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1.
Korean J Women Health Nurs ; 26(2): 106-108, 2020 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099985
2.
Health Promot Pract ; : 15248399221129536, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098255

ABSTRACT

Recent nationwide racial justice uprisings following ongoing police violence against Black communities juxtaposed with the COVID-19 pandemic have increased the urgency for a reckoning around the ineffectiveness and harm caused by the carceral apparatus. It is well documented that the correctional system was founded upon and continues the legacy of slavery and white supremacy. Research has shown that incarceration directly contributes to many negative health outcomes, including increased risk and spread of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, especially among people who inject drugs. This high burden of HCV disproportionately impacts low-income communities of color, who not only report higher rates of substance use due to pervasive discrimination but are also over-incarcerated as a result of structural racism and the War on Drugs. The COVID-19 pandemic further underscores that correctional facilities are fundamentally structured to promote health inequities. Minoritized communities who are overrepresented in corrections continue to be put at increased risk of COVID-19 in overcrowded facilities, are isolated from social support and medical care, and have been ignored in vaccination strategies. In this perspective, we argue that HCV interventions within the carceral apparatus will remain largely ineffective due to the negative health impacts of incarceration. Instead, we propose adopting abolitionist principles for HCV elimination-divesting from the carceral apparatus to prioritize community-based efforts on promoting HCV screening, treatment, and prevention. In doing so, the nation will have not only the capacity to meaningfully eliminate HCV but also the potential to improve overall societal outcomes.

3.
Public Health Rep ; : 333549221131372, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098161

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated 2 innovative approaches that supported COVID-19 case investigation and contact tracing (CI/CT) in Chicago communities: (1) early engagement of people diagnosed with COVID-19 by leveraging the existing Healthcare Alert Network to send automated telephone calls and text messages and (2) establishment of a network of on-site case investigators and contact tracers within partner health care facilities (HCFs) and community-based organizations (CBOs). METHODS: The Chicago Department of Public Health used Healthcare Alert Network data to calculate the proportion of people with confirmed COVID-19 who successfully received an automated telephone call or text message during December 27, 2020-April 24, 2021. The department also used CI/CT data to calculate the proportion of cases successfully interviewed and named contacts successfully notified, as well as the time to successful case interview and to successful contact notification. RESULTS: Of 67 882 people with COVID-19, 94.3% (n = 64 011) received an automated telephone call and 91.7% (n = 62 239) received a text message. Of the 65 470 COVID-19 cases pulled from CI/CT data, 24 450 (37.3%) interviews were completed, including 6212 (61.3%) of the 10 126 cases diagnosed in HCFs. The median time from testing to successful case interview was 3 days for Chicago Department of Public Health investigators and 4 days for HCF investigators. Overall, 34 083 contacts were named; 13 117 (38.5%) were successfully notified, including 9068 (36.6%) of the 24 761 contacts assigned to CBOs. The median time from contact elicitation to completed notification by CBOs was <24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Partnerships with HCFs and CBOs helped deliver timely CI/CT during the COVID-19 pandemic, suggesting a potential benefit of engaging non-public health institutions in CI/CT for existing and emerging diseases.

4.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(1): 89-91, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096544
5.
Ethn Dis ; 32(4): 357-372, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091258

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated existing health inequities, further exposing the challenges in meeting the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs, particularly for Black, Indigenous and People of Color (BIPOC). We interviewed 11 key informants through three focus groups to explore barriers and pathways to SRH care for BIPOC during COVID-19 in the United States. Reimagining reproductive health practices requires holistic practices and multisector pathways, a comprehensive reproductive justice approach. This includes interventions across the sexual and reproductive health continuum. Using a deductive-dominant approach grounded in reproductive justice values, we explore themes around SRH during COVID-19. Five themes for advancing reproductive justice were identified: "supremacy of birth"; police violence as a determinant of SR mental health; addressing quality of care outside of hospital settings; digital redlining; and centering joy, liberation, and humanity.

6.
Ethn Dis ; 32(4): 341-350, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091257

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore factors influencing COVID-19 vaccine decision-making among Black adults at high-risk for COVID-19 infection. Despite effective treatment and vaccination availability, Black Americans continue to be disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. Design Setting and Participants: Using community-engaged qualitative methods, we conducted virtual, semi-structured focus groups with Black residents in Los Angeles County before widespread vaccine rollout. Recruitment occurred through local community partners. Main Outcome Measures: Themes and subthemes on factors for vaccine confidence and accessibility. Methods: As part of a larger study exploring COVID-19 vaccine decision-making factors among multiethnic groups, two-hour virtual focus groups were conducted between December 15, 2020 and January 27, 2021. Transcripts were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Results: Three focus groups were conducted with 17 Black participants, who were primarily female (n=15), residents of high-poverty zip codes (n=11) and employed full-time (n=6). Black-specific considerations for vaccine confidence and accessibility include: 1) reduced confidence in COVID-19 vaccines due to historical government inaction and racism (existing health inequities and disparities are rooted in racism; historical unethical research practices); 2) misunderstanding of Black communities' vaccine concerns ("vaccine hesitancy" as an inaccurate label to describe vaccine skepticism; ignorance to root causes of vaccine skepticism); and 3) recognizing and building on resources (community agency to address COVID-19 vaccine needs adequately). Conclusions: Vaccination campaigns should improve understanding of underlying vaccination concerns to improve vaccine outreach effectiveness and should partner with, provide resources to, and invest in local, trusted Black community entities to improve COVID-19 vaccination disparities.

7.
Community Dent Health ; 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089548

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A key aspect of the public health response to COVID-19 in Scotland was enhanced community surveillance, including testing in dental settings. Across Scotland, dental settings offered patients over 5-years-old the opportunity to participate in community surveillance of COVID-19. METHODS: A Health Inequalities Impact Assessment (HIIA) was conducted to understand the differential impacts the programme would have on the population and to improve the accessibility of the programme. HIIA is a tool to allow the assessment, understanding, and mitigation of impacts on people of a proposed policy or practice. It fulfils an organisational duty to meet the requirements of the Equality Act and Fairer Scotland Duty. The HIIA was conducted rapidly in parallel with the programme development. An action research approach included an online workshop, consultation, review of population data and a literature search. RESULTS: Adjustments were required to improve the programme's accessibility. Stakeholders, including dental teams from across Scotland were involved in the consultation and brought their front-line experience in different settings. Common issues identified included digital literacy and access, language and cultural barriers to participation, and issues relating to the implications of a positive COVID-19 result. Literature indicated limited evidence on the acceptability, accessibility, and equity of asymptomatic COVID-19 surveillance. CONCLUSION: This HIIA was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. As an example of good practice in tackling inequalities in access to programmes it should represent the benchmark for other similar initiatives.

8.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2124781, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082169

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the early vaccine landscape relative to challenges faced by low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), we conducted a cross-sectional study of all COVID-19 vaccines in clinical trials in 2021 (n = 123) using a structured 13-point analytic framework. Supply sustainability was defined as a composite metric of four manufacturing and regulation variables. Vaccine desirability was defined as a composite metric of nine development and distribution variables. Ten vaccines in phases 2/3, 3, or 4 and five vaccines in phases 1 and 1/2 had a sustainability score equal to or above 0.5. Ten vaccines in phases 2/3, 3, or 4 and seven vaccines in phases 1 and 1/2 had a desirability score equal to or above 0.5. No vaccines in Phases 2/3, 3, or 4 met more than one distribution criterion. Structured assessment COVID-19 vaccine candidates in clinical trials in 2021 revealed numerous challenges to adequate access in LMICs. Key policy recommendations included increasing technology transfer to LMICs, developing international legal mechanisms to prevent export bans, and increasing investment in vaccine candidates with more favorable distribution profiles.

9.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(4): 7657, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081330

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The first outbreak of the omicron variant of COVID-19 in the Torres and Cape region of Far North Queensland in Australia was declared in late December 2021. A COVID-19 Care at Home program was created to support the health and non-health needs of people with COVID-19 and their families throughout the mandatory isolation periods and included centralising the coordination and delivery of COVID-19 therapeutics. The therapeutics available included one intravenous monoclonal antibody (sotrovimab) and two oral antiviral therapies: nirmatrelvir and ritonavir (Paxlovid®) and molnupiravir (Lagevrio®). This article describes the uptake and delivery of this therapeutics program. METHODS: COVID-19 cases were documented in a notification database, screened to determine eligibility for COVID-19 therapies and prioritised based on case age, vaccination status, immunosuppression status and existing comorbidities, in line with Queensland clinical guidelines. Eligible cases were individually contacted by phone to discuss treatment options, and administration of therapies were coordinated in partnership with local primary healthcare centres and hospitals. RESULTS: A total of 4744 cases were notified during the outbreak period, of which 217 (4.6%) were deemed eligible for treatment after medical review. Treatment was offered to 148/217 cases (68.2%), with 90/148 cases (60.8%) declining treatment and 53/148 cases (35.8%) receiving therapeutic treatment for COVID-19. Among these 53 cases, 29 received sotrovimab (54.7%), 20 received Paxlovid (37.7%) and four received Lagevrio (7.5%). First Nations people accounted for 48/53 cases (90.6%) who received treatment, and COVID-19 therapeutics were delivered to cases in 16 remote First Nations communities during the outbreak period. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 Care at Home program demonstrated a novel, public health led approach to delivering time-critical medications to individuals across a large, remote and logistically complex region. The application of similar models to outbreaks and chronic conditions of public health importance offers potential to address many health access inequities experienced by remote Australian First Nations communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Services, Indigenous , Humans , Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander , Queensland/epidemiology , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ritonavir , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Outbreaks , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antiviral Agents
10.
Elife ; 112022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080854

ABSTRACT

Background: The global distribution of COVID-19 vaccinations remains highly unequal. We examine public preferences in six European countries regarding the allocation of COVID-19 vaccines between the Global South and Global North. Methods: We conducted online discrete choice experiments with adult participants in France (n=766), Germany (n=1964), Italy (n=767), Poland (n=670), Spain (n=925), and Sweden (n=938). Respondents were asked to decide which one of two candidates should receive the vaccine first. The candidates varied on four attributes: age, mortality risk, employment, and living in a low- or high-income country. We analysed the relevance of each attribute in allocation decisions using conditional logit regressions. Results: In all six countries, respondents prioritised candidates with a high mortality and infection risk, irrespective of whether the candidate lived in the respondent's own country. All else equal, respondents in Italy, France, Spain, and Sweden gave priority to a candidate from a low-income country, whereas German respondents were significantly more likely to choose the candidate from their own country. Female, younger, and more educated respondents were more favourable to an equitable vaccine distribution. Conclusions: Given these preferences for global solidarity, European governments should promote vaccine transfers to poorer world regions. Funding: Funding was provided by the European Union's Horizon H2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement 101016233 (PERISCOPE).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Female , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Europe/epidemiology
11.
Br J Gen Pract ; 72(724): e799-e808, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has altered the provision of health care and expanded telehealth consultations. AIM: To study the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on contact patterns in general practice, and to identify patient groups at risk of losing care. DESIGN AND SETTING: Register-based study of Danish general practice, including daytime and out-of-hours (OOH) services. METHOD: All individuals residing in Denmark from 1 January 2017 to 31 October 2020 were included. The incidence rate for six contact types in general practice and adjusted incidence rate ratio were calculated by comparing the incidence rate in the pandemic period with the adjusted expected incidence rate based on the incidence rate in the pre-pandemic period. RESULTS: The number of face-to-face in-clinic consultations declined during the lockdown in March 2020. A subsequent increase in the number of clinic consultations was observed, rising to a level above that of the pre-pandemic period; this increase resulted mainly from the introduction of telehealth consultations (that is, video and extended telephone). The number of daytime email consultations increased, whereas the number of daytime home visits decreased. Likewise, the number of OOH telephone consultations increased, whereas the number of OOH home visits and clinic consultations decreased. Consultation rates of patients who are vulnerable, that is, those with low education, old age, and comorbidity, were most adversely affected by the pandemic. The most adverse impact in OOH clinic consultations was seen for children aged 0-9 years. CONCLUSION: New methods are called for to ensure access to general practice for patients who are vulnerable during a pandemic. The potential of telehealth consultations should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practice , Telemedicine , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Family Practice
12.
Front Health Serv ; 22022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080305

ABSTRACT

Background: Meaningful community engagement is instrumental to effective implementation and sustainment of equitable public health interventions. Significant resources are necessary to ensure that community engagement takes place in culturally sensitive, trusted ways that optimize positive public health outcomes. However, the types and costs of resources best suited to enable meaningful community engagement in implementation research are not well-documented. This study's objectives are (1) to describe a pragmatic method for systematically tracking and documenting resources utilized for community engagement activities, (2) report resources across phases of implementation research, and (3) provide recommendations for planning and budgeting for community engagement in health equity implementation research. Methods: Community engagement partners completed a tracking log of their person-hours for community engagement activities across three phases of community engagement (startup, early, maintenance) in two implementation research projects to promote equity in COVID-19 testing and vaccination for underserved communities. Both projects completed a six-session Theory of Change (i.e., a facilitated group discussion about current and desired conditions that culminated with a set of priorities for strategic change making) over 4 months with respective Community Advisory Boards (CAB) that included community organizers, promotores, federally qualified health center providers and administrators, and public health researchers. The reported person-hours that facilitated community member engagement were documented and summarized within and across project phases. Results: For both projects, the startup phase required the highest number of person-hours (M = 60), followed by the maintenance (M = 53) and early phase (M = 47). Within the startup phase, a total of 5 community engagement activities occurred with identifying and inviting CAB members incurring the greatest number of person-hours (M = 19). Within the early phase, a total of 11 community engagement activities occurred with coordinating and leading live interpretation (Spanish) during CAB sessions incurring the greatest number of person-hours (M = 10). The maintenance phase included 11 community engagement activities with time dedicated to written translation of CAB materials into Spanish incurring the greatest number of person-hours (M = 10). Conclusions: Study findings indicate that the most significant investment of resources is required in the startup period. Needed resources decreased, albeit with a greater diversity of activities, in later phases of community engagement with Spanish language translation requiring most in the later stage of the study. This study contributes to the community engagement and implementation science literature by providing a pragmatic tracking and measurement approach and recommendations for planning for and assessing costs to facilitate meaningful community engagement in public health implementation research.

13.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(11): e40977, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079997

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contact tracing is an important public health tool for curbing the spread of infectious diseases. Effective and efficient contact tracing involves the rapid identification of individuals with infection and their exposed contacts and ensuring their isolation or quarantine, respectively. Manual contact tracing via telephone call and digital proximity app technology have been key strategies in mitigating the spread of COVID-19. However, many people are not reached for COVID-19 contact tracing due to missing telephone numbers or nonresponse to telephone calls. The New York City COVID-19 Trace program augmented the efforts of telephone-based contact tracers with information gatherers (IGs) to search and obtain telephone numbers or residential addresses, and community engagement specialists (CESs) made home visits to individuals that were not contacted via telephone calls. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of information gathering and home visits to the yields of COVID-19 contact tracing in New York City. METHODS: IGs looked for phone numbers or addresses when records were missing phone numbers to locate case-patients or contacts. CESs made home visits to case-patients and contacts with no phone numbers or those who were not reached by telephone-based tracers. Contact tracing management software was used to triage and queue assignments for the telephone-based tracers, IGs, and CESs. We measured the outcomes of contact tracing-related tasks performed by the IGs and CESs from July 2020 to June 2021. RESULTS: Of 659,484 cases and 861,566 contact records in the Trace system, 28% (185,485) of cases and 35% (303,550) of contacts were referred to IGs. IGs obtained new phone numbers for 33% (61,804) of case-patients and 11% (31,951) of contacts; 50% (31,019) of the case-patients and 46% (14,604) of the contacts with new phone numbers completed interviews; 25% (167,815) of case-patients and 8% (72,437) of contacts were referred to CESs. CESs attempted 80% (132,781) of case and 69% (49,846) of contact investigations, of which 47% (62,733) and 50% (25,015) respectively, completed interviews. An additional 12,192 contacts were identified following IG investigations and 13,507 following CES interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Gathering new or missing locating information and making home visits increased the number of case-patients and contacts interviewed for contact tracing and resulted in additional contacts. When possible, contact tracing programs should add information gathering and home visiting strategies to increase COVID-19 contact tracing coverage and yields as well as promote equity in the delivery of this public health intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Humans , Contact Tracing/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Quarantine , Telephone , Public Health
14.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077793

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is to demonstrate the use of a standardized health informatics framework to generate reliable and reproducible real-world evidence from Latin America and South Asia towards characterizing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the Global South. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patient-level COVID-19 records collected in a patient self-reported notification system, hospital in-patient and out-patient records, and community diagnostic labs were harmonized to the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership common data model and analyzed using a federated network analytics framework. Clinical characteristics of individuals tested for, diagnosed with or tested positive for, hospitalized with, admitted to intensive care unit with, or dying with COVID-19 were estimated. RESULTS: Two COVID-19 databases covering 8.3 million people from Pakistan and 2.6 million people from Bahia, Brazil were analyzed. 109 504 (Pakistan) and 921 (Brazil) medical concepts were harmonized to Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership common data model. In total, 341 505 (4.1%) people in the Pakistan dataset and 1 312 832 (49.2%) people in the Brazilian dataset were tested for COVID-19 between January 1, 2020 and April 20, 2022, with a median [IQR] age of 36 [25, 76] and 38 (27, 50); 40.3% and 56.5% were female in Pakistan and Brazil, respectively. 1.2% percent individuals in the Pakistan dataset had Afghan ethnicity. In Brazil, 52.3% had mixed ethnicity. In agreement with international findings, COVID-19 outcomes were more severe in men, elderly, and those with underlying health conditions. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 data from 2 large countries in the Global South were harmonized and analyzed using a standardized health informatics framework developed by an international community of health informaticians. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates a potential open science framework for global knowledge mobilization and clinical translation for timely response to healthcare needs in pandemics and beyond.

15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systemic inequities may place people with disabilities at higher risk of severe COVID-19 illness or lower likelihood to be discharged home after hospitalization. We examined whether severity of COVID-19 hospitalization outcomes and disposition differ by disability status and disability type. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis of April 2020-November 2021 hospital-based administrative data among 745,375 people hospitalized with COVID-19 from 866 US hospitals, people with disabilities (n = 120,360) were identified via ICD-10-CM codes. Outcomes compared by disability status included intensive care admission, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), in-hospital mortality, 30-day readmission, length of stay, and disposition (discharge to home, long-term care facility (LTCF), or skilled nursing facility (SNF). RESULTS: People with disabilities had increased risks of IMV (aRR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.03-1.08) and in-hospital mortality (1.04; 1.02-1.06) compared to those with no disability; risks were higher among people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) (IMV [1.34; 1.28-1.40], mortality [1.31; 1.26-1.37]) or mobility disabilities (IMV [1.13; 1.09-1.16], mortality [1.04; 1.01-1.07]). Risk of readmission was increased among people with any disability (1.23; 1.20-1.27) and each disability type. Risks of discharge to a LTCF (1.45, 1.39-1.49) or SNF (1.78, 1.74-1.81) were increased among community-dwelling people with each disability type. CONCLUSIONS: Severity of COVID-19 hospitalization outcomes vary by disability status and type; IDD and mobility disabilities were associated with higher risks of severe outcomes. Disparities such as differences in discharge disposition by disability status require further study which would be facilitated by standardized data on disability. Increased readmission across disability types indicates a need to improve discharge planning and support services.

16.
Health Equity ; 6(1): 794-797, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077561

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted certain racial and ethnic groups due to systemic racism and poor governmental emergency responses. Health organizations and leaders worked strategically to pivot their workflows to meet the emerging needs of their patient population. In this perspective, three examples are shared of successful interventions that made workflow improvements to be efficient while ensuring excellent patient care during the pandemic and beyond. Lessons from the initiatives are ones that health professionals can advocate for and easily adopt to ensure that medical mistreatment and disparities for some patient populations do not continue to flourish.

17.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(9): 2323-2326, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075553

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the context of marked health disparities affecting historically marginalized communities, medical schools have an obligation to rapidly scale up COVID-19 education through the lens of structural racism. AIM: To develop and implement a virtual curriculum on structural racism in a required COVID-19 course for medical students using "just-in-time" training. SETTING: Academic medical institution during the height of COVID-19 in the spring of 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred ninety-three 3rd and 4th-year medical students prior to re-entry into clinical care. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Three educational sessions focused on (1) racial health disparities, (2) othering and pandemics, and (3) frameworks to address health inequity. The virtual teaching methods included narrated recorded presentations, reflections, and student-facilitated small group dialogue. PROGRAM EVALUATION: In matched pre- and post-surveys, participants reported significant changes in their confidence in achieving the learning objectives and high satisfaction with small group peer facilitation. DISCUSSION: The use of "just-in-time" training exploring the intersection between COVID-19 and structural racism facilitated the delivery of time-relevant and immediately clinically applicable content as students were preparing to re-enter a transformed clinical space. Similar approaches can be employed to adapt to changing healthcare landscapes as academic medical centers strive to build more equitable health systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Equity , Racism , Curriculum , Humans , Systemic Racism
18.
Informacios Tarsadalom ; 22(2):27-38, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072407

ABSTRACT

The correlation between health equity and health data protection in the area of telemedicine has been put into relief during the COVID-19 pandemic. Indeed, the right to health data protection is not only a personal right but also a human right. Health equity cannot be maintained without an adequately functioning system of health data protection in telemedicine, yet, in many countries, health equity re-mains a mere dream. The United States and the European Union are the flagships of both health equity and health data protection, with HIPAA (in the US) and the GDPR (in the EU);however, some gaps do exist, as demonstrated by the practice of telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic. While US and EU regulations on tele -medicine do provide legal certainty, fighting the COVID-19 pandemic has created a new legal climate, with new priorities superseding health data protection, which had been paramount beforehand.

19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071382

ABSTRACT

In recent years, national and local efforts to improve diet and health in the United States have stressed the importance of nutrition security, which emphasizes consistent access to foods and beverages that promote health and prevent disease among all individuals. At the core of this endeavor is fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption, a dietary practice that is integral to attaining and sustaining a healthy diet. Unfortunately, significant inequities in FV accessibility, purchasing, and consumption exist, particularly among populations that are socially and economically disadvantaged. To achieve nutrition and health equity in the United States, the field must center the goal of nutrition security and initiatives that aim to increase FV consumption, specifically, in future work. The International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) Special Issue titled "Nutrition and Health Equity: Revisiting the Importance of Fruit and Vegetable Availability, Purchasing, and Consumption" features several scholarly publications from experts conducting timely research on these topics. In this commentary, we (1) summarize the U.S.-based literature on inequities in FV accessibility, purchasing, and consumption, (2) describe how the contributions to this IJERPH special issue can advance nutrition security and health equity, and (3) outline future research questions from our perspective.


Subject(s)
Health Equity , Vegetables , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Fruit , Health Promotion , Humans , United States
20.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066584

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has highlighted inequities in mortalities and associated illnesses among non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic/Latino individuals. Immunization against COVID-19 is critical to ending the pandemic, especially within racial and ethnically minoritized communities. However, vaccine hesitancy and institutional mistrust in these communities, resulting from decades of mistreatment, structural racism, and barriers to vaccination access, have translated into low vaccination uptake. Trustworthy relationships with healthcare professionals and partnerships with faith and community leaders are critical to increasing vaccination rates within these minoritized communities. Loma Linda University researchers collaborated with local faith and community organizations in San Bernardino County, CA, to rapidly implement a three-tiered approach to increase the vaccination rates within non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic/Latino communities. This community-academic partnership model provided over 1700 doses of the COVID-19 vaccine within these vaccine-hesitant, targeted minoritized communities. As over 100,000 individuals are diagnosed with COVID-19 daily and updated vaccines targeting variants of the Omicron strain are expected to rollout in the coming months, the development of sustainable programs aimed at increasing vaccine uptake within vulnerable communities are of the utmost importance.

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