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1.
Cancer Research Conference: American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, ACCR ; 83(7 Supplement), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244699

ABSTRACT

Cultural competency is the ability to respectfully engage, understand, and communicate through conscientious interaction, enabling effective work and meaningful relationships in cross-cultural situations. Cultural competency recognizes the importance for organizations of participants' diverse social and cultural values, beliefs, and behaviors, and has gained attention because it can bridge health perspectives, understanding, and respect between health professionals and patients. There remains a need for cultural competency in healthcare as disparities persist across the U.S. in racial and ethnic minority groups who experience worse health outcomes and lower healthcare quality than the general public. Therefore, a cultural competency training curriculum was created using various resources to improve interactions between Pacific Islander patients and healthcare professionals. This training helps to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in healthcare by encouraging mutual understanding and improving patient satisfaction, adherence to medical instructions, and overall health outcomes by highlighting patient-centered care as a result of utilizing components of cultural competency. To improve patient experiences in Hawai'i, healthcare professionals need the tools to better interact with patients from different cultures, such as Pacific Islanders. This training provides healthcare professionals with culturally-based content for improving cultural competence techniques for interacting with Pacific Island patients. This training was pilot tested with key stakeholders from community organizations and Cancer Center faculty/staff. Local health clinics, providers, and practices will have the opportunity to participate in this training through a Zoombased electronic training format and be provided with three continuing medical education credits. The initial delivery of the training was intended for in-person sessions;however, a virtual format was adapted due to the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent social distancing regulations. Healthcare providers are provided pre-training resources, a pre- and post-test, and a course evaluation to determine the validity of training objectives. To date, two Federally Qualified Health Centers have been provided the training, n=60, as well as one Cancer Health Equity Partnerships' Scientific Workshop, n=40. For attendees, the analysis of correct responses from the pretest to post-test showed a significant improvement on 6 of the 12 questions. Respondents also agreed that the training resources aligned with the course objectives. Improved patient interactions from this training can help support better patient outcomes, adherence to medical advice regarding cancer screenings, and many other aspects of improving health equity for Pacific Islanders.

2.
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE ; 12467, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20244646

ABSTRACT

It is important to evaluate medical imaging artificial intelligence (AI) models for possible implicit discrimination (ability to distinguish between subgroups not related to the specific clinical task of the AI model) and disparate impact (difference in outcome rate between subgroups). We studied potential implicit discrimination and disparate impact of a published deep learning/AI model for the prediction of ICU admission for COVID-19 within 24 hours of imaging. The IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant dataset contained 8,357 chest radiography exams from February 2020-January 2022 (12% ICU admission within 24 hours) and was separated by patient into training, validation, and test sets (64%, 16%, 20% split). The AI output was evaluated in two demographic categories: sex assigned at birth (subgroups male and female) and self-reported race (subgroups Black/African-American and White). We failed to show statistical evidence that the model could implicitly discriminate between members of subgroups categorized by race based on prediction scores (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC: median [95% confidence interval, CI]: 0.53 [0.48, 0.57]) but there was some marginal evidence of implicit discrimination between members of subgroups categorized by sex (AUC: 0.54 [0.51, 0.57]). No statistical evidence for disparate impact (DI) was observed between the race subgroups (i.e. the 95% CI of the ratio of the favorable outcome rate between two subgroups included one) for the example operating point of the maximized Youden index but some evidence of disparate impact to the male subgroup based on sex was observed. These results help develop evaluation of implicit discrimination and disparate impact of AI models in the context of decision thresholds © COPYRIGHT SPIE. Downloading of the is permitted for personal use only.

3.
Global Health, Humanity and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Philosophical and Sociological Challenges and Imperatives ; : 51-73, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20244051

ABSTRACT

This chapter explores the significance of sociocultural and ethical limitations of non-science-based approaches toward effectively containing, managing, and ending global health emergencies. It refers to the 2013-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa and the current COVID-19 global pandemic to underscore the limits of science-based approaches in tackling infectious disease outbreaks. Against this background, it points to the significance of measures rooted in the humanities that have been (or are being) used to demonstrate the values of social, cultural, and ethical approaches in addressing global health emergencies. This chapter shows that while science-based approaches are essential, they are not sufficient toward addressing the varied challenges of global health emergencies. The experiences of Ebola epidemics in Africa and the COVID-19 global pandemic have shown that science-based approaches need to be buttressed by sociocultural and ethical measures to be successful. It has become self-evident that global health emergencies can be addressed sooner if non-science-based approaches are incorporated into the core responses. The successful approaches toward addressing global health emergencies will be ones that adequately harmonized science-based approaches with sociocultural and ethical measures. © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023. All rights reserved.

4.
Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S404-S405, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243876

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The Covid-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of considering Social Determinants of Health (SDoH) in healthcare research. Administrative claims databases are widely used for research, but often lack SDoH data or sufficient transparency in how these data were obtained. This study describes innovative methods for integrating SDoH data with administrative claims to facilitate health equity research. Method(s): The HealthCore Integrated Research Database (HIRD) contains medical and pharmacy claims from a large, national US payer starting in 2006 and includes commercial (Comm), Medicare Advantage (MCare), and Medicaid (MCaid) populations. The HIRD includes individually identifiable information, which was used for linking with SDoH data from the following sources: national neighborhood-level data from the American Community Survey, the Food Access Research Atlas, and the National Center for Health Statistics' urbanicity classification;and member-level data on race/ethnicity from enrollment files, medical records, self-attestation, and imputation algorithms. We examined SDoH metrics for members enrolled as of 05-July-2022 and compared them to the respective US national data using descriptive statistics. We also examined telehealth utilization in 2022. Result(s): SDoH data were available for ~95% of currently active members in the HIRD (Comm/MCare/MCaid 12.5m/1m/7.6m). Socioeconomic characteristics at the neighborhood-level differed by membership type and vs. national data: % of members with at least a high-school education (90/88/84 vs. 87);median family income ($98k/$76k/$70k vs. $82k);% of members living in low-income low-food-access tracts (9/14/18 vs. 13);urban (57/52/47 vs. 61). At the member-level, the % of White Non-Hispanics, Black Non-Hispanics, Asian Non-Hispanics, and Hispanics were 61/6/5/6 (Comm), 76/12/2/2 (MCare), and 45/26/5/19 (MCaid). Imputation contributed 15-60% of race/ethnicity values across membership types. Telehealth utilization increased with socioeconomic status. Conclusion(s): We successfully integrated SDoH data from a variety of sources with administrative claims. SDoH characteristics differed by type of insurance coverage and were associated with differences in telehealth utilization.Copyright © 2023

5.
Revue Medicale Suisse ; 16(701):1446-1447, 2020.
Article in French | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20240020
6.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 84(8-B):No Pagination Specified, 2023.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-20234617

ABSTRACT

Background: Since it was declared a global pandemic in March 2020, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has claimed over one million lives in the United States. Since COVID-19 vaccine rollout efforts began in Baltimore City, Maryland in December 2020, approximately 63.4% of all residents have been fully vaccinated (i.e., received their first and second doses in a two-dose series or received a single-dose vaccine). Despite efforts to implement equitable vaccine distribution in Baltimore City, prominent disparities in COVID-19 vaccine uptake persist, with poorer, predominantly Black neighborhoods frequently reporting lower levels of vaccine uptake than affluent, predominantly White neighborhoods. Guided by key principles of community-based participatory research, this dissertation explores community experiences with COVID-19 vaccines and develops a core outcome set (COS), inclusive of community-important outcomes, for use in studies evaluating the safety, efficacy, and implementation of COVID-19 vaccines. Methods: In March 2022, semi-structured interviews were held with vaccinated and unvaccinated Black residents of a community in Baltimore City reporting 40% vaccination uptake. Data were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis with subsequent subgroup analyses and thematic network analyses. To assess the extent to which outcomes measured in COVID-19 vaccine studies published between December 2019 and March 2022 aligned with factors of vaccine hesitancy, a systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted. Results from the qualitative analyses and the SLR informed the development of a candidate list of outcomes used in the first round of a Delphi study held in June 2020. After two rounds of Delphi survey distribution, a face-to-face consensus meeting was held with community members and community health workers to prioritize outcomes of interest to all relevant stakeholders and finalize the COS. Results: Thematic analysis yielded four emergent themes relating to COVID-19 vaccine uptake decision making: (I) Safety and efficacy of vaccines, (II) Perceived importance of COVID-19 vaccines in relation to pre-existing community needs, divided into two subthemes, a) Environmental injustice and (b) Personal health concerns, (III) Access to trustworthy, understandable information, and (IV) Physical access to vaccines. Participants acknowledged that physical access to COVID-19 vaccines was not a major barrier to uptake, however finding trustworthy and understandable information about the safety and efficacy of the vaccines were common areas of concern. Of all primary outcomes (N=20) identified in the 56 articles included in the SLR, 85% (n=17) corresponded with factors of vaccine hesitancy. The final COS included 19 outcomes across four "domains:" "Is the vaccine safe?";"Does the vaccine work in my body?";"Does the vaccine work in the community?";and "Outcomes identified during consensus meeting." Conclusion: The findings from this dissertation suggest that although community-important outcomes related to safety and efficacy of vaccines are often addressed in clinical studies, outcomes measuring institutional trust, economic and health impacts, community acceptance of the vaccines, and trustworthiness of vaccine information are underutilized in studies of vaccine implementation. As these social factors function as barriers to vaccine uptake, particularly among underserved communities, they should be regarded as indicators of equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines. The findings from this dissertation provide a framework with which public health researchers can begin to rethink measures of equity in vaccine rollout efforts. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)

7.
Evidence Based Practice in Child and Adolescent Mental Health ; 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232616

ABSTRACT

The Zero Suicide (ZS) approach to health system quality improvement (QI) aspires to reduce/eliminate suicides through enhancing risk detection and suicide prevention services. This first report from our randomized trial evaluating a stepped care for suicide prevention intervention within a health system conducting ZS-QI describes (1) our screening and case identification process, (2) variation among adolescents versus young adults, and (3) pandemic-related patterns during the first COVID-19 pandemic year. Between April 2017 and January 2021, youths aged 12-24 years with elevated suicide risk were identified through an electronic health record (EHR) case-finding algorithm followed by direct assessment screening to confirm risk. Eligible/enrolled youth were evaluated for suicidality, self-harm, and risk/protective factors. Case finding, screening, and enrollment yielded 301 participants showing suicide risk indicators: 97% past-year suicidal ideation, 83% past suicidal behavior;and 90% past non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Compared to young adults, adolescents reported more past-year suicide attempts (47% vs. 21%, p <.001) and NSSI (past 6 months, 64% vs. 39%, p <.001);less depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and substance use;and greater social connectedness. Pandemic onset was associated with lower participation of racial-ethnic minority youths (18% vs. 33%, p <.015) and lower past-month suicidal ideation and behavior. Results support the value of EHR case-finding algorithms for identifying youths with potentially elevated risk who could benefit from suicide prevention services, which merit adaptation for adolescents versus young adults. Lower racial-ethnic minority participation after the COVID-19 pandemic onset underscores challenges for services to enhance health equity during a period with restricted in-person health care, social distancing, school closures, and diverse stresses.Copyright © 2023 Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology.

8.
Health Serv Res ; 58 Suppl 2: 218-228, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232325

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether knowledge of Tuskegee, the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency's detainment of children, and satisfaction with the George Floyd death investigation were associated with trust in actors involved in the development and distribution of coronavirus vaccines. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING: National survey with a convenience sample of Black (n = 1019) and Hispanic (n = 994) adults between July 1 and 26, 2021. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study using stratified adjusted logistic regression models to measure the association between ratings of the trustworthiness of actors involved in the development and distribution of coronavirus vaccines. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among Black respondents, lower satisfaction with the George Floyd death investigation was associated with lower trustworthiness ratings of pharmaceutical companies (ME: -0.09; CI: -0.15, 0.02), the FDA (ME: -0.07; CI: -0.14, -0.00), the Trump Administration (ME: -0.09; CI: -0.16, -0.02), the Biden Administration (ME: -0.07, CI: -0.10, 0.04), and elected officials (ME: -0.10, CI: -0.18, -0.03). Among Hispanic respondents, lower satisfaction was associated with lower trustworthiness ratings of the Trump Administration (ME: -0.14, CI: -0.22, -0.06) and elected officials (ME: -0.11; CI: -0.19, -0.02). Greater knowledge of ICE's detainment of children and families among Hispanic respondents was associated with lower trustworthiness ratings of state elected officials (ME: -0.09, CI: -0.16, 0.01). Greater knowledge of the US Public Health Service Study of Syphilis in Tuskegee was associated with higher trustworthiness ratings of their usual source of care (ME: 0.09; CI: 0.28, 0.15) among Black respondents (ME: 0.09; CI: 0.01, 0.16). CONCLUSIONS: Among Black respondents, lower satisfaction with the George Floyd death investigation was associated with lowered levels of trust in pharmaceutical companies, some government officials, and administrators; it was not associated with the erosion of trust in direct sources of health care delivery, information, or regulation. Among Hispanic respondents, greater knowledge of the ICE detainments was associated with lower trustworthiness ratings of elected state officials. Paradoxically, higher knowledge of the Study of Syphilis in Tuskegee was associated with higher trustworthiness ratings in usual sources of care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Syphilis , Vaccines , Adult , Child , Humans , Trust , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pharmaceutical Preparations
9.
Curr Pediatr Rep ; 11(2): 40-49, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232228

ABSTRACT

Purpose of Review: Compared with high-income countries, healthcare disparities and inequities are more evident in low, lower-middle, and upper-middle-income countries with poorer housing and nutrition conditions. At least 20% of Latin America and the Caribbean are low and lower-middle-income countries. Despite the majority of the other countries being upper-middle income, the United Nations Children's Fund had classified all the regions as "less developed," with limited access to health care for the most vulnerable, the children. Latin America and the Caribbean regions represent an extensive territory with communication limitations and an unstable socio-political and economic environment. After considering the vast population affected by poverty worldwide and the long-term impact of kidney disease starting in childhood, it is crucial to better understand and analyze the multifactorial limiting conditions in accessing specialized care such as pediatric nephrology in disadvantaged areas. Recent Findings: Constraints in accessing basic healthcare in rural areas make it impossible to receive specialized pediatric nephrology care including dialysis and transplantation. Disturbingly, incidence and prevalence figures of acute kidney injury, chronic and end-stage kidney disease in some Latin American and the Caribbean countries are unknown, and these conditions still represent a death sentence for underprivileged populations. However, the monumental efforts of the dedicated healthcare providers and stakeholders that pioneered the actions in the past 50 years have shown remarkable progress in developing pediatric nephology services across the continent. Summary: In this review, we compile some of the latest evidence about the care of children and adolescents with kidney conditions in Latin America and the Caribbean, along with the experiences from the field in the care of these patients facing adverse conditions. We also highlight recommendations to address inequities and disparities.

10.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 25(3): 570-579, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240021

ABSTRACT

Asylum seekers face multiple language, cultural and administrative barriers that could result in the inappropriate implementation of COVID-19 measures. This study aimed to explore their knowledge and attitudes to recommendations about COVID-19. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among asylum seekers living in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. We used logistic regressions to analyze associations between knowledge about health recommendations, the experience of the pandemic and belief to rumors, and participant sociodemographic characteristics. In total, 242 people participated in the survey, with 63% of men (n = 150) and a median age of 30 years old (IQR 23-40). Low knowledge was associated with linguistic barriers (aOR 0.36, 95% CI 0.14-0.94, p = 0.028) and living in a community center (aOR 0.43, 95% CI 0.22-0.85, p = 0.014). Rejected asylum seekers were more likely to believe COVID-19 rumors (aOR 2.81, 95% CI 1.24-6.36, p = 0.013). This survey underlines the importance of tailoring health recommendations and interventions to reach asylum seekers, particularly those living in community centers or facing language barriers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refugees , Adult , Humans , Male , Young Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Language , Switzerland/epidemiology , Female
11.
Psychiatr Serv ; : appips20220558, 2023 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239985

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to explore the availability of mental health supports within public schools during the COVID-19 pandemic by using survey data from a nationally representative sample of U.S. K-12 public schools collected in October-November 2021. METHODS: The prevalence of 11 school-based mental health supports was examined within the sample (N=437 schools). Chi-square tests and adjusted logistic regression models were used to identify associations between school-level characteristics and mental health supports. School characteristics included level (elementary, middle, or high school), locale (city, town, suburb, or rural area), poverty level, having a full-time school nurse, and having a school-based health center. RESULTS: Universal mental health programs were more prevalent than more individualized and group-based supports (e.g., therapy groups); however, prevalence of certain mental health supports was low among schools (e.g., only 53% implemented schoolwide trauma-informed practices). Schools having middle to high levels of poverty or located in rural areas or towns and elementary schools and schools without a health infrastructure were less likely to implement mental health supports, even after analyses were adjusted for school-level characteristics. For example, compared with low-poverty schools, mid-poverty schools had lower odds of implementing prosocial skills training for students (adjusted OR [AOR]=0.49, 95% CI=0.27-0.88) and providing confidential mental health screening (AOR=0.42, 95% CI=0.22-0.79). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation levels of school-based mental health supports leave substantial room for improvement, and numerous disparities existed by school characteristics. Higher-poverty areas, schools in rural areas or towns, and elementary schools and schools without a health infrastructure may require assistance in ensuring equitable access to mental health supports.

12.
J Pers Med ; 13(5)2023 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238734

ABSTRACT

The concept of chronic kidney disease (CKD) originated in the 2000s, and an estimated 850 million patients are currently suffering from health threats from different degrees of CKD. However, it is unclear whether the existing CKD care systems are optimal for improving patient prognosis and outcomes, so this review summarizes the burden, existing care models, effectiveness, challenges, and developments of CKD care. Even under the general care principles, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the causes of CKD, prevention or care resources, and care burdens between countries worldwide. Receiving care from multidisciplinary teams rather than only a nephrologist shows potential profits in comprehensive and preferable outcomes. In addition, we propose a novel CKD care structure that combines modern technologies, biosensors, longitudinal data visualization, machine learning algorithms, and mobile care. The novel care structure could simultaneously change the care process, significantly reduce human contact, and make the vulnerable population less likely to be exposed to infectious diseases such as COVID-19. The information offered should be beneficial, allowing us to rethink future CKD care models and applications to reach the goals of health equality and sustainability.

13.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1110300, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236647

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic there were numerous stories of health equity work being put "on hold" as public health staff were deployed to the many urgent tasks of responding to the emergency. Losing track of health equity work is not new and relates in part to the need to transfer tacit knowledge to explicit articulation of an organization's commitment to health equity, by encoding the commitment and making it visible and sustainable in policy documents, protocols and processes. Methods: We adopted a Theory of Change framework to develop training for public health personnel to articulate where and how health equity is or can be embedded in their emergency preparedness processes and documents. Results: Over four sessions, participants reviewed how well their understanding of disadvantaged populations were represented in emergency preparedness, response and mitigation protocols. Using equity prompts, participants developed a heat map depicting where more work was needed to explicitly involve community partners in a sustained manner. Participants were challenged at times by questions of scope and authority, but it became clear that the explicit health equity prompts facilitated conversations that moved beyond the idea of health equity to something that could be codified and later measured. Over four sessions, participants reviewed how well their understanding of disadvantaged populations were represented in emergency preparedness, response and mitigation protocols. Using equity prompts, participants developed a heat map depicting where more work was needed to explicitly involve community partners in a sustained manner. Participants were challenged at times by questions of scope and authority, but it became clear that the explicit health equity prompts facilitated conversations that moved beyond the idea of health equity to something that could be codified and later measured. Discussion: Using the indicators and prompts enabled the leadership and staff to articulate what they do and do not know about their community partners, including how to sustain their involvement, and where there was need for action. Saying out loud where there is - and is not - sustained commitment to achieving health equity can help public health organizations move from theory to true preparedness and resilience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Civil Defense , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , Communication
14.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While previous studies have identified a range of factors associated with mask wearing in the US, little is known about drivers of mask-wearing among racial and ethnic minority groups. This analysis assessed whether factors positively associated with wearing a mask early in the pandemic differed between participants grouped by race/ethnicity (Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic Asian, and non-Hispanic White). METHOD: Data were obtained from a US internet panel survey of 3217 respondents during May-November 2020 (weighted by race/ethnicity, age, gender, and education to the US national population). Within each of the four available racial/ethnic groups, crude and adjusted odds ratios (COR and AOR) were calculated using logistic regression to assess factors positively associated with wearing a mask. Adjusted models were controlled for age, gender, education, county COVID-19 case count, presence of a state-issued mask mandate, and interview month. RESULTS: The following variables were most strongly positively associated with mask wearing (p<0.05) in each racial/ethnic group: Hispanic-seeing others wearing masks (AOR: 6.7), importance of wearing a mask combined with social distancing (AOR: 3.0); non-Hispanic Black-belief that wearing a mask would protect others from coronavirus (AOR: 5.1), reporting hearing that one should wear a mask (AOR: 3.6); non-Hispanic Asian-belief that people important to them believe they should wear a mask (COR: 5.1, not statistically significant); and non-Hispanic White-seeing others wearing masks (AOR: 3.1), importance of wearing a mask (AOR: 2.3). CONCLUSION: Public health efforts to encourage mask wearing should consider the diversity of behavioral influences within different population groups.

15.
Health Promot Pract ; : 15248399231175843, 2023 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243285

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION.: Evidence-based health promotion programs (EBPs) support older adults where they live, work, pray, play, and age. COVID-19 placed a disproportionate burden on this population, especially those with chronic conditions. In-person EBPs shifted to remote delivery via video-conferencing, phone, and mail during the pandemic, creating opportunities and challenges for older adult health equity. METHOD.: In 2021-2022, we conducted a process evaluation of remote EBPs by purposively sampling diverse U.S. organizations and older adults (people of color, rural, and/or with disabilities). The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) + Equity framework was used to understand program reach and implementation, including FRAME to describe adaptations for remote delivery. Analyses include descriptive statistics and thematic analysis of participant and provider surveys and interviews, and joint display tables to compare learnings. RESULTS.: Findings from 31 EBPs through 198 managers/leaders and 107 organizations suggest remote delivery increases EBP reach by improving access for older adults who are underserved. For programs requiring new software or hardware, challenges remain reaching those with limited access to-or comfort using-technology. Adaptations were to context (e.g., shorter, smaller classes with longer duration) and for equity (e.g., phone formats, autogenerated captioning); content was unchanged except where safety was concerned. Implementation is facilitated by remote delivery guidelines, distance training, and technology support; and hindered by additional time, staffing, and resources for engagement and delivery. CONCLUSIONS.: Remote EBP delivery is promising for improving equitable access to quality health promotion. Future policies and practices must support technology access and usability for all older adults.

16.
BMJ Open ; 13(4): e069255, 2023 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242945

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Managing violence or aggression is an ongoing challenge in emergency psychiatry. Many patients identified as being at risk do not go on to become violent or aggressive. Efforts to automate the assessment of risk involve training machine learning (ML) models on data from electronic health records (EHRs) to predict these behaviours. However, no studies to date have examined which patient groups may be over-represented in false positive predictions, despite evidence of social and clinical biases that may lead to higher perceptions of risk in patients defined by intersecting features (eg, race, gender). Because risk assessment can impact psychiatric care (eg, via coercive measures, such as restraints), it is unclear which patients might be underserved or harmed by the application of ML. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We pilot a computational ethnography to study how the integration of ML into risk assessment might impact acute psychiatric care, with a focus on how EHR data is compiled and used to predict a risk of violence or aggression. Our objectives include: (1) evaluating an ML model trained on psychiatric EHRs to predict violent or aggressive incidents for intersectional bias; and (2) completing participant observation and qualitative interviews in an emergency psychiatric setting to explore how social, clinical and structural biases are encoded in the training data. Our overall aim is to study the impact of ML applications in acute psychiatry on marginalised and underserved patient groups. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The project was approved by the research ethics board at The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (053/2021). Study findings will be presented in peer-reviewed journals, conferences and shared with service users and providers.


Subject(s)
Inpatients , Psychiatry , Humans , Inpatients/psychology , Violence/prevention & control , Violence/psychology , Aggression/psychology , Anthropology, Cultural
17.
J Infect Dis ; 226(Suppl 3): S372-S374, 2022 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240048
18.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e069753, 2023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241603

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Racialized population groups have worse health outcomes across the world compared with non-racialized populations. Evidence suggests that collecting race-based data should be done to mitigate racism as a barrier to health equity, and to amplify community voices, promote transparency, accountability, and shared governance of data. However, limited evidence exists on the best ways to collect race-based data in healthcare contexts. This systematic review aims to synthesize opinions and texts on the best practices for collecting race-based data in healthcare contexts. METHODS AND ANALYSES: We will use the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) method for synthesizing text and opinions. JBI is a global leader in evidence-based healthcare and provides guidelines for systematic reviews. The search strategy will locate both published and unpublished papers in English in CINAHL, Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science from 1 January 2013 to 1 January 2023, as well as unpublished studies and grey literature of relevant government and research websites using Google and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement methodology for systematic reviews of text and opinion will be applied, including screening and appraisal of the evidence by two independent reviewers and data extraction using JBI's Narrative, Opinion, Text, Assessment, Review Instrument. This JBI systematic review of opinion and text will address gaps in knowledge about the best ways to collect race-based data in healthcare. Improvements in race-based data collection, may be related to structural policies that address racism in healthcare. Community participation may also be used to increase knowledge about collecting race-based data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The systematic review does not involve human subjects. Findings will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication in JBI evidence synthesis, conferences and media. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022368270.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Health Facilities , Humans , Evidence-Based Practice , Health Personnel , Narration , Systematic Reviews as Topic
19.
Telemed Rep ; 4(1): 67-86, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231346

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of telehealth for the management and treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has increased across the United States (U.S.), especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Telehealth has the potential to reduce barriers to accessing health care and improve clinical outcomes. However, implementation, outcomes, and health equity implications related to these strategies are not well understood. The purpose of this review was to identify how telehealth is being used by U.S. health care professionals and health systems to manage hypertension and CVD and to describe the impact these telehealth strategies have on hypertension and CVD outcomes, with a special focus on social determinants of health and health disparities. Methods: This study comprised a narrative review of the literature and meta-analyses. The meta-analyses included articles with intervention and control groups to examine the impact of telehealth interventions on changes to select patient outcomes, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure. A total of 38 U.S.-based interventions were included in the narrative review, with 14 yielding data eligible for the meta-analyses. Results: The telehealth interventions reviewed were used to treat patients with hypertension, heart failure, and stroke, with most interventions employing a team-based care approach. These interventions utilized the expertise of physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other health care professionals to collaborate on patient decisions and provide direct care. Among the 38 interventions reviewed, 26 interventions utilized remote patient monitoring (RPM) devices mostly for blood pressure monitoring. Half the interventions used a combination of strategies (e.g., videoconferencing and RPM). Patients using telehealth saw significant improvements in clinical outcomes such as blood pressure control, which were comparable to patients receiving in-person care. In contrast, the outcomes related to hospitalizations were mixed. There were also significant decreases in all-cause mortality when compared to usual care. No study explicitly focused on addressing social determinants of health or health disparities through telehealth for hypertension or CVD. Conclusions: Telehealth appears to be comparable to traditional in-person care for managing blood pressure and CVD and may be seen as a complement to existing care options for some patients. Telehealth can also support team-based care delivery and may benefit patients and health care professionals by increasing opportunities for communication, engagement, and monitoring outside a clinical setting.

20.
Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice ; 31(1) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2322511

ABSTRACT

Aim of the Study: We aimed to evaluate the virus spreading among a migrant population previously excluded by community surveillance programs. Method(s): We conducted a retrospective study, collecting data about people without SARS-CoV-2-related symptoms who attended the outpatient clinic for undocumented migrants from November 1, 2020, to April 30, 2021. Patients who performed a nasopharyngeal swab and serologic test to evaluate the presence of antibody anti-SARS-CoV-2 were enrolled. Result(s): Overall, 240 people were included in our study. Of them, 15 (6.3%) were female, with a median age of 27.0 years (interquartile range [IQR], 24.3-32.1 years). Thirty-seven patients (15.4%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at the nasopharyngeal swab during the study period. Of these, 16 had positive or low positive results for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and 3 tested positive for both IgG and IgM. Besides, 22 participants (9.2%) resulted positive to serological testing, but negative to polymerase chain reaction testing. The median age of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients (n = 59) was significantly higher than negative (29.6 [IQR, 25.0-35.0] vs 26.8 [IQR, 24.2-31.5], P = 0.022). Among positive patients, the most frequent nationality was Bangladeshi, with 24 people (40.7%, P < 0.001). The highest percentage of positive was found among the same nationality (51.1% of Bangladeshi tested positive). Conclusion(s): Our data underline the significantly higher prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the undocumented migrant population in respect of the general population of Piacenza province in the same period (15.4% vs 5.9%, P < 0.001). The extension of surveillance programs to the whole population, thus including undocumented people, is crucial to curb the spreading of the virus.Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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