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1.
Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies ; 144:254-265, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958905

ABSTRACT

Poverty eradication is the common ideal of mankind. Currently, as COVID-19 continues to rage around the world, the cause of poverty reduction faces greater challenges. Poverty reduction requires the involvement of multiple parties, and the challenging nature of it determines the complexity of participation in poverty reduction cooperation. In this paper, the link prediction method is used to calculate the path similarity in the network and use the Katz index to predict the connection possibility between unknown links in the poverty alleviation network. Take Sichuan Province as a case to analyze and put forward cooperation suggestions. The results show that in the entire network, all anti-poverty organizations recommend cooperation with one of the government departments, local schools, state-owned enterprises and high quality schools. Among them, government departments and local schools are the most recommended organizations. After the overall victory in the fight against poverty, the governance of relative poverty still requires continuous attention. Through our research, we hope to contribute to a better construction of a new poverty reduction system under the new poverty model. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

2.
15th Built Environment Conference, 2021 ; 245:439-451, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958876

ABSTRACT

The Construction of small and medium size enterprises (CoSMEs) are the backbone of the UK economy, Covid-19 have affected many of this sectors. This has not only affected the construction industry negatively, but has caused many health and safety concerns on construction sites, resulting in increased unemployment, cash flow problems, and insolvencies. The research analyses the implications of coronavirus COVID-19 for UK Construction small and medium size enterprises (CoSMEs) in terms of their resilience using secondary data and information from articles and public data. Findings from the research reveal that small and medium size construction firms in the UK were adversely affected by the pandemic with many going into liquidation. The impact of government interventional measures varied across the various subsectors, overall, the measures were deemed inadequate and implemented rather late to stop many CoSMEs from insolvency. Additionally, most CoSMEs that operate largely on self-employed basis could not immediately take advantage of these measures. Mostly, it was the large construction firms that took advantage of government schemes and survived. The government concentrated on the huge and indivisible capital projects which offered a soft landing for many big construction firms, benefitting the upper end CoSMEs. The research concludes that understanding the effects of external shocks on CoSMEs will help in formulating robust strategies and policies that will enhance their resilience, and by extension, the UK economy given the pivotal role the construction industry plays in the UK economy. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

3.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(8):1110-1114, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958495

ABSTRACT

GOVERNMENT PATENT USE One way to facilitate public access to high-cost medications is through government patent use.1 Given sovereign immunity-a legal doctrine immunizing the government from being sued without its consent-the federal government and its agents, such as generic drug manufacturers, have the ability to make or use patented inventions without the permission of the patent holder;in other words, protected by sovereign immunity, the federal government could use inventors' US patents without legal consequence (US patent rights do not apply overseas). [...]nonpatent exclusivities generally prohibit the approval of competing products only if they rely on data generated by another manufacturer. [...]the government or any third party could submit full new drug applications with original data.1,2 This strategy would not be able to circumvent Orphan Drug Act exclusivity for rare disease drugs because that act blocks the FDA from approving the "same drug" for the same disease or condition if it is a generic;however, because full trials would be needed, it might be feasible to pursue approval of a chemically distinct but therapeutically identical drug. [...]many agency actions are judicially reviewable under the Administrative Procedure Act (1946, Pub L No. 79-404)-a statute that waives the federal government's sovereign immunity. Fourth, Congress could amend the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (1938, Pub L No. 75-717) and the Public Health Service Act (1944, Pub L No. 78-410) to carve out exceptions to existing nonpatent exclusivities for government use.1,8 Although an exception exists for biologics the Public Health Service prepares when the biologic is unavailable from the license holder,9 this kind of authority could be expanded in terms of both to whom and to what it applies as well as under what conditions.

4.
Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences Studies ; 22(2):235-254, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958363

ABSTRACT

Public administration has been challenged and tested by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Sluggish responses to the crisis have caused death, economic impacts, and unexpected consequences. This paper aimed to apply the models of Observe (O), Orient (O), Decide (D), and Act (A) (the so-called OODA loops) and Plan (P), Do (D), Check (C), and Act (A) (the so-called PDCA cycle) in order to increase the agility and adaptability of a government in combating COVID-19. This article carried out an analysis of Taiwan’s anti-COVID-19 response as the case study. Various sources of information were cumulatively collected and analyzed so as to describe the situation. It found that Taiwan's response to the crisis suggests that an agile and adaptive approach can control COVID-19 and alleviate its impacts. Applying the mentioned models and operating three key operations, including technology-driven operations, public information and communication, and public participation, can help us understand why and how Taiwan can obtain its success. This paper will help guide governments in building their capacity resilience by taking lessons from Taiwan’s successful measures and adjusting the key strategies to match the country's context and changes resulting from the contagious virus. With the present dramatically changing and uncertain world, governments need to confront unknown unknowns. Consistently searching for alternative approaches to manage uncertainties and complexities should be taken into account in preparation for future complex problems. © 2022 Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences Studies. All rights reserved.

5.
Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences ; 83(9-A):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1958346

ABSTRACT

The role of the theatrical artistic director has long been considered one of the primary leadership roles that connect audiences with artistic work. Their role within the industry allows them to act as both a manager of the business and artistic aspects of producing live theatre. Their creativity and decision making help in creating artistic opportunity for theatre artists, which ultimately can result in their employment. In recent years the global health crisis known as the COVID-19 pandemic has caused the US government to mandate shutdowns and restrictions on businesses that require close human-to-human contact. Because of these shutdowns and the movement of theatres across the US towards theatrical adaptation the need for artistic directors to be creative decision makers is more important than ever for the vast amount of theatre artists who found themselves unemployed because of the pandemic. Previous studies and literature concerning the role of the artistic director have been extremely limited and evaluating them during this time is of paramount importance for understanding them further. The purpose of this qualitative study was to uncover how the role of the artistic director has changed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic as well as determine what was learned that could be translated into the theatrical landscape in the future. The researcher interviewed artistic directors from across the United States. Data collected revealed a deep connection between the theatrical art form and the ways in which decisions are made, as well as a robust amount of meaningful theatrical adaptations. Findings from this study may be useful in better understanding the decisions and adaptations that emerged, as well as what the future may hold for the American theatre. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

6.
Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Rurales ; 7(13), 2022.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1958302

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we analyze the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the preventive and compulsory social isolation, called ASPO in Argentina (Decree 297/2020), on the temporary and cyclical mobility of agricultural workers towards different productive areas of the country. On the one hand, we observe the effects on workers of Salta province who were involved in harvesting and packing tasks in the viniculture sector in Mendoza and the fruit growing sector in Rio Negro when the ASPO was declared by the government. On the other hand, we inquiry about the impact on Bolivian workers that were doing different works in tobacco and horticulture farms in Salta province at the beginning of the pandemic and the isolation measures. Moreover, we observe some effects on Bolivian people that were permanently (residents) or temporarily in Salta at the time when the ASPO and the closing of the border between Argentina and Bolivia began. The findings are based on interviews to agricultural workers, leaders of social organizations both from Bolivia and Salta origin, and civil servants of the Bolivian consulate in Salta carried out during 2020 and 2021. We incorporate in our analysis the collection of national and provincial news articles, web portals, decrees and official resolutions. We also include the findings of our previous research conducted before the pandemic about Bolivian mobility associated to tobacco and horticulture labor market in Salta province.

7.
Webology ; 19(2):6334-6348, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958269

ABSTRACT

The focus of this research was to assess the audience response to the mass media campaigns of covid-19 in Bonny Island of Rivers State in Nigeria. It found the level of awareness of the audience on the mass media campaigns of covid-19 in Bonny Island of Rivers State in Nigeria in Nigeria. This study adopted quantitative data collection, that is, survey of the campaign audience. The following research questions were answered;Is the covid-19 media awareness in Bonny Island of Rivers State accessible to the inhabitants of the area? Has the media campaign created all the necessary awareness of covid-19 in Bonny Island of Rivers State? Has the awareness made any positive impact on the health behavior of inhabitants of Bonny Island of Rivers State? The researcher embarked on house to house visit in Bonny Island of Rivers State. Therefore, a total of 156 respondents were used. To arrive at the above sample size, Taro Yamane's statistics was adopted based on National Population Commission of Nigeria projected figure as at April, 2020, Bonny has a population of 302,000. Questionnaires were administered to each of the respondents visited and their views were obtained. However, out of the total of 156 questionnaires distributed, 141 (90%) questionnaires were correctly completed and returned, while 15 (10%) were not returned. The data collected were segmented into three dimensions of interest;awareness evaluation, effective evaluation and impact evaluation. The data collected answered the three research questions, and the findings from the three research questions answered were also discussed. Therefore, the theoretical framework adopted was Social Distribution of Knowledge model.

8.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(8):1123-1125, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958265

ABSTRACT

The California Prison Industry Authority (CALPIA), a semiautonomous prison labor agency under the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, runs two optical laboratories operated by people incarcerated at Valley State Prison and California State Prison, Solano,1 and these laboratories supply ophthalmic lenses to eligible Medicaid recipients, such as this young patient. Documents we obtained through a public records request revealed that our state's public health agency, the California Department of Health Care Services (DHCS), agreed to pay CALPIA up to $37.9 million for the 2021/22 fiscal year for optical services alone. CALPIA wages in prison-based optical shops range between $0.35 and $1.00 per hour,6 up to 55% of which can be deducted by law for restitution and administrative costs, resulting in an effective pay rate as low as $0.16 per hour.7 Courts have routinely rejected legal challenges to these meager wages by concluding that, because the Thirteen Amendment permits the involuntary servitude of incarcerated people, the federal minimum wage law does not apply to prison labor.8 The result is a strange supply chain that is not always transparent or top of mind: medical devices produced by poorly paid imprisoned people are provided to the poorest members of free society, such as the infant who needed sight-saving glasses. Others have called for public health officials, researchers, and physicians to address the sprawling reach of the prison industrial complex.14 Medical providers could use their position of authority to advocate better pay and conditions for incarcerated workers who produce the very devices that providers prescribe.

9.
Working Notes of FIRE - 13th Forum for Information Retrieval Evaluation, FIRE-WN 2021 ; 3159:1216-1220, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958109

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-related information is awash on social media platforms like Twitter and Facebook. One party supports vaccination, while the other opposes vaccination and promotes misconceptions and misleading information about the risks of vaccination. The analysis of social media posts can give significant information into public opinion on vaccines, which can help government authorities in decision-making. In this work, an ensemble-based BERT model has been proposed for the classification of COVID-19 vaccine-related tweets into AntiVax, ProVax, and neural sentiment classes. The proposed model performed significantly well with a micro F1-score of 0.532 and an accuracy of 0.532 and achieved the second rank in the shared competition. © 2021 Copyright for this paper by its authors.

10.
Webology ; 19(2):3952-3969, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958084

ABSTRACT

This paper discusses the influence of various revenue streams (government grants, student fees, internally generated revenue, and endowment trust funds) on the financial sustainability of Kenyan public universities from the perspective of resource dependency theory. A longitudinal survey research approach was used and the final sample consisted of 31 public chartered universities in Kenya that had operated continuously for more than five years as of 2015. Panel data were extracted from the annual financial statements of these universities and other secondary data sources for the period from 2015 to 2020. A random effects regression model was applied to determine the correlation between the different revenue streams and financial sustainability. This study found that both government grants and student fees have significant relationships with the current ratio. By contrast, internally generated revenue and endowment trust funds have insignificant relationships with the current ratio. Not only do this study's findings contribute to existing empirical literature, but the results will also be beneficial to multiple stakeholders, such as university management, stakeholders, and researchers.

11.
Webology ; 19(2):2332-2340, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958044

ABSTRACT

The main problem in this research is the use of discretion in managing the regional government budgets for handling the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Material and method data related to discretionary budget management for handling the COVID-19 pandemic were obtained from secondary sources, namely laws and regulations, while the primary data were from the field, including the Jakarta Provincial Government. This research used the juridical normative analytical method. The Result of this research indicated during the COVID-19 pandemic, Law Number 30 of 2014 did not accommodate discretionary actions in budget management. The Conclusion of the research is eliminating the requirement of supervisor approval for budget discretion made by regional heads is the right concept for handling the COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(8):1115-1119, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1957939

ABSTRACT

Sadly, Celina's experience at the US border is not uncommon, although her ultimate admission to the United States is rare indeed. Because ofthe confluence of MPP and the 2020 invocation of 42 US Code 265 (hereafter "Title 42"), an obscure public health policy last updated in 1944, more than a million expulsions of migrants and asylum seekers occurred at the US border in fiscal year 2021 alone, contrary to international law.1 POLICY BACKGROUND The policy known today as Title 42 originated in a 1944 law called the Public Health Service Act, which (among other things) granted the federal government quarantine powers and the power to prevent the introduction of disease at the border. Robert Redfield, then director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), determined that introduction into congregate settings of persons from Canada or Mexico would increase the already serious danger to the public health of the United States to the point of requiring a temporary suspension of the introduction of covered aliens into the United States.3 The same order also noted the logistical challenges of preventing the transmission ofCOVID-19 at the border: Widespread, compulsory federal quarantines or isolations of such persons pending test results are impracticable due to the numbers of persons involved, logistical challenges, and CDC resource and personnel constraints.3 Although the US government did not have access to vaccines or rapid tests in March 2020, they need not have adopted such an extreme policy to protect the public's health. Given the barriers to effective implementation of PPE [personal protective equipment] and administrative controls to prevent the spread of [COVID-19] in immigration detention centers, an evidence-based public health approach suggests . . . the release of detainees from immigration detention centers, as this strategy will reduce the likelihood of person-to-person infection and enhance the possibility of engaging in meaningful social distancing and hygienic practices as directed by the CDC.4(p112) That the US government invoked Title 42 for those coming through land borders but instituted only temporary travel bans for other international travelers and did not institute interstate travel bans underscores how unnecessary these extreme measures truly were, even in the early days of COVID-19.5 In addition to the challenges posed by the use of Title 42 to prevent the entry of asylum seekers during COVID-19, MPP-often referred to as the Remain in Mexico program- creates additional barriers for migrants seeking to enter the United States.

13.
2021 AIS SIGED International Conference on Information Systems Education and Research ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1957837

ABSTRACT

Following the South African government's temporary closure of education institutions due to the COVID-19 pandemic, higher education institutions (HEIs) resorted to online teaching. In this study, we report on the perceptions of undergraduate BCom Financial Sciences and Accounting students at a South African University on the use of pre-recorded demonstration videos to support the teaching of an advanced Excel module. The study was guided by the four learning theories for the digital age on how students learn. A qualitative study was conducted using an online survey, with 512 students participating in the survey. Data was analysed using the conventional content analysis. The qualitative analysis resulted in five themes, (i) support for learning and understanding, (ii) support for self-paced learning, (iii) support for assessment preparation, (iv) comparison with face-to-face learning, and (v) criticisms and suggestions for improvement. Students felt that the pre-recorded demonstration videos played an important role in their learning. The main contribution of this study is that it has demonstrated the benefits of pre-recorded videos in facilitating online teaching and learning in periods of pandemic, especially when resources are limited. © Proceedings of the 2021 AIS SIGED International Conference on Information Systems Education and Research.

14.
Ethics Inf Technol ; 24(3): 30, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1959029

ABSTRACT

We conducted a systematic literature review on the ethical considerations of the use of contact tracing app technology, which was extensively implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic. The rapid and extensive use of this technology during the COVID-19 pandemic, while benefiting the public well-being by providing information about people's mobility and movements to control the spread of the virus, raised several ethical concerns for the post-COVID-19 era. To investigate these concerns for the post-pandemic situation and provide direction for future events, we analyzed the current ethical frameworks, research, and case studies about the ethical usage of tracing app technology. The results suggest there are seven essential ethical considerations-privacy, security, acceptability, government surveillance, transparency, justice, and voluntariness-in the ethical use of contact tracing technology. In this paper, we explain and discuss these considerations and how they are needed for the ethical usage of this technology. The findings also highlight the importance of developing integrated guidelines and frameworks for implementation of such technology in the post- COVID-19 world. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10676-022-09659-6.

15.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(4): e730, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958750

ABSTRACT

Background: Nail salon workers (NSW) in the United States (U.S.) are predominantly immigrant women who face a number of occupational hazards, such as biological, ergonomic, and chronic chemical exposures. Additionally, there are challenges to keeping up with the latest practices in this evolving small business industry. Licensure requirements are intended to keep not only consumers but also workers safe, however licensure requirements vary between states creating little skill, education, and occupational health and safety knowledge and practice consistency among the nail salon workforce. The current state of nail salons and licensure of workers in the State of Michigan-an overlooked state and region (Midwest) in NSW research-was determined to better characterize this workforce. Methods: A Freedom of Information Act request was submitted to the Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs regarding nail salon establishments and their workers, formally termed manicurists, and citation data for breaches. Data were provided on the number of licensed cosmetologists and cosmetology businesses from January 2017 to March 2021. From there, the total number of licensed manicurists was determined, and the cosmetology establishment list was analyzed to see if the businesses exclusively or predominantly provided nail services. Results: As of Mach 2021, there were 1372 nail salons that exclusively provided nail services and over 12,000 licensed manicurists. Over half of the disciplinary actions cited were for salons not officially licensed. Michigan has reduced licensure requirements compared to other states and no continuing education (CE) requirements for license renewals. Conclusion: There is a need for industry educational and training standardization, across the nation, as well as heightened licensure requirements for these vulnerable workers. CE not only keeps workers abreast of the latest practices in the industry, but also provides them the skills and knowledge to enhance their worker health, safety, and wellbeing.

16.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(7):EC13-EC16, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957576

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There is inadequate information on infections with the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in children. Their clinical, as well as pathological correlation, is poorly understood. In India, children and adolescents account for 12% of all Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases reported. Children accounted for roughly 11% of those impacted globally last year. However, this year, we are seeing around 20-40% of youngsters in positive instances over the world. Even babies and infants are testing positive for COVID-19, although their illness is under control and seldom becomes fatal. Children aged 5 to 12 years, on the other hand, are at a higher risk. Aim: To study the clinical, pathological and genomic characteristics among children with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 48 paediatric positive patients for SARSCoV-2 at Government Institute of Medical Sciences, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, and CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi, India, from 2021 and May 2021. The laboratory testing was done by the real-time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method. The patients were classified as mild, moderate, severe, or asymptomatic. Their clinical and pathological findings were recorded in the case sheet. Genomic analyses were done for identifying the genetic variant in the nine selected samples. Data entry and analysis were performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26.0. Chi-square test was used for categorical variables and the t-test was used for continuous variables. results: The study group has median age of 12 years. Male:Female ratio was 2:3. Most children had acquired infection from the community and 30% had the moderate illness and were admitted. Serum Glutamic-Oxalacetic Transaminase (SGOT) and Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT) were raised in six patients. Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) was raised in 21 patients and bilirubin was raised in two patients. The average duration of hospitalization was 6 days (range 2-13 days). No mortality among the 48 paediatric patients studied was identified in the hospital. Delta variant (B.1.617.2) was identified in seven patients with D614, P681R, L452R mutations and B.1.617.2 was identified in two patients. Delta variant was present in the paediatric patients but it did not prolong the hospital stay or cause mortality. conclusion: The findings of the study suggest that children may be a potential source of infection in the SARS CoV2 pandemic while having an asymptomatic to mild illness.

17.
BMJ Global Health ; 4:A19, 2019.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956802

ABSTRACT

CEPI is an innovative partnership between public, private, philanthropic and civil organisations founded in Davos in 2017 to develop vaccines to stop future epidemics. To date, CEPI has received multi-year funding from Norway, Germany, Japan, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Wellcome Trust. CEPI has also received single-year investments from the governments of Australia, Belgium, and Canada. It has reached $630 million of its $1 billion funding target. The European Commission has announced a contribution in kind of € 250 million that will support relevant projects through EC mechanisms. Since its launch in January 2017, CEPI has announced two Calls for Proposals. The first was for candidate vaccines against MERS-CoV, Nipah and Lassa viruses. The second was for the development of platforms that can be used for rapid vaccine development against unknown pathogens. From the first call, CEPI has, so far, announced six partnership agreements and this means 4 lassa vaccine candidates, 3 MERS-CoV vaccine candidates and 1 Nipah vaccine candidate have been selected for development. Learn more at CEPI.net. Follow us at @CEPIvaccines.

18.
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology ; 129:171, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956664

ABSTRACT

Objective: This paper details a quality improvement project (QIP) spanning a period of 18 months (February 2020 -August 2021), during which we optimized the care delivery system in order to safeguard early pregnancy and emergency gynaecology services during the pandemic. In response to the Covid-19 pandemic, the Royal Wolverhampton Trust (New Cross hospital) in line with government guidance for infection control, relocated early pregnancy and emergency gynaecology wards to distant “non-gynae” areas of the hospital. This was challenging for junior doctors;patient care was compromised as they were seen in new wards where the nursing staff lacked the requisite training to care for them. The new locations lacked items required for clinical reviews;causing prolonged hospital stay and some increase in admissions. This QIP, highlights innovative and cost-effective measures to safeguard quality of care our patients received regardless of the location within the trust. Design: Process mapping exercise was performed to ascertain the issues, team discussions were held, human systems and human factors analysed to come up with an action plan. The action plan involved;specific teaching to members of staff who lacked the skill to care for these patients in the remote areas. We procured trolleys stocked with gynae items and consumables, a gynae bag-pack containing these items was assembled for junior doctors to take along for patient reviews. Methods: Teaching was done by Gynae consultants for staff, procurement processes were followed through to acquire trolleys for items and resources. Necessary adjustments in stages were made to determine the list of items and contents of the Gynae bag-pack. A survey was carried out to assess extent of improvement in the system, we sought support from our trust's continuing quality improvement (CQI) team who help with patient attendance data analysis. Results: Our survey showed 98% Junior doctors were satisfied with ease of access to resources at all remote locations, and felt more confident when carrying the gynae bag pack. The nurse managers and representatives gave feedbacks that they feel more confident in caring for gynae patients after the training they received. Patients received same day emergency care (SDEC) and discharged home, with associated drop in admissions from 48% to 20%. Conclusion This project was successful in utilizing systems optimization approach to safeguarding the quality of care our patients received and also ensured that health care staff safely discharged their duties in a difficult time. The improvement chain is ongoing.

19.
Neuro-Oncology ; 24:i74-i75, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956572

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: High-grade gliomas account for <5% of all pediatric brain tumors with a 20% 5-year overall survival even with maximal safe resection followed by concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Patients in low-and middle-income countries already face delays and barriers to the treatment they require. The current COVID pandemic has added unique challenges to the delivery of complex, multidisciplinary health services to these patients. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of four patients, ages 2-18 years old, with histologically confirmed high-grade glioma managed in a tertiary government institution from 2020-2021. Three of the patients had a supratentorial tumor and one patient had multiple tumors located in both supra-and infratentorial compartments. Neurosurgical procedures performed were: gross total excision (1), subtotal excision (2), and biopsy (1). The tissue diagnoses obtained were glioblastoma (3) and high-grade astrocytoma (1). Two patients survived and are currently undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The remaining two patients expired: one from hospital-acquired pneumonia and the other from COVID-19 infection. DISCUSSION: Decreased mobility due to lockdowns, the burden of requiring negative COVID-19 results before admission for surgery, reduced hospital capacity to comply with physical distancing measures, the postponement of elective surgery to minimize COVID-19 transmission, physician and nursing shortages due to infection or mandatory isolation of staff, cancellation of face-to-face outpatient clinics, and hesitation among patients and their families to go to the hospital for fear of exposure were found to be common causes of delays in treatment. Also, the redirection of health resources and other government and hospital policies to handle the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in an overall delay in the delivery of health services. In particular, the management of pediatric patients with cancers, especially high-grade gliomas, was significantly disrupted.

20.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology ; 78:S93-S94, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955951

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The empowerment of patients is considered to be one of the cornerstones of modern days rational pharmacotherapy. In Slovakia (SR), the continued, concerted professional and lay activities to this effect started about two decades ago, with strong involvement of the discipline of clinical pharmacology (CP). Objectives: To report on developments and unique experiences gained in fostering patients' empowerment in SR, a country having undergone considerable economic, political, and health care transitions ever since the 1990ies. Methods: Developing a practice-oriented analysis and subsequent synthesis of lessons learned, based upon the insiders' factual and conceptual information and knowledge of the country's developments and their driving, and slowing down forces and factors, as seen in the pertinent international contexts. Results: The developments leading to ever more pronounced and practical empowerment of patients in Slovakia were much enhanced, and even politically supported, after the launching of unprecedented multifaceted transitions following the Velvet Revolution in 1989. Setting up independent patients' organizations, their coming together forming the alliances and, later on, establishing common associations (such as Association for the Protection of Patients' Rights in SR (AOPP;see www.aopp.sk)) aimed at fostering patients' rights (that felt under some pressures from the deep transitional changes occurring within the health care system), were paralleled by growing academic and political interest (e. g., national Patients' Rights Charter approved by the SR Government in 2001), as well as by SR patients' representatives taking part in various international initiatives and organizations (e. g., EPF, ELPA, EUPATI, etc.). Starting from quickly developing informal contacts, consultations, increasingly professional discussions, and help in education (incl. issues of better access to modern pharmacotherapy modalities), SR's CP(-ists) became involved in mutual activities fostering patients' and patients' representatives' education, such as regular annotated courses Patient and Medicaments at the Slovak Medical University in Bratislava, invitations to annual CP conferences and other meetings. In 2015, EUPATI.sk was established. In 2017, a national, multistakeholder project Medicaments with Reason started, led by AOPP, with the Slovak Society of CP being its scientific guarantor. Successful long-term collaboration of AOPP with SR CP(-ists) and other stakeholders, including payers (health insurance companies in SR), Slovak Chamber of Pharmacists, politicians, academia, and some of the leading SR media, brought about more effective patients' representatives' involvement in legislation activities, high-level health policies negotiations, diagnostic and therapeutic standards and guidelines development, and a more adequate media coverage. These aspects, including collaborations with CP(-ists), were further strengthened during the Covid-19 pandemic. A patients' representative became a regular member of the newly established national SR Clinical Trials Ethics Committee (established under EU CTs Reg. No. 536/2014). Conclusion: Empowerment of patients ascertained by fostering longterm collaborations and synergies among decisive stakeholders involved, including important professional contributions of CP(-ists), as shown by decades-long experience in Slovakia, can contribute in a substantial manner to continuous, patient-friendly optimization of the national medicinal drugs policies and development of national pharmacotherapy standards and guidelines.

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