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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(19)2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109946

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic continues, and patients actively receiving chemotherapy are known to be at enhanced risk for developing symptomatic disease with poorer outcomes. Our study evaluated the prevalence of COVID-19 among patients and providers of our community-facing county health system during the B1.1.529 ("Omicron") COVID-19 variant wave. (2) Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients that received care and clinical providers whom worked at the Jackson Memorial Hospital Hematology/Oncology clinic in Miami, Florida, USA, from 1 December 2021 through 30 April 2022. We assessed demographic variables and quality outcomes among patients. (3) Results: 1031 patients and 18 providers were retrospectively analyzed. 90 patients tested positive for COVID-19 (8.73%), while 6 providers tested positive (33.3%) (p = 0.038). There were 4 (10.3%) COVID-19-related deaths (and another outside our study timeframe) and 39 non-COVID-19-related deaths (89.7%) in the patient population (p = 0.77). COVID-19 accounted for 4.44% of our clinic's total mortality, and delayed care in 64.4% of patients. (4) Conclusions: The prevalence of COVID-19 positivity in our patient cohort mirrored local, state, and national trends, however a statistically significant greater proportion of our providers tested positive. Almost two-thirds of patients experienced a cancer treatment delay, significantly impacting oncologic care.

2.
Adv Ophthalmol Optom ; 7(1): 311-323, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000790

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has disproportionately affected racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. Although recent meta-analyses have identified the prevalence of ocular manifestations in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, no studies with these potential findings have been implemented in examining ophthalmic disparities in racial and ethnic minorities. It is additionally clear that patient access to eye care from coronavirus disease 2019 has been disproportionate in underserved communities. Large public hospitals and urban academic medical centers provide a unique opportunity to further study ocular disease presentation and health disparities from coronavirus disease 2019 in these populations.

3.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(8): e38802, 2022 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the shift to virtual care became essential for the continued care of patients. Individuals with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) especially require frequent provider visits and close monitoring. To date, there have been limited studies examining inequities in health technology use among patients with RMDs. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to identify characteristics associated with patient portal use before and after the COVID-19 pandemic in a convenience sample of patients with RMDs from a large academic medical center. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, Epic electronic medical record data were queried to identify established patients of the University of North Carolina Hospitals adult rheumatology clinic between November 1, 2017, through November 30, 2019. Demographic and clinical data were collected to compare MyChart (Epic's patient portal) users with nonusers before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. MyChart activation and use were modeled using logistic regression and adjusted odds ratios, and confidence intervals were estimated. RESULTS: We identified 5075 established patients with RMDs who met the inclusion criteria. Prior to the pandemic, we found that younger age (P<.001), suburban residence (P=.05), commercial/state insurance (P<.001), military insurance (P=.05), and median income >US $50,000 (P<.001) were associated with significantly higher odds of MyChart activation. Male sex (P<.001), being of Black or African American (P<.001) or "other" race (P<.001), Spanish as a primary language (P<.001), rural residence (P=.007), Medicaid insurance (P<.001), and median income of

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Patient Portals , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States
4.
J Rural Health ; 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956784

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate telehealth use for contraceptive service provision among rural and urban federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) in Alabama (AL) and South Carolina (SC) during the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a mixed-methods study using data from the FQHC Contraceptive Care Survey and key informant interviews with FQHC staff in AL and SC conducted in 2020. Differences between rural and urban clinics in telehealth use for contraceptive service provision were assessed with a chi-square test of independence. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify facilitators and barriers to telehealth. FINDINGS: Telehealth for contraceptive care increased during the early months of the pandemic relative to prepandemic. Fewer rural clinics than urban clinics provided telehealth for contraceptive counseling (16.3% vs 50.6%) (P = .0002), emergency contraception (0.0% vs 16.1%) (P = .004), and sexually transmitted infection care (16.3% vs 34.6%) (P = .031). Key facilitators of telehealth were reimbursement policy, electronic infrastructure and technology, and funding for technology. Barriers included challenges with funding for telehealth, limited electronic infrastructure, and reduced staffing capacity. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in telehealth service provision for contraceptive care between rural and urban FQHCs highlight the need for supportive strategies to increase access to care for low-income rural populations, particularly in AL and SC. It is essential for public and private entities to support the implementation and continuation of telehealth among rural clinics, particularly, investing in widespread and clinic-level electronic infrastructure and technology for telehealth, such as broadband and electronic health record systems compatible with telehealth technology.

5.
Health Serv Res ; 57 Suppl 2: 279-290, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927538

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify the association between strained intensive care unit (ICU) capacity during the COVID-19 pandemic and hospital racial and ethnic patient composition, federal pandemic relief, and other hospital characteristics. DATA SOURCES: We used government data on hospital capacity during the pandemic and Provider Relief Fund (PRF) allocations, Medicare claims and enrollment data, hospital cost reports, and Social Vulnerability Index data. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted cross-sectional bivariate analyses relating strained capacity and PRF award per hospital bed with hospital patient composition and other characteristics, with and without adjustment for hospital referral region (HRR). DATA COLLECTION: We linked PRF data to CMS Certification Numbers based on hospital name and location. We used measures of racial and ethnic composition generated from Medicare claims and enrollment data. Our sample period includes the weeks of September 18, 2020 through November 5, 2021, and we restricted our analysis to short-term, general hospitals with at least one intensive care unit (ICU) bed. We defined "ICU strain share" as the proportion of ICU days occurring while a given hospital had an ICU occupancy rate ≥ 90%. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After adjusting for HRR, hospitals in the top tercile of Black patient shares had higher ICU strain shares than did hospitals in the bottom tercile (30% vs. 22%, p < 0.05) and received greater PRF amounts per bed ($118,864 vs. $92,407, p < 0.05). Having high versus low ICU occupancy relative to pre-pandemic capacity was associated with a modest increase in PRF amounts per bed after adjusting for HRR ($107,319 vs. $96,627, p < 0.05), but there were no statistically significant differences when comparing hospitals with high versus low ICU occupancy relative to contemporaneous capacity. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitals with large Black patient shares experienced greater strain during the pandemic. Although these hospitals received more federal relief, funding was not targeted overall toward hospitals with high ICU occupancy rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Humans , United States , Hospital Bed Capacity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Medicare , Intensive Care Units , Hospitals
6.
JDR Clin Trans Res ; : 23800844221104790, 2022 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896314

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Missed care opportunities (MCOs) contribute to poor health outcomes, and pediatric dental patients are particularly vulnerable; identifying associated patient characteristics will help inform development of targeted interventional programs. OBJECTIVE: To assess socioeconomic and demographic disparities associated with MCOs among children in an urban pediatric hospital's dental clinic. MCOs lead to a lack of continuous care and increased emergent needs, so understanding MCOs is required to achieve equitable pediatric dental health. METHODS: A retrospective 2-y (2019-2020) cohort of MCOs in children 1 to 17 y old, with scheduled dental visits. MCOs were defined as appointments not attended or canceled and not rescheduled prior to initial scheduled visit. Multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression models with patient-level clustering assessed the associations of demographics, neighborhood-level socioeconomic factors (using social vulnerability index [SVI]), and clinic characteristics with MCOs. RESULTS: Of 30,095 visits, 30.9% were MCOs. Multivariable logistic regression estimated increased likelihood of MCOs in Black/non-Hispanic (odds ratio [OR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.32) and Hispanic (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06-1.31) patients, patients with public insurance (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.15-1.36) or no insurance (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.15-1.85), patients with complex chronic conditions (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03-1.19), visits scheduled during the COVID-19 pandemic (OR, 9.48; 95% CI, 8.89-10.11), appointments with wait days over 21 d (OR, 4.07; 95% CI, 3.49-4.74), and children from neighborhoods of high social vulnerability (75th percentile SVI) (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16). CONCLUSIONS: Children with highest dental MCOs were from neighborhoods with high SVI, had public insurance, and were from marginalized populations. MCOs contribute to inequities in overall health; hence, interventions that address barriers related to characteristics associated with pediatric dental MCOs are needed. KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER STATEMENT: Missed care opportunities contribute to poor health outcomes; identifying associated patient characteristics will help inform development of targeted interventional programs. Providing these findings to stakeholders will better impart understanding access barriers and drive research and program development. Dissemination of this information in the form of altering appointment practices will better accommodate specific patient population needs.

7.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-3, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878450

ABSTRACT

Globally, tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading infectious causes of mortality, with around 4000 deaths daily. Since the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Africa, the region has experienced a lapse in responses directed at TB control, because the priority has shifted to interventions aimed at managing COVID-19. In addition to an unprecedented burden on the region's already overburdened health systems, another major public health concern is the clinical similarities between COVID-19 and TB, making TB diagnosis increasingly challenging, which may lead to poor prognosis, especially in people with TB and COVID-19 co-infection. A likely implication is that TB patients may stop attending health-care facilities due to fear of contracting or being diagnosed with COVID-19 or to avoid being stigmatized, invariably resulting in a disruption in their access to health-care services. Therefore, massive global support should be provided for TB endemic countries to respond synergistically and strongly to the thousands of TB cases as well as the COVID-19 pandemic.

8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(8): 2109-2116, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inconsistent and unequal access to medical care is an issue that predates the COVID19 pandemic, which only worsened the problem. Limited access to care from asthma specialists and other specialists treating comorbid diseases may adversely affect asthma. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to identify health disparities associated with access to care for asthma, and cost-effectiveness of therapies and interventions addressing this health disparity. METHODS: A narrative systematic review was undertaken using MeSH searches of English language articles published in CINAHL, Scopus, or PubMed. RESULTS: A total of 725 articles were identified. Barriers recognized from the literature included access to diagnostic spirometry, access to specialists, medication formulary restrictions, and issues leading to medical nonadherence. Telemedicine, school-based health care interventions, digital applications, and non-office-based digital spirometry could be used to address these gaps in access to asthma care while potentially being cost-effective. CONCLUSION: With the widespread adoption of telemedicine because of the pandemic, and adoption of other mobile services, we now have potential tools that can increase access to asthma care, which can help address this health care inequity. Evidence is limited, but favorable, that some of these tools may be cost-effective.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Pandemics
9.
Health Equity ; 6(1): 330-333, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815936

ABSTRACT

Although it is known that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disproportionately affects racial and ethnic minorities, our study characterizes the connection between COVID-19 susceptibility and both limited English proficiency (LEP) and large household size. We examined demographic and social data for 1130 individuals who tested positive for or were exposed to COVID-19. Analysis revealed that LEP persons were 3.2 times as likely to report difficulty obtaining supplies for quarantine. Individuals in large households were 1.9 times as likely to report difficulty obtaining supplies for quarantine and 2.0 times as likely to report inability to quarantine. This study, therefore, informs interventions targeted to these populations.

10.
Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association ; 17(3):327-406, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1766738

ABSTRACT

This article describes the public health impact of Alzheimer's disease (AD), including incidence and prevalence, mortality and morbidity, use and costs of care, and the overall impact on caregivers and society. The Special Report discusses the challenges of providing equitable health care for people with dementia in the United States. An estimated 6.2 million Americans age 65 and older are living with Alzheimer's dementia today. This number could grow to 13.8 million by 2060 barring the development of medical breakthroughs to prevent, slow or cure AD. Official death certificates recorded 121,499 deaths from AD in 2019, the latest year for which data are available, making Alzheimer's the sixth-leading cause of death in the United States and the fifth-leading cause of death among Americans age 65 and older. Between 2000 and 2019, deaths from stroke, heart disease and HIV decreased, whereas reported deaths from AD increased more than 145%. This trajectory of deaths from AD was likely exacerbated in 2020 by the COVID-19 pandemic. More than 11 million family members and other unpaid caregivers provided an estimated 15.3 billion hours of care to people with Alzheimer's or other dementias in 2020. These figures reflect a decline in the number of caregivers compared with a decade earlier, as well as an increase in the amount of care provided by each remaining caregiver. Unpaid dementia caregiving was valued at $256.7 billion in 2020. Its costs, however, extend to family caregivers' increased risk for emotional distress and negative mental and physical health outcomes-costs that have been aggravated by COVID-19. Average per-person Medicare payments for services to beneficiaries age 65 and older with AD or other dementias are more than three times as great as payments for beneficiaries without these conditions, and Medicaid payments are more than 23 times as great. Total payments in 2021 for health care, long-term care and hospice services for people age 65 and older with dementia are estimated to be $355 billion. Despite years of efforts to make health care more equitable in the United States, racial and ethnic disparities remain-both in terms of health disparities, which involve differences in the burden of illness, and health care disparities, which involve differences in the ability to use health care services. Blacks, Hispanics, Asian Americans and Native Americans continue to have a higher burden of illness and lower access to health care compared with Whites. Such disparities, which have become more apparent during COVID-19, extend to dementia care. Surveys commissioned by the Alzheimer's Association recently shed new light on the role of discrimination in dementia care, the varying levels of trust between racial and ethnic groups in medical research, and the differences between groups in their levels of concern about and awareness of Alzheimer's disease. These findings emphasize the need to increase racial and ethnic diversity in both the dementia care workforce and in Alzheimer's clinical trials. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

11.
Prev Med Rep ; 26: 101744, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712910

ABSTRACT

CDC guidelines for COVID-19 testing in March 2020 did not prioritize underserved communities. We present the effect that expanding COVID-19 testing had for residents of the predominantly Hispanic city of Chelsea, MA, which had the highest case rate in the state. Results were compared to another city with similar demographics, Lynn, MA, where testing eligibility remained unchanged. Institutional data were used to identify outpatient visits for influenza-like illness or COVID-19 exposure, COVID-19 tests, and hospitalizations for confirmed COVID-19 between 3/30/2020-4/28/2020. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to compare outcomes before and after the change in testing eligibility occurred on 4/13/2020. A total of 3,060 patients were included, 1,374 Chelsea residents and 1,686 Lynn residents. After guidelines changed, Chelsea residents were more likely to present as outpatients (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.2, p < 0.001) and less likely to be hospitalized (AOR 0.2, p < 0.001). They were more likely to be tested (AOR 8.8, p < 0.001), but less likely to test positive (AOR 0.6, p = 0.05). Lynn residents were also more likely to be tested after 4/13/2020 (AOR 1.9, p < 0.001), but no significant differences in visit acuity or test positivity were observed. This study demonstrates how broadening testing eligibility for one highly affected, predominantly Hispanic community was associated with an increase in outpatient presentations and a concomitant decrease in test positivity and hospitalizations. These results highlight the impact of improved access to care on utilization of services among underserved communities, a lesson that is especially crucial as we continue to grapple with the COVID pandemic.

12.
Chest ; 161(6): 1526-1542, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Brazil has been disproportionately affected by COVID-19, placing a high burden on ICUs. RESEARCH QUESTION: Are perceptions of ICU resource availability associated with end-of-life decisions and burnout among health care providers (HCPs) during COVID-19 surges in Brazil? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We electronically administered a survey to multidisciplinary ICU HCPs during two 2-week periods (in June 2020 and March 2021) coinciding with COVID-19 surges. We examined responses across geographical regions and performed multivariate regressions to explore factors associated with reports of: (1) families being allowed less input in decisions about maintaining life-sustaining treatments for patients with COVID-19 and (2) emotional distress and burnout. RESULTS: We included 1,985 respondents (57% physicians, 14% nurses, 12% respiratory therapists, 16% other HCPs). More respondents reported shortages during the second surge compared with the first (P < .05 for all comparisons), including lower availability of intensivists (66% vs 42%), ICU nurses (53% vs 36%), ICU beds (68% vs 22%), and ventilators for patients with COVID-19 (80% vs 70%); shortages were highest in the North. One-quarter of HCPs reported that families were allowed less input in decisions about maintaining life-sustaining treatments for patients with COVID-19, which was associated with lack of intensivists (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.37; 95% CI, 1.05-1.80) and ICU beds (aRR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.16-2.62) during the first surge and lack of N95 masks (aRR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.10-1.85), noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (aRR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.18-2.07), and oxygen concentrators (aRR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.13-2.00) during the second surge. Burnout was higher during the second surge (60% vs 71%; P < .001), associated with witnessing colleagues at one's hospital contract COVID-19 during both surges (aRR, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.25-1.93] and 1.31 [95% CI, 1.11-1.55], respectively), as well as worries about finances (aRR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02-1.61) and lack of ICU nurses (aRR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.53) during the first surge. INTERPRETATION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, ICU HCPs in Brazil experienced substantial resource shortages, health care disparities between regions, changes in end-of-life care associated with resource shortages, and high proportions of burnout.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 19(2 Pt A): 281-287, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661859

ABSTRACT

Learn Serve Lead (LSL) is the signature annual conference of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), which focuses on the most pressing issues facing American medical practice and education. Unsurprisingly, the recent AAMC LSL conference at the end of 2020 centered on the multifaceted impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and racial inequity upon the medical community. At the LSL meeting, national leaders, practicing physicians from diverse specialties, and medical trainees discussed the impact of these challenges and ongoing strategies to overcome them. These efforts paralleled the AAMC mission areas of community collaborations, medical education, clinical care, and research. Additionally, this focus aligns with the ACR's core purpose: to serve patients and society by empowering members to advance the practice, science, and professions of radiological care. ACR is a member of the AAMC Council of Faculty and Academic Society and seeks to collaborate with other medical specialties to promote interdisciplinary collaboration, contribute to medical education, and voice the value of medical imaging for patient care. We summarize the major insights of this interdisciplinary conference and present tailored recommendations for applying these insights specifically within the radiology community. In addition, we review the parallels between the ACR and the AAMC strategic plans.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical , Health Equity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
14.
J Midwifery Womens Health ; 67(1): 95-106, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598330

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cesarean rates are particularly high among Hispanic women in some regions of the United States, placing a disproportionate health burden on women and their newborns. This integrative review synthesized the literature on mode of birth (vaginal vs cesarean) and related childbirth complications (hemorrhage, surgical site infection, perineal trauma) among Mexican American women living in the United States. METHODS: Four electronic databases, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and SCOPUS, were searched to identify studies meeting the inclusion criteria, research studies that included Mexican American women who were pregnant or postpartum. Results were limited to English language and publications that were peer-reviewed and published before May 2020. Covidence was used in article identification, screening, and assessment. Critical appraisal of the research was performed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Studies with Diverse Designs. RESULTS: Ten articles met inclusion criteria. In some studies, Mexican American women born in the United States were more likely to have cesareans than women born in Mexico; in other studies, these findings were reversed. Mexican American women often had lower unadjusted cesarean rates compared with non-Hispanic white women, but adjusting for birth facility (some facilities perform more cesareans than others), sociodemographic, and risk factors often revealed Mexican American women have a higher adjusted risk for cesarean birth. Women with higher socioeconomic status had higher cesarean rates compared with women with lower socioeconomic status. In studies of birth outcome by level of acculturation, women who were US-oriented had higher rates of cesarean and more frequent perinatal complications. By ethnic subgroup, rates of cesarean and complications varied among Hispanic women. DISCUSSION: Birth facility was associated with perinatal outcomes for Mexican American women; those who gave birth at higher-performing facilities had better outcomes when compared with women who gave birth at lower-performing facilities. After adjusting for pregnancy complications, Mexican American women had a greater risk for cesarean birth compared with non-Hispanic white women, a finding that may have clinical practice implications. Level of acculturation affected birth outcomes, but more research using precise instruments is needed.


Subject(s)
Acculturation , Mexican Americans , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Parturition , Pregnancy , United States/epidemiology
15.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 166(6): 1192-1195, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571581

ABSTRACT

The Centralized Otolaryngology Research Efforts (CORE) grant program coordinates research funding initiatives across the subspecialties of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. Modeled after National Institutes of Health study sections, CORE grant review processes provide comprehensive reviews of scientific proposals. The organizational structure and grant review process support grant-writing skills, attention to study design, and other components of academic maturation toward securing external grants from the National Institutes of Health or other agencies. As a learning community and a catalyst for scientific advances, CORE evaluates clinical, translational, basic science, and health services research. Amid the societal reckoning around long-standing social injustices and health inequities, an important question is to what extent CORE engenders diversity, equity, and inclusion for the otolaryngology workforce. This commentary explores CORE's track record as a stepping-stone for promoting equity and innovation in the specialty. Such insights can help maximize opportunities for cultivating diverse leaders across the career continuum.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , Medicine , Otolaryngology , Financing, Organized , Humans , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , United States , Workforce
16.
Telemed Rep ; 2(1): 217-223, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541507

ABSTRACT

Background: Mitigation efforts to prevent the spread of COVID-19 included the robust utilization of telehealth. However, racial/ethnic minority populations have demonstrated low telehealth utilization in the past. The aim of this study was to examine the first-time use of telehealth by Marshallese adults during the COVID-19 pandemic, using online survey data collected from 109 Marshallese respondents between July and November of 2020. Methods: To evaluate the relationships between sociodemographic characteristics, health care access, physical/mental health, and COVID-19-specific measures and the decision to use telehealth, we use bivariate analyses, including t-tests and chi-square analysis. Results: Eighteen respondents (16.5%) indicated they utilized telehealth for the first time during the pandemic. The number of chronic conditions reported was positively associated with the first-time use of telehealth (p = 0.013). Although not statistically significant, a higher proportion of Marshallese first-time telehealth users reported limited English proficiency, changes in health status, and changes in health insurance. Discussion: Although telehealth has been shown to reduce the absolute gaps in health disparities for minority populations, there is limited utilization by Marshallese communities. Conclusions: Significant research remains on the utilization of telehealth by Marshallese during the COVID-19 pandemic and to increase utilization in the future.

17.
Thorac Surg Clin ; 32(1): 13-21, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517484

ABSTRACT

Racial disparities in health care systems exist in all phases of health care delivery. The Affordable Care Act has been unable to completely mitigate disparities in health care as the root cause (ie, socioeconomic inequality) remains unaddressed. Uninsured status, lack of transportation, high costs, health literacy, provider unavailability, lack of trust in the health system, and implicit bias block minority populations from obtaining deserved quality care. With the COVID-19 crisis, increased sensitivity and development of innovative approaches to provide accessibly and quality health care are necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Quality of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
18.
Ethn Dis ; 31(4): 519-526, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485607

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Black Americans are disproportionately affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalizations and deaths. Decreasing health disparities requires widespread uptake of COVID-19 testing, but attitudes about COVID-19 testing among Black Americans have not been studied. We aimed to characterize knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about COVID-19 testing among Black parents. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed using a phenomenology approach with 26 self-identified Black parents after telemedicine visits with a children's health center. Interviews were recorded and transcribed; 65% were double coded with a resultant free-marginal interrater kappa score of 86.8%. Results: Most participants were women, spent time inside the homes of friends or family members, and almost half knew someone diagnosed with COVID-19. Three central themes emerged regarding COVID-19 testing decision making, including: 1) perceived COVID-19 disease susceptibility; 2) barriers to testing, with subthemes including trust in test accuracy and safety, perceived stigma of a positive test result, and impact of racism on self-efficacy; and 3) cues to action. Conclusions: When considering these themes as constructs of the Health Belief Model, we are better able to understand Black Americans' views of COVID-19 testing and motivations for accessing testing. Culturally responsive educational campaigns delivered by trusted community members should aim to improve understanding about disease transmission and types of tests available. Importantly, framing testing as a means to ensure safety may improve self-efficacy to obtain testing. Lastly, the health community should learn from these conversations with Black Americans so that disease prevention and mitigation strategies prioritize health equity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Adult , African Americans , Attitude , Child , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
19.
Health Policy Open ; 2: 100051, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454155

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: UC San Diego Health System (UCSDHS) is the largest academic medical center and integrated care network in US-Mexico border area of California contiguous to the Northern Baja region of Mexico. The COVID-19 pandemic compelled several UCSDHS and local communities to create awareness around best methods to promote regional health in this economically, socially, and politically important border area. PURPOSE: To improve understanding of optimal strategies to execute critical care collaborative programs between academic and community health centers facing public health emergencies during the COVID-19 pandemic, based on the experience of UCSDHS and several community hospitals (one US, two Mexican) in the US-Mexico border region. METHODS: After taking several preparatory steps, we developed a two-phase program that included 1) in-person activities to perform needs assessments, hands-on training and education, and morale building and 2) creation of a telemedicine-based (Tele-ICU) service for direct patient management and/or educational coaching experiences.Findings.A clinical and educational program between academic and community border hospitals was feasible, effective, and well received. CONCLUSION: We offer several policy-oriented recommendations steps for academic and community healthcare programs to build educational, collaborative partnerships to address COVID-19 and other cross-cultural, international public health emergencies.

20.
Clin Imaging ; 81: 60-61, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439947

ABSTRACT

From the more than 700,000 deaths from COVID-19 in the US and the nearly 5 million worldwide, there emerge even more stories than match the statistics when one considers all of the patients' relations. While the numbers are staggering, when we humanize the stories, we are left with even greater devastation, of course. One of the stories among so many that seemed particularly salient and poignant to us was the death of Dr. Susan Moore. Her plaintive Facebook post, which went viral in December 2020, was made a few weeks before she died at the age of 52 from COVID-19 and claimed that she was a victim of racially biased treatment at a hospital in Indiana. It was Dr. Moore's mentioning of CT scans that led us to reflect on the biases of some health care workers and the role of radiologists. Our initial interface with our patients is actually not with their faces, but with their films. This dynamic does not eliminate any biases we may harbor but shields practitioners and patients from potential glaring racial biases in this first and sometimes only stage of the relationship.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19 , Bias , Female , Humans , Radiologists , SARS-CoV-2
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