative TGP model establishes a traceability mechanism based on the difference between responsibility and actual emissions from the perspective of the value chain, avoiding the endless debate between producer and consumer responsibility, which makes the TGP model more reasonable and fairer. In addition, using long-term input-output data, this study measures spatiotemporal patterns and the network evolution of global PCET. The results show that the total amount of global PCET has increased, and the regions with high outflows of PCET mainly include East Asia, North America, Central and Western Europe, and Russia. Among these regions, the United States and China accounted for the largest proportion of PCET outflow. By contrast, South America and Africa are typical low-outflow regions. From North America via central Europe, Turkey, Iran, South Asia to China, is a "W”-shaped high net outflow belt. The overall concentration of the global PCET network first decreased and then increased, and the network structure evolved into a bipolar network group with China and the United States as the core. Under the shock of the COVID-19 pandemic, the network structure showed a trend towards decentralization. This study suggests that efforts should be made to strengthen the responsibility of major countries, enhance the supervision of lead firms, establish a carbon emission transfer compensation system within value chains, and promote the development and spread of carbon emission reduction technologies to facilitate the reduction of global carbon emissions.

2.
Procedia Comput Sci ; 207: 2474-2482, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2159716

ABSTRACT

Almost everyone on the globe had to adjust to new conditions as a result of Covid-19 in conjunction with digitization. Contact and entry limitations damaged global business, trade and social connections. In addition, there is an increasing impact of digitization in supply chain. Regarding these disruptions current publications emphasize that global value chains are transforming to become more resilient. This study analyzes potential factors that might increase resilience in such a dynamic environment. The research is based on a quantitative empirical study to test the formulated hypotheses. The research questions were investigated trough a survey with logistics professionals. Two hypotheses were established as significant throughout the study. These are the robustness and responsiveness of global value chains, which have a substantial impact on their resilience. Both are determined direct or indirect by digital technologies. The complexity of global value chains had no discernible effect on the resilience of the system. A structural equation model is used to analyze the data's processing. This is achieved via a hypothesis model. As a result, major implications on global value chains' resilience can be found.

3.
Global Perspectives ; 2(1), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2154378

ABSTRACT

Global value chains (GVCs) have increased efficiencies, accelerated production, reduced costs, and increased wealth and opportunities for workers, firms, nations, and the global economy as a whole. However, the benefits and efficiencies provided by these GVCs come at the cost of increasing risks. This is largely because the emergence and evolution of GVCs have been enabled by advancements in globalization, complexity, and technology, as well as the development of critical global systems that underpin these industries—such as communication, transportation, financial systems, and others. GVCs are thus only as stable as these underlying global systems upon which they depend, and are vulnerable to potential shocks to these systems.The COVID-19 pandemic and other recent global interruptions in GVCs have demonstrated the importance of applying a systems theory approach, which allows us to identify—and eventually begin managing for—the multidimensional risks that these global industries face. Studying the stability and reliability of these global industries requires not only an understanding of risks within just the GVCs but also an awareness of vulnerabilities in numerous critical underlying systems that form the infrastructure of GVCs and the global economy. As examples, we examine six such underlying systems: health care and public health, supply chain and logistics, technology and cyber, finance, sociopolitical, and the environment. Each of these examples illustrates that disruptions, fragilities, or failures in critical underlying systems can dramatically impact GVCs as a whole and make the geographic regions in which these systems are vulnerable less attractive to industry investment and expansion.Introducing methodologies and concepts from systems theory, we illustrate that these underlying global systems that expose GVCs to vulnerabilities are complex adaptive systems (CAS). As systems of systems composed of CAS, these GVCs consequently also can be modeled as CAS. We argue that not only does this CAS perspective help to mitigate the multilayered GVC risks through better understanding and the application of CAS tools like “adaptive management,” but it also empowers policymakers to better attract GVCs to their borders by prioritizing the creation of more resilient underlying systems.

4.
Industrial Management & Data Systems ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070225

ABSTRACT

Purpose The aim of this paper is to explore the changes in the ICT and global value chains (GVCs) after the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach This study compared the difference between Korea' domestic ICT industries, ICT imports and ICT exports before and after the COVID-19 outbreak by using trade data of ICT products and national economic indicators, and presents growth strategy for the ICT industry in the post-COVID 19 era. For this purpose, this study determined the causalities between Korea's imports/exports of ICT products and composite Indexes before and after COVID-19, and derived implications in the ICT industry environment after the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings Analysis results showed the following changes in Korea's ICT industry in the post-COVID-19 world. (1) Non-face-to-face and contact-free technologies related sectors in the ICT industry, such as the semiconductor sector, have grown exponentially;(2) as the USA has grown as the new key player, the causal relationship with China, a key player of the GVC in the pre-COVID-19 era, disappeared;and (3) the GVC of the ICT industry is not a rigid one-way vertical structure, but is changing to a flexible structure influenced by cooperation and competition between countries. Originality/value The results indicate that it is essential to constantly develop new ICT sectors that make use of non-face-to-face and contact-free technologies in the post-COVID-19 era, and the main strategies in response to the changed GVC would be taking the initiative by securing source technologies and expanding through cooperation with other GVCs and resource sharing.

5.
International Economics ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2069170

ABSTRACT

This paper provides new evidence on the reorganization of global production exploiting a novel dataset of Italian multinational firms surveyed throughout 2020 and 2021 as well as consolidated data sources. We find that Covid-19 did not spur large waves of reshoring nor plant closures. Even though the pandemic caused severe losses to firms, including multinationals, most did not stop foreign production nor are willing to do so in the near future. Trade policy uncertainty, conversely, is more likely to induce reshoring and plant closures. This evidence is consistent with a simple multi-period model, illustrating how offshoring, on the one side, and reshoring, on the other side, are asymmetric in important ways. In the presence of sunk costs, reshoring requires sufficiently large and permanent shocks to demand, trade and foreign production costs to induce behavioural changes. Covid-19 was a major shock, but it was mostly perceived as temporary, while persistent trade policy uncertainty, especially if combined with other shocks, is more likely to induce firms to revise their internationalization strategies.

6.
COVID-19 and its Reflection on SMEs in Developing Countries ; : 259-272, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2010913

ABSTRACT

Over the last five decades, the Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSME) sector has evolved as a very lively and dynamic segment of the Indian economy. MSMEs not only serve a critical role in creating huge numbers of jobs at a cheaper cost of capital than major enterprises, but they also contribute to the industrialization of rural and backward areas, Thus, regional disparities will be reduced, and national income and wealth will be distributed more evenly. MSMEs serve as auxiliary units to larger enterprises, and this sector makes a significant contribution to the country’s socioeconomic growth. The pandemic of COVID-19 is the most important economic event in our generation. The pandemic that interrupted social and economic life has had an influence on nations and citizens alike, and it continues to do so. The Indian economy’s small and medium enterprise sector is a key and developing sector that contributes to job creation, economic growth, and innovation, as well as acting as the country’s socioeconomic backbone. MSMEs, who are the backbone of India’s inclusive economic storey, have been severely impacted by the coronavirus, which has disrupted their cash cycles. The situation of MSMEs is of great concern since they are such an essential element of both domestic and global value chains. The article will concentrate on the pandemic’s considerable impact on the performance of small and medium-sized businesses. The purpose of this article is to explore the relevance of the MSME sector in the growth of the Indian economy, as well as the impact of COVID-19 on MSMEs. It will also look into ways to revive MSMEs and what methods can be used to help these businesses get back on track with India’s economic progress. © 2022 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

7.
J Bus Res ; 153: 75-86, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996317

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic emphasised the global value chains (GVCs) debate by focussing on whether gains from GVC participation outweigh firms associated risks of demand and supply shocks amid rising protectionism. This paper bridges the gap between the international trade and management literature by examining the impact of COVID-19 on Commonwealth countries, an area that has received scant attention in academic literature. Using the Eora database, we simulate scenarios to examine Commonwealth countries' participation in GVCs post-COVID. We draw on the transaction cost economics (TCE) theory to develop a framework that investigates whether growing protectionism, associated with reshoring, decoupling and nearshoring, could potentially affect the constellation and participation of Commonwealth countries in GVCs post-COVID. Results show that trade protectionism is likely to impact the supply chains and lead to GVC reconfiguration, which could offer opportunities for the Commonwealth countries and firms to potentially gain following the geographical redistribution of suppliers.

8.
Journal of International Business Policy ; 4(4):506-522, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1991746

ABSTRACT

The recent U.S.–China trade conflicts cast new light on the role of trade policies in global value chains (GVCs). Contrary to the expectation that trade restrictions lead to the shrinking or disruption of GVCs, our article posits that the unintended consequences of trade policies (both restrictions and trade agreements) are amplified by the prevalence and organizational complexity of GVCs. We anchor our argument in the historical evolution of three classic GVCs – apparel, automobiles, and electronics – from the 1970s to the present. Our framework highlights the dynamic interaction between GVC-oriented trade policies and firm strategies, which often has counterintuitive implications in terms of upgrading outcomes for the countries and companies involved in these GVCs. While trade policies often provide momentum for an adaptive reconfiguration of GVCs, firms’ strategic actions are crucial in modifying the geographic and organizational features of GVCs in ways that support their longevity. Firm strategies can mediate the effect of trade policies on GVC configurations in two ways: (1) firms can accommodate trade restrictions and trade agreements by altering supply and demand locations and by switching supply-chain partners;and (2) firms pursue diverse strategies to upgrade their value chain activities, leveraging the shifting geographies associated with new trade rules.

9.
Business Ethics, Environment and Responsibility ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1973569

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated underlying and pre-existing social, political, and economic conditions that make their negative effects both more likely and more negative, particularly for workers in global value chains (GVCs). In our conceptual and normative paper, we encourage a rethinking of GVCs and associated strategies of lead firms by integrating justice-related concerns. We argue that the failure to provide just outcomes for GVC workers is due to the existence of persistent structural injustices within GVCs. We seek to address this fundamental question: if the problems of GVCs and employment are due to structural injustices, how can they be addressed and ameliorated? We offer operational principles for firms in this regard, using Iris Marion Young's concept of structural injustice to frame our analysis: (1) adopting shared constraint through inter-firm cooperation and collective action, (2) minimum, shared standards for GVC worker treatment, (3) worker participation in GVC governance, (4) focusing on creating genuinely shared value rather than on value extraction from GVC workers, and (5) focusing on worker outcomes instead of processes. Our contribution lies in (1) outlining a relational approach to help lead firms to rethink their fundamental assumptions, strategies, and underlying conditions of GVCs and (2) expanding Young's analysis of structural injustice to GVCs more broadly. © 2022 The Authors. Business Ethics, the Environment & Responsibility published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

10.
J Policy Model ; 44(3): 722-738, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945805

ABSTRACT

This paper studies an age-based lockdown that keeps over-60 workers at home as policy response to COVID-19 pandemic in a sample of thirty countries of the European single market. Three main policy issues are addressed, and the results can be summarized as follows. First, age-based lockdown policies are associated with limited output losses and, therefore, are an efficient strategy to limit the spread of the virus in a pandemic, especially in presence of strong age-dependent fatality rates. Second, lockdown policies generate substantial spillover effects; hence, international policy coordination avoiding that too many countries are in lockdown contemporaneously or that such coordination takes place across the countries with the highest integration of over-60 workers along GVCs may be helpful in reducing disruptions. Third, non-targeted lockdowns are much more costly than age-based ones; therefore, other things equal, age-based policies should always be preferred to non-targeted ones. Our analysis also suggests that, in our sample, the over-60 workers are relatively more numerous in sectors where the value added and the integration in GVCs is lower; this feature should be kept in mind in the design of other policies as it might play an important role.

11.
Cambridge Journal of Regions Economy and Society ; : 17, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1883006

ABSTRACT

Standing at a crossroads, where ongoing 'slowbalisation' coincides with new forces such as the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, heightened geopolitical tensions, the emergence of disruptive technologies and the increasing urgency of addressing environmental challenges, many important questions remain unsolved regarding the nature and impact of the current economic globalisation. This special issue on 'Globalisation in Reverse? Reconfiguring the Geographies of Value Chains and Production Networks' aims at showcasing recent work that seeks to contribute to, and advance, the debates on economic globalisation and the reconfiguration of global value chains and production networks. This introductory article has three objectives: first, based on a broad literature review, we aim to identify four key forces, as well as the fundamental relatively stable capitalist logics contributing to the complex reconfiguration of global economic activities. Second, we will position the papers included in this special issue against the four main forces identified and discuss the contributions of each article to capture some emerging cross-paper patterns among them. Finally, we outline the contours of a research agenda that suggests promising avenues for further investigation of the phenomenon of value chain and production network reconfigurations in times of uncertainty.

12.
Cambridge Journal of Regions Economy and Society ; : 23, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1868265

ABSTRACT

This article assesses how the reshoring of manufacturing activities by micro and small enterprises (MSEs) affects the performances of co-located subcontracting networks and the reconfiguration of global value chains (GVCs). We utilize quantitative microdata of Italian MSEs operating in the clothing and footwear industries during the 2008-2015 period. Empirically MSE reshoring does not have a significant impact on domestic subcontractors' birth rates and survival chances, whereas it is positively associated with their productivity growth. Most MSEs in our sample adopt a dual sourcing strategy, expanding their global production networks while preserving their local supply base. Local and global production networks are not two alternative paradigms of industrial organization;they can be complementary and mutually reinforce each other.

13.
Transnational Corporations Review ; : 16, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1852808

ABSTRACT

This paper aims at mapping machinery value chains in Brazil to check the validity of the smiling curve and the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis, investigating opportunities for upgrading. The empirical methodology is based on qualitative research among 50 machinery manufacturing companies in three steps: online survey, interviews, and poll. The main conclusion is that the executives in our sample are sceptical about the smiling curve in Brazil. The COVID-19 crisis seriously impacted most of the consulted machinery companies, and it has caused significant disruptions in their value chains. Companies that reduced their chain's dependence on suppliers, relying on local networks and verticalization, had more hedge against those ruptures. The executives have shown eight fields of opportunities to upgrade in value chains. The paper contributes to the international literature on Management through its innovative methodology and insights for companies from developing countries.

14.
World Economy and International Relations ; 66(4):5-13, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1841758

ABSTRACT

While significant, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on economic globalization and regional integration is temporary. The same objective factors that existed before the pandemic will determine integration trends in the future. The key role belongs to scientific and technical progress, and the effect of the pandemic was rather on the stimulating side here. Research in the field of medicine accelerated, online mode is already all-pervading and digitalization tends to become ubiquitous. The crisis has brought closer the onset of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, which is expected to open the next stage of globalization, entailing shifts in the structure and dynamics of world production and trade. It can be assumed that new technologies will contribute to the development of the organization of global value chains (GVC), one of the main drivers of economic globalization and regional integration. Probable changes in the way of life and the corresponding shifts in consumption patterns in favor of services will also contribute to modifications in the structure of GVCs. Apparently, we should expect an increase in the processes of glocalization, which can be briefly defined as globalization with local specifics. COVID-19, which has caused disruptions in supply chains, has strengthened the course of self-reliance in the economic policy of some countries. The inconsistency between the method used by governments (protectionism) and the driving forces of the phenomenon that they are trying to resist (scientific and technological progress) leads to losses in productivity and competitiveness. It is necessary to distinguish between re-industrialization, stimulated by artificial methods, from re-industrialization, which has objective reasons and corresponds to the evolution of the world economy. The latter is not equivalent either to the return of previously exported production facilities or to the re-creation of the “pre-globalization” economic structure and cannot be regarded as a manifestation of de-globalization tendencies. The world realized the need to strengthen international cooperation and develop measures aimed at joint preparation and a coordinated response to possible new threats. Outbreaks of protectionism prove to be temporary. The long-term trend towards international trade liberalization will continue. © 2022.

15.
Organization (Lond) ; 29(3): 369-378, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808134

ABSTRACT

This editorial introduces eight papers included in this special issue on COVID-19. Together, these papers draw key theoretical and political insights for critical organization studies from the pandemic along three main lines. First, they examine how COVID-19 has denaturalized global capitalism, leading to a broad interrogation of the organization of the economy and our societies. Second, they point to how COVID-19 has unveiled the close relation between capital and the state in producing inequalities old and new, a relation that neoliberalism tends to hide from view. Third, they leverage COVID-19 to give voice to the largely female disposable workforce in the Global South on whose work global commodity flows, consumption and capital accumulation rest. We conclude by pointing to the need to address constitutive interdependencies, such as those between wage work and reproductive work, the global North and the global South, the market and the state, to name only a few. We further call for expanding traditional understandings of struggle to include a broader range of social antagonisms (e.g. for sufficient time to care, education, healthcare, housing, safe public spaces, accessible to all) as part of a theoretically and politically renewed organizational research agenda fostering solidarity.

16.
Organization ; 29(3):414-425, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1808131

ABSTRACT

This article draws on the Covid-19 vaccine supply chain to illustrate the structural inequalities characterising Global Value Chains. We show how the highly unequal vaccine distribution between the Global North and the Global South is shaped by the concentration of high-added value activities of vaccine development and production in the Global North and their nationalistic economic policies. These policies are short-sighted, as they fail to take account of the health risks that low vaccination rates in the Global South entail, not only for the North, but for the whole world. Using the metaphor of pawns moving in a chess game, we advance two possible scenarios. In the first, regional suppliers from low- and middle-income Global South countries will remain unimportant actors in the global vaccine supply chain, leaving inequalities intact. In the second, these suppliers will upgrade their activities in the vaccine supply chain, supported by public policies fostering industrial infrastructure, systems reforms and technological standardisation, leading to a more polycentric supply chain configuration. The persisting concentration of the governance of Global Value Chains in the Global North, we argue, will not only exacerbate current inequalities, but also likely lead to worldwide health, economic and social vulnerabilities.

17.
International Review of Economics & Finance ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1739817

ABSTRACT

Combining Spanish firm-level monthly trade data with country-level Covid-19 containment measures over February–July 2020, we show that the value of exports decreased more in destinations that introduced strict containment measures, whereas the value of imports remained unaffected. Strict containment measures in a partner country increased the probability of a firm ceasing to trade with it. Negative effects were concentrated between March and May 2020. The detrimental effect of containment on exports was larger in destinations where the share of jobs that could be done remotely was low, for goods consumed outside the household, for wholesalers and retailers, and for manufacturers not participating in global value chains.

18.
Journal of Business Research ; 144:679-689, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1693311

ABSTRACT

This paper develops a theoretical foundation for rethinking business performance in global value chains amid the Covid-19 fallout. Specifically, we synthesize business performance into three potentially reinforcing but also conflicting performance systems: 1) operational efficiency, 2) market effectiveness and 3) financial resilience to examine their effect on a) profitability, b) growth and c) solvency. While some specific measures of business performance will suffice in times of stability and growth, they could make firms operating in global value chains vulnerable in times of adversity. Our comprehensive theoretical framework contributes to our understanding of the dynamic interplay of conflicting performance systems. We discuss implications for assessing business performance and provide directions for further research.

19.
J Bus Res ; 141: 1-12, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683264

ABSTRACT

The restructuring of global value/supply chains gained increasing attention as the unprecedented COVID-19 echoed around the world. Yet, the COVID-19 related theory-driven, large scale quantitative, and empirical studies are relatively scarce. This study advances the extant literature by empirically investigating how do firms in the global food value chains (GFVCs) re-imagine their businesses structure in response to the COVID-19-becoming more resilient and competitive to the current pandemic and similar future events. We leverage a unique data of 231 senior managers of the Australian GFVCs and examine their firms' response strategies. Drawing upon key insights from the dynamic capability view, we find that GFVCs' competitiveness is achieved when exposure to COVID-19 shocks elicits dynamic capabilities-readiness, response, recovery-and these capabilities work jointly and sequentially to cultivate resilience. A key finding of this study is that firms with domestic plus global value chain partners are more resilient than those having only global business partners. This finding implies that excessive reliance on offshoring sometimes becomes lethal, especially amid unexpected and prolonged global shocks and, therefore, companies should strike a balance between domestic and global business partners to remain competitive. These findings offer important contributions to theory, practice, and UN sustainable development goals.

20.
Voprosy Ekonomiki ; - (12):21-47, 2021.
Article in Russian | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1668062

ABSTRACT

The paper draws attention to a new wave of public and academic debate on the future of globalization and on rationality of countries' further participation in distributed production, i.e., their involvement in global value chains (GVCs) and value-added trade. Raised during the COVID-19 pandemic shock, this debate is the reaction of countries to the global diffusion of downfalls through transborder supplies. We analyze vulnerabilities of GVCs to sudden shocks, demonstrate the role of these risks in escalating the 2020 global recession and in shaping its unique features, as well as scrutinize the emerging post-pandemic strategies of leading MNEs for enhancing the GVC resilience. We argue that despite the collapse of the just-in-time supply system and the crucial dependency of many domestic industries on imports from China, the pandemic shock could neither undermine foundations of distributed production nor lead to mass reshoring. On the contrary, both analyzed practice and surveyed econometric literature confirm that benefits of countries' participation in GVCs outweigh risks of their falling under potential rippling disruptions. Moreover, MNEs' resilience strategies, which we classified into three interrelated lines of action (restructuring of GVCs' supplier networks, production optimization, and GVCs' digital transformation), give globalization a new impetus. We conclude with describing the changing features of distributed production under the ongoing GVCs' restructuring and outline a number of promising export opportunities that objectively open up in the 2020s for developing economies, including Russia. In the course of our study, we examine key properties of resilient systems (robustness, flexibility, redundancy), some new notions (disruption risks, ripple effect, etc.), and new management approaches relevant for all types of economies and businesses under increased uncertainty.

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