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1.
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal ; 24(10), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2164664

ABSTRACT

Background: The covid-19 pandemic has affected the health insurance industry in numerous ways.

2.
Gesundheitsokonomie und Qualitatsmanagement. ; 2022.
Article in German | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2160385

ABSTRACT

Aim This study examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hospitalized patients with cancer and/or COVID-19 disease at a university-based maximum care provider. Do the patient collectives differ in terms of health economics and do the results yield administrative implications for proactive management of regional cancer care. Method A retrospective, descriptive data analysis of clinical and health economic parameters of all oncological and COVID-19-postive patients admitted as in-patients at Marburg University Hospital and the combination of oncological patients with COVID-19 disease within the observation period from 2017 to 2021 was performed. Results A decrease in oncology-treated patients was observed throughout the COVID-19 pandemic period. Oncology patients with COVID-19 disease represent the patient population with the highest severity of disease, followed by COVID-19 and oncology-only patients. This is reflected in the economic performance measures. The chronological progression of DRG revenue and Case Mix Index per COVID-19 patient shows differences for time periods of the pandemic in Germany. Conclusion The comparison of the patient collectives confirms the particularly high-risk potential of oncological patients, which is reflected in a health economic costly treatment. National measures, contact restrictions or pandemic events can be traced by the chronological progression of clinical and economic parameters. Despite the international decline in out-patient and in-patient oncological patients, "state-of-the-art" cancer care is feasible in pandemic times. Because of this, there is a need for action for an inpatient maximum care provider to manage oncology care more proactively through communication and care modeling. Copyright © 2022 Georg Thieme Verlag. All rights reserved.

3.
Feed Magazine/Kraftfutter ; 105(1/2):8-10, 2022.
Article in English, German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2147776

ABSTRACT

This article describes the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the production, supply and international marketing and trade of lysine, vitamin and trace element supplements in animal feeds.

4.
Point Veterinaire ; 52(424):10-12, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2147520

ABSTRACT

This article describes the regulatory, health and environmental aspects of defaunation, including its effects on biodiversity, the status of COVID-19 and other zoonoses, wildlife conservation and One Health.

5.
Journees de la Recherche Porcine en France ; 53:297-302, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2147216

ABSTRACT

During the Covid-19 health crisis, global food consumption, especially that of pork products, experienced strong disruptions in a short time. The consumption per distribution channel of pork products and meat from other species was monitored by combining two complementary data sets. The Nielsen retailer panel provided automatic data collection from weekly cash registers for supermarkets and drive-through pickup while the KantarWorldpanel consumer panel released monthly data of at-home consumption behavior based on purchasing data in all distribution channels. Before the Covid-19 pandemic, out-of-home catering consumption was estimated to have an approximately 15% market share by volume within the pork sector. The almost total lockdown in France resulted in consumption being diverted to at-home supply chains. Consumers' search for proximity and social distancing has helped accelerate the fragmentation of distribution, favoring online distribution channels and alternative supermarkets to physical points of sale. Against a backdrop of a pronounced decrease in meat consumption over the past 10 years, fresh pork and self-service cold meats have served as safe-haven products in a context of reallocation of deli counter spending. Analysis of this atypical period of consumption leads to questioning the persistence of these behaviors in the medium term, both in terms of the products offered and the distribution channels.

6.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e060422, 2022 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137703

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Critical care is essential in saving lives of critically ill patients, however, provision of critical care across lower resource settings can be costly, fragmented and heterogenous. Despite the urgent need to scale up the provision of critical care, little is known about its availability and cost. Here, we aim to systematically review and identify reported resource use, availability and costs for the provision of critical care and the nature of critical care provision in Tanzania. DESIGN: This is a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase and Global Health databases were searched covering the period 2010 to 17 November 2020. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included studies that reported on forms of critical care offered, critical care services offered and/or costs and resources used in the provision of care in Tanzania published from 2010. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Quality assessment of the articles and data extraction was done by two independent researchers. The Reference Case for Estimating the Costs of Global Health Services and Interventions was used to assess quality of included studies. A narrative synthesis of extracted data was conducted. Costs were adjusted and reported in 2019 US$ and TZS using the World Bank GDP deflators. RESULTS: A total 31 studies were found to fulfil the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Critical care identified in Tanzania was categorised into: intensive care unit (ICU) delivered critical care and non-ICU critical care. The availability of ICU delivered critical care was limited to urban settings whereas non-ICU critical care was found in rural and urban settings. Paediatric critical care equipment was more scarce than equipment for adults. 15 studies reported on the costs of services related to critical care yet no study reported an average or unit cost of critical care. Costs of medication, equipment (eg, oxygen, personal protective equipment), services and human resources were identified as inputs to specific critical care services in Tanzania. CONCLUSION: There is limited evidence on the resource use, availability and costs of critical care in Tanzania. There is a strong need for further empirical research on critical care resources availability, utilisation and costs across specialties and hospitals of different level in low/middle-income countries like Tanzania to inform planning, priority setting and budgeting for critical care services. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020221923.


Subject(s)
Critical Care , Intensive Care Units , Adult , Humans , Child , Tanzania , Critical Illness/therapy , Global Health
7.
Journal of Economic Animal ; 25(2):63-67, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2145390

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the development trend and current situation of fur-bearing animal breeding industry in China in last decade were summarized. The effect of the sudden break out of Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on fur-bearing animal breeding in China was analyzed. Meanwhile, the future development of China's fur-bearing animal husbandry was prospected, and the suggestions to perfect fur-bearing animal husbandry in our country were also put forward.

8.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(9):5708-5709, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2144206
9.
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement ; 2022.
Article in German | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2122945

ABSTRACT

Aim This study examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hospitalized patients with cancer and/or COVID-19 disease at a university-based maximum care provider. Do the patient collectives differ in terms of health economics and do the results yield administrative implications for proactive management of regional cancer care. Method A retrospective, descriptive data analysis of clinical and health economic parameters of all oncological and COVID-19-postive patients admitted as in-patients at Marburg University Hospital and the combination of oncological patients with COVID-19 disease within the observation period from 2017 to 2021 was performed. Results A decrease in oncology-treated patients was observed throughout the COVID-19 pandemic period. Oncology patients with COVID-19 disease represent the patient population with the highest severity of disease, followed by COVID-19 and oncology-only patients. This is reflected in the economic performance measures. The chronological progression of DRG revenue and Case Mix Index per COVID-19 patient shows differences for time periods of the pandemic in Germany. Conclusion The comparison of the patient collectives confirms the particularly high-risk potential of oncological patients, which is reflected in a health economic costly treatment. National measures, contact restrictions or pandemic events can be traced by the chronological progression of clinical and economic parameters. Despite the international decline in out-patient and in-patient oncological patients, "state-of-the-art " cancer care is feasible in pandemic times. Because of this, there is a need for action for an inpatient maximum care provider to manage oncology care more proactively through communication and care modeling.

10.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(11)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119211

ABSTRACT

During 2020 and 2021, Australia implemented relatively stringent government restrictions yet had few COVID-19 deaths. This provides an opportunity to understand the effects of lockdowns and quarantining restrictions on short-term mortality and to help provide evidence in understanding how such public health policies can impact on health. Our analysis is based on preliminary mortality data collected by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Rates were estimated by disease and over time and compared with mortality statistics in the period 2015-2019. Comparing deaths in 2020-2021 with 2015-2019 show the annual mortality rate (per 100 000 people) fell by 5.9% from 528.4 in 2015-2019 to 497.0 in 2020-2021. Declines in mortality are across many disease categories including respiratory diseases (down 9.4 deaths per 100 000), cancer (down 7.5 deaths per 100 000) and heart disease (down 8.4 deaths per 100 000). During 2020 and 2021, Australian age-standardised mortality rates fell by 6%. This drop was similar for men and women, and was driven by a reduction in both communicable and non-communicable causes of death. Such evidence can help inform public health policies designed to both control COVID-19 and other infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Male , Humans , Female , Cause of Death , Australia/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e063271, 2022 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117872

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 infection rarely causes hospitalisation in children and young people (CYP), but mild or asymptomatic infections are common. Persistent symptoms following infection have been reported in CYP but subsequent healthcare use is unclear. We aim to describe healthcare use in CYP following community-acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection and identify those at risk of ongoing healthcare needs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will use anonymised individual-level, population-scale national data linking demographics, comorbidities, primary and secondary care use and mortality between 1 January 2019 and 1 May 2022. SARS-CoV-2 test data will be linked from 1 January 2020 to 1 May 2022. Analyses will use Trusted Research Environments: OpenSAFELY in England, Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) Databank in Wales and Early Pandemic Evaluation and Enhanced Surveillance of COVID-19 in Scotland (EAVE-II). CYP aged ≥4 and <18 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) testing between 1 January 2020 and 1 May 2021 and those untested CYP will be examined.The primary outcome measure is cumulative healthcare cost over 12 months following SARS-CoV-2 testing, stratified into primary or secondary care, and physical or mental healthcare. We will estimate the burden of healthcare use attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infections in the 12 months after testing using a matched cohort study of RT-PCR positive, negative or untested CYP matched on testing date, with adjustment for confounders. We will identify factors associated with higher healthcare needs in the 12 months following SARS-CoV-2 infection using an unmatched cohort of RT-PCR positive CYP. Multivariable logistic regression and machine learning approaches will identify risk factors for high healthcare use and characterise patterns of healthcare use post infection. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the South-Central Oxford C Health Research Authority Ethics Committee (13/SC/0149). Findings will be preprinted and published in peer-reviewed journals. Analysis code and code lists will be available through public GitHub repositories and OpenCodelists with meta-data via HDR-UK Innovation Gateway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Wales/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Observational Studies as Topic
12.
J Assoc Med Microbiol Infect Dis Can ; 7(3): 159-162, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114686
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(11): e42839, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109581

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following the Riyadh Declaration, digital health technologies were prioritized in many countries to address the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. Digital health apps for telemedicine and video consultations help reduce potential disease spread in routine health care, including follow-up care in orthopedic and trauma surgery. In addition to the satisfaction, efficiency, and safety of telemedicine, its economic and environmental effects are highly relevant to decision makers, particularly for the goal of reaching carbon neutrality of health care systems. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide the first comprehensive health economic and environmental analysis of video consultations in follow-up care after knee and shoulder interventions in an orthopedic and trauma surgery department of a German university hospital. The analysis is conducted from a societal perspective. We analyze both economic and environmental impacts of video consultations, taking into account the goal of carbon neutrality for the German health care system by 2030. METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing follow-up care with digital health app video consultations (intervention group) to conventional face-to-face consultations in the clinic (control group). Economic impact included the analysis of travel and time costs and production losses. Examination of the environmental impact comprised the emissions of greenhouse gases, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and particulates, and the calculation of environmental costs. Sensitivity analysis included calculations with a higher cost per ton of carbon dioxide equivalent, which gives equal weight to the welfare of present and future generations. RESULTS: Data from 52 patients indicated that, from the patients' point of view, telemedicine helped reduce travel costs, time costs, and production losses, resulting in mean cost savings of €76.52 per video consultation. In addition, emissions of 11.248 kg of greenhouse gases, 0.070 kg of carbon monoxide, 0.011 kg of volatile hydrocarbons, 0.028 kg of nitrogen oxides, and 0.0004 kg of particulates could be saved per patient through avoided travel. This resulted in savings of environmental costs between €3.73 and €9.53 per patient. CONCLUSIONS: We presented the first comprehensive analysis of economic and environmental effects of telemedicine in the follow-up care of patients in orthopedic and trauma surgery in Germany. Video consultations were found to reduce the environmental footprint of follow-up care; saved travel costs, travel time, and time costs for patients; and helped to lower production losses. Our findings can support the decision-making on the use of digital health during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic, providing decision makers with data for both economic and environmental effects. Thanks to the pragmatic design of our study, our findings can be applied to a wide range of clinical contexts and potential digital health applications that substitute outpatient hospital visits with video consultations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00023445; https://tinyurl.com/4pcvhz4n.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Greenhouse Gases , Mobile Applications , Telemedicine , Humans , Aftercare , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon Monoxide , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation , Telemedicine/methods , Germany , Environment
14.
Epidemics ; 41: 100648, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095324

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Disease transmission models are used in impact assessment and economic evaluations of infectious disease prevention and treatment strategies, prominently so in the COVID-19 response. These models rarely consider dimensions of equity relating to the differential health burden between individuals and groups. We describe concepts and approaches which are useful when considering equity in the priority setting process, and outline the technical choices concerning model structure, outputs, and data requirements needed to use transmission models in analyses of health equity. METHODS: We reviewed the literature on equity concepts and approaches to their application in economic evaluation and undertook a technical consultation on how equity can be incorporated in priority setting for infectious disease control. The technical consultation brought together health economists with an interest in equity-informative economic evaluation, ethicists specialising in public health, mathematical modellers from various disease backgrounds, and representatives of global health funding and technical assistance organisations, to formulate key areas of consensus and recommendations. RESULTS: We provide a series of recommendations for applying the Reference Case for Economic Evaluation in Global Health to infectious disease interventions, comprising guidance on 1) the specification of equity concepts; 2) choice of evaluation framework; 3) model structure; and 4) data needs. We present available conceptual and analytical choices, for example how correlation between different equity- and disease-relevant strata should be considered dependent on available data, and outline how assumptions and data limitations can be reported transparently by noting key factors for consideration. CONCLUSIONS: Current developments in economic evaluations in global health provide a wide range of methodologies to incorporate equity into economic evaluations. Those employing infectious disease models need to use these frameworks more in priority setting to accurately represent health inequities. We provide guidance on the technical approaches to support this goal and ultimately, to achieve more equitable health policies.

15.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e062439, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078988

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A substantial proportion of individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), report persisting symptoms weeks and months following acute infection. Estimates on prevalence vary due to differences in study designs, populations, heterogeneity of symptoms and the way symptoms are measured. Common symptoms include fatigue, cognitive impairment and dyspnoea. However, knowledge regarding the nature and risk factors for developing persisting symptoms is still limited. Hence, in this study, we aim to determine the prevalence, severity, risk factors and impact on quality of life of persisting symptoms in the first year following acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The LongCOVID-study is both a prospective and retrospective cohort study being conducted in the Netherlands, with a one year follow-up. Participants aged 5 years and above, with self-reported positive or negative tests for SARS-CoV-2 will be included in the study. The primary outcome is the prevalence and severity of persistent symptoms in participants that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with controls. Symptom severity will be assessed for fatigue (Checklist Individual Strength (CIS subscale fatigue severity)), pain (Rand-36/SF-36 subscale bodily pain), dyspnoea (Medical Research Council (mMRC)) and cognitive impairment (Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ)). Secondary outcomes include effect of vaccination prior to infection on persistent symptoms, loss of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and risk factors for persisting symptoms following infection with SARS-CoV-2. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Utrecht Medical Ethics Committee (METC) declared in February 2021 that the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO) does not apply to this study (METC protocol number 21-124/C). Informed consent is required prior to participation in the study. Results of this study will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies
16.
Indian Journal of Rheumatology ; 17(3):225-226, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066878
17.
Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering ; 19(12):13861-13877, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2066722

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has created major public health and socio-economic challenges across the United States. Among them are challenges to the educational system where college administrators are struggling with the questions of how to mitigate the risk and spread of diseases on their college campus. To help address this challenge, we developed a flexible computational framework to model the spread and control of COVID-19 on a residential college campus. The modeling framework accounts for heterogeneity in social interactions, activities, environmental and behavioral risk factors, disease progression, and control interventions. The contribution of mitigation strategies to disease transmission was explored without and with interventions such as vaccination, quarantine of symptomatic cases, and testing. We show that even with high vaccination coverage (90%) college campuses may still experience sizable outbreaks. The size of the outbreaks varies with the underlying environmental and socio-behavioral risk factors. Complementing vaccination with quarantine and mass testing was shown to be paramount for preventing or mitigating outbreaks. Though our quantitative results are likely provisional on our model assumptions, sensitivity analysis confirms the robustness of their qualitative nature. ©2022 the Author(s)

18.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e064314, 2022 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064170

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the UK, National Health Service (NHS) guidelines recommend that informal carers of people living with dementia should be offered training to help them develop care skills and manage their own physical and mental health. The WHO recommends access to affordable, proven, well-designed, online technologies for education, skills training and support for dementia carers. In response to these recommendations, this multisite randomised controlled trial (RCT) is the first study in the UK to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of an online support programme developed by the WHO called 'iSupport for dementia carers'. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 350 informal carers (age 18+ years) living in Britain who self-identify as experiencing stress and depression will be recruited. They will be randomised to receive 'iSupport', or standardised information about caring for someone with dementia (control-comparison). Data will be collected via videoconferencing (eg, Zoom) or telephone interview at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Intention-to-treat analysis will ascertain effectiveness in the primary outcomes (distress and depression) and combined cost, and quality-adjusted life-year data will be used to assess cost-effectiveness compared with usual care from a public sector and wider societal perspective. A mixed-methods process evaluation with a subgroup of carers in the intervention (~N=50) will explore the barriers and facilitators to implementing 'iSupport'. A non-randomised feasibility study will adapt 'iSupport' for young carers (n=38 participants, age 11-17 years). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The research plan was scrutinised by National Institute for Health Research reviewers ahead of funding being awarded. Ethical approval was granted by Bangor University's School of Health and Medical Sciences Academic Ethics Committee, reference number 2021-16915. Dissemination plans include delivering events for stakeholders, social media, a project website, developing policy briefings, presenting at conferences and producing articles for open access publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN17420703.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Caregivers/psychology , Child , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
19.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(9)2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064141

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The scope of the challenge of overweight and obesity (OAO) has not been fully realised globally, in part because much of what is known about the economic impacts of OAO come from high-income countries (HICs) and are not readily comparable due to methodological differences. Our objective is to estimate the current and future national economic impacts of OAO globally. METHODS: We estimated economic impacts of OAO for 161 countries using a cost-of-illness approach. Direct and indirect costs of OAO between 2019 and 2060 were estimated from a societal perspective. We assessed the effect of two hypothetical scenarios of OAO prevalence projections. Country-specific data were sourced from published studies and global databases. RESULTS: The economic impact of OAO in 2019 is estimated at 2.19% of global gross domestic product (GDP) ranging on average from US$20 per capita in Africa to US$872 per capita in the Americas and from US$6 in low-income countries to US$1110 in HICs.If current trends continue, by 2060, the economic impacts from OAO are projected to rise to 3.29% of GDP globally. The biggest increase will be concentrated in lower resource countries with total economic costs increasing by fourfold between 2019 and 2060 in HICs, whereas they increase 12-25 times in low and middle-income countries. Reducing projected OAO prevalence by 5% annually from current trends or keeping it at 2019 levels will translate into average annual reductions of US$429 billion or US$2201 billion in costs, respectively, between 2020 and 2060 globally. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel evidence on the economic impact of OAO across different economic and geographic contexts. Our findings highlight the need for concerted and holistic action to address the global rise in OAO prevalence, to avert the significant risks of inaction and achieve the promise of whole-of-society gains in population well-being.


Subject(s)
Obesity , Overweight , Costs and Cost Analysis , Gross Domestic Product , Humans , Income , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e057522, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053206

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess the effectiveness of contact tracing using real-time location system (RTLS) compared with the conventional (electronic medical records (EMRs)) method via an emerging infectious disease (EID) outbreak simulation exercise. The aims of the study are: (1) to compare the time taken to perform contact tracing and list of contacts identified for RTLS versus EMR; (2) to compare manpower and manpower-hours required to perform contact tracing for RTLS versus EMR; and (3) to extrapolate the cost incurred by RTLS versus EMR. DESIGN: Prospective case study. SETTING: Sengkang General Hospital, a 1000-bedded public tertiary hospital in Singapore. PARTICIPANTS: 1000 out of 4000 staff wore staff tags in this study. INTERVENTIONS: A simulation exercise to determine and compare the list of contacts, time taken, manpower and manpower-hours required between RTLS and conventional methods of contact tracing. Cost of both methods were compared. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: List of contacts, time taken, manpower required, manpower-hours required and cost incurred. RESULTS: RTLS identified almost three times the number of contacts compared with conventional methods, while achieving that with a 96.2% reduction in time taken, 97.6% reduction in manpower required and 97.5% reduction in manpower-hours required. However, RTLS incurred significant equipment cost and might take many contact tracing episodes before providing economic benefit. CONCLUSION: Although costly, RTLS is effective in contact tracing. RLTS might not be ready at present time to replace conventional methods, but with further refinement, RTLS has the potential to be the gold standard in contact tracing methods of the future, particularly in the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing , Pandemics , Computer Systems , Contact Tracing/methods , Humans , Singapore/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers
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